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abolition

abolition

abolition Sentence Examples

  • When the majority shall at length vote for the abolition of slavery, it will be because they are indifferent to slavery, or because there is but little slavery left to be abolished by their vote.

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  • But the result did not lead to the abolition of all distinctions between the orders.

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  • Thompson proved a worthy successor to Whewell; the twenty years of his mastership were years of progress, and he himself took an active part in the abolition of tests and the reform of university studies and of the college statutes.

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  • Thompson proved a worthy successor to Whewell; the twenty years of his mastership were years of progress, and he himself took an active part in the abolition of tests and the reform of university studies and of the college statutes.

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  • Though he rejected the demand of the pope, who wished him to consent to the abolition of the compacts, he endeavoured to curry favour with the Roman see by punishing severely all the more advanced opponents of papacy in Bohemia.

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  • Prytaneis) is generally applied specially to those who, after the abolition of absolute monarchy, held the chief office in the state.

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  • (1875, &c.); Haverfield, " The Abolition of the Dictatorship," in Classical Review, iii.

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  • The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.

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  • Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.

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  • Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.

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  • After three months' tenure of this office he was returned by the department to the Constituent Assembly, where he voted with the Mountain, and brought forward the celebrated motion for the abolition of the presidential office.

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  • It was the period of the agitation for the abolition of slavery in England, where Philip's charges against the colonists and the colonial government found powerful support.

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  • It was the period of the agitation for the abolition of slavery in England, where Philip's charges against the colonists and the colonial government found powerful support.

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  • Reverting to incidents in England itself, in 1870 the abolition of university tests removed all restrictions on Jews at Oxford and Cambridge, and both universities have since elected Jews to professorships and other posts of honour.

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  • The first vote of the Chamber for the immediate diminution of the tax, and for its total abolition on 1st January F!

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  • Rates of exchange, or, in other words the gold premium, favored Italy during the yearr immediately following the abolition of the forced currency in 1881

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  • Rates of exchange, or, in other words the gold premium, favored Italy during the yearr immediately following the abolition of the forced currency in 1881

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  • It was exceedingly burdensome, and its abolition by Edward the Confessor in 1051 was welcomed as a great relief.

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  • For several years Wakefield continued to direct the New Zealand Company, fighting its battles with the colonial office and the missionary interest, and secretly inspiring and guiding many parliamentary committees on colonial subjects, especially on the abolition of transportation.

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  • This occurred especially in the last half of the 19th century, largely owing to the abolition of the so-called beni ademprivili.

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  • Application for admission to the Union was now made to Congress, and on the 31st of December 186 2 an enabling act was approved by President Lincoln admitting the state on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution.

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  • Their mutinies were frequent and dangerous, and at last, in 1682, an unusually serious outbreak led Peter the Great to compass the abolition of the force.

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  • The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.

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  • The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.

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  • He belonged to the Root and Branch party, and spoke in favour of the petition of the London citizens for the abolition of episcopacy on the 9th of February 1641, and pressed upon the House the Root and Branch Bill in May.

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  • Kossuth, indeed, was not content with advocating those reforms - the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens, taxation of the nobles - which were demanded by all the Liberals.

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  • Since the abolition of flogging in the services, the use of the cat is now restricted to certain classes of offenders in military prisons (Army Act 1881, § 133).

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  • Kossuth, indeed, was not content with advocating those reforms - the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens, taxation of the nobles - which were demanded by all the Liberals.

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  • He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.

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  • The most far-reaching of these reforms, carried in the first session of the third Duma, was the partial abolition of the communal and family ownership of land, which involved the establishment of a class of true peasant-proprietors.

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  • Channing became active in the cause of abolition in 1835, and Wendell Phillips a little later.

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  • Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate.

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  • He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."

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  • The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the abolition of such sacrifice by the advance of Greek civilization.

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  • The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the abolition of such sacrifice by the advance of Greek civilization.

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  • After the abolition of slavery, farms greatly decreased in size and increased in number; the number grew from 68,023 in 1870 to 220,803 in 1900; the average size fell from 369.7 acres in 1860 to 82.6 acres in 1900.

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  • He was essentially humane; and it is worthy of notice that he was in favour of the abolition of slavery, while humane men like his friend Lord Sheffield, Dr Johnson and Boswell were opposed to the antislavery movement.

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  • The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.

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  • It was abolished in 1880 as regards all leases entered into after the 11th of November 1881, where the land demised exceeded two acres in extent, and the landlord was left to remedies akin to ejectment (Hypothec Abolition, Scotland, Act 1880).

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  • He was of the party of the "Mountain," and voted for the abolition of royalty and the death of the king.

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  • The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.

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  • was passed by the Chamber on 18th July 1879, providing for the immediate repeal of the grist tax on minor cereals, and for its total abolition on 1st January 1884.

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  • Until 1893 the juridical status of the Banks of Issue was regulated by the laws of the 3oth of April 1874 on paper currency and of the 7th of April 1881 on the abolition of forced currency.

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  • He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.

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  • One important variation, however, was a clause in the bill of rights providing for the abolition of slavery, Vermont being the first state in America to take such action.

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  • Conservatives, acceptance of the railway redemption contracts, consolidation of the financial equilibrium, abolition 01 the !QrCe~

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  • Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.

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  • He supported the king's administration in parliament, but opposed strongly the unjust measure which, on the abolition of the court of wards, placed the extra burden of taxation thus rendered necessary on the excise.

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  • In the meantime they won credit by popular measures such as the abolition of forced loans and of the objectionable habit of seizing hostages from the districts of the west where the royalist ferment was still strongly working.

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  • The Chamber, though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by onefourth, and its complete abolition within four years.

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  • He supported the North in the American crisis of 1862, using all his strength to explain what has since been universally recognized as the issue really at stake in the struggle, the abolition of slavery.

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  • The abolition of debts was carried into effect, but the land distribution was put off by Agesilaus on various pretexts.

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  • With the end of the Persian Wars, the original object of ostracism was removed, but it continued in use for forty years and was revived in 417 B.C. It now became a mere party weapon and the farcical result of its use in 417 in the case of Hyperbolus led to its abolition either at once, or, as Lugebil seeks to prove, in the archonship of Euclides (403 B.C.).

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  • In 1783 the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the long agitation which ensued the Society took a prominent part.

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  • His services as an abolitionist pioneer are recorded in Clarkson's History of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade.

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  • The military vocation of Rome was now felt to have reached its normal limits; and the emperors, understanding that, in the future, industrial activity must prevail, prepared the abolition of slavery as far as was then possible, by honouring the freedmen, by protecting the slave against his master, and by facilitating manumissions.

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  • It is sometimes objected that the Christian church did not denounce slavery as a social crime and insist on its abolition.

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  • Hence the abolition of the external slave trade tended, in fact, to put an end to internal sales, and the slaves became attached to the households or lands of their masters.

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  • The former confined his efforts chiefly to America and indeed to his coreligionists there; the latter sought, not without success, to found a universal propaganda in favour of abolition.

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  • A committee was formed on the 22nd of May 1787 for the abolition of the slave trade, under the presidency of Granville Sharp. It is unquestionable that the principal motive power which originated and sustained their efforts was Christian principle and feeling.

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  • After an admirable speech, Wilberforce laid on the table twelve resolutions which were intended as the basis of a future motion for the abolition of the trade.

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  • On the 2nd of April 1792 Wilberforce again moved that the trade ought to be abolished; an amendment in favour of gradual abolition was carried, and it was finally resolved that the trade should cease on the 1st of January 1796.

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  • On the 10th of June of the same year Fox brought forward a resolution " that effectual measures should be taken for the abolition of the African slave trade in such a manner and at such a period as should be deemed advisable," which was carried by a large majority.

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  • In 1807 the African Institution was formed, with the primary objects of keeping a vigilant watch on the slave traders and procuring, if possible, the abolition of the slave trade by the other European nations.

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  • That island, which had been ceded by France in 1810, three years after the abolition, had special facilities for escaping observation in consequence of the proximity of the African coast; but it was soon obliged to conform.

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  • The abolition of the French slave trade was preceded by struggles and excesses.

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  • A " Societe des Amis des Noirs " was formed in Paris in 1788 for the abolition, not only of the slave trade, but of slavery itself.

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  • This postponement of abolition was dictated by the wish to introduce a fresh stock of slaves into Haiti, if that island should be recovered.

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  • Bonaparte, as we have seen, abolished the French slave trade during his brief restoration, and this abolition was confirmed at the second peace of Paris on the 10th of November, 1815, but it was not effectually carried out by French legislation until March 1818.

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  • Meantime another and more radical reform had been in preparation and was already in progress, namely, the abolition of slavery itself in the foreign possessions of the several states of Europe.

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  • The object he and his associates had then in view was gradual abolition by establishing something like a system of serfdom for existing slaves, and passing at the same time a measure emancipating all their children born after a certain day.

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  • It was becoming plain that the planters would take no steps tending to the future liberation of the slaves, and the leaders of the movement determined to urge the entire abolition of slavery at the earliest practicable period.

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  • At length in 1833 the ministry of Earl Grey took the question in hand and carried the abolition with little difficulty, the measure passing the House of Commons on the 7th of August, 1833 and receiving the Royal assent on the 28th.

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  • There was a convention between Great Britain and Brazil in 1826 for the abolition of the slave trade, but it was habitually violated in spite of the English cruisers.

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  • Finally, in 1888 the chambers decreed the total abolition of slavery, some 700,000 persons being accordingly freed.

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  • The government interpreted the application as implying a wish for the abolition of serfdom, and issued a rescript authorizing the formation of committees to prepare definite proposals for a gradual emancipation.

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  • in 5 vols., 1819); Thomas Clarkson, History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (2 vols., 1808); T.

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  • Nominally a free Greek city, Alexandria retained its senate to Roman times; and indeed the judicial functions of that body were restored by Septimius Severus, after temporary abolition by Augustus.

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  • The assignats had now become totally valueless - the abolition of the "maximum" the previous year (1795) had produced no effect, and, though, by various payments into the treasury, the total number had been reduced to about 24,000,000,000 francs, their face-value was about 3 o to I of coin.

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  • By 1863 two parties had arisen among the loyal classes: one of radicals, who demanded the calling of a constitutional convention and the abolition of slavery; the other of conservatives.

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  • Various censuses were taken in Cuba beginning in 1774; but the results of those preceding the abolition of slavery, at least, are probably without exception extremely untrustworthy.

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  • Since the abolition of slavery the status of the black has been made more definite, and his rights naturally much greater.

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  • Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.

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  • Gradual abolition of slavery was declared by a law of the 13th of February 1880; definitive abolition in 1886; and in 1893 the equal civil status of blacks and whites in all respects was proclaimed by General Calleja.

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  • Probably the abolition of the slave-trade in 1834 was not without its effect upon the fortunes of the landed'.

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  • The sultan sought to appease them by pacific means, but the movement spread to the Janissaries, who insisted upon the abolition of the new troops.

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  • Their extortions impoverished the whole country, yet the abolition of the system might perhaps have been carried out more gradually and with greater precaution, and Turkey more than once felt the want of their aid, questionable as its value often was.

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  • Various other reforms, notably the abolition of the spy system and the censorship, were announced soon afterwards.

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  • Romford has only had a separate constitution since a local board of health was formed in 1894, under the act of 1875, after the abolition of the liberty in 1892.

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  • On the 10th of August 1792, when the populace of Paris stormed the Tuileries and demanded the abolition of the monarchy, the Legislative Assembly decreed the provisional suspension of the king and the convocation of a national convention which should draw up a constitution.

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  • He expressed himself plainly during the canvass on the questions of slavery and the bank, at the same time voting, perhaps with a touch of bravado, for a bill offered in 1836 to subject abolition literature in the mails to the laws of the several states.

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  • When Charles visited Scotland to give his formal assent to the abolition of Episcopacy, Montrose communicated to him his belief that Hamilton was a traitor.

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  • At the same time, the abolition of the indirect method of collecting the taxes in the provinces greatly reduced the political influence of the' equites.

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  • In 1879 he succeeded in postponing the total abolition of the grist tax, and was throughout a fierce opponent of Magliani's loose financial administration.

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  • Since the abolition of slavery immigration has poured a large number of labourers into the coffee-producing states, and with beneficial results.

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  • At first the Portuguese outnumbered all other nationalities in the immigration returns, but since the abolition of slavery the Italians have passed all competitors and number more than one-half the total arrivals.

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  • There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.

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  • When Dom Pedro left Brazil for the purpose of making a tour through Europe and the United States he appointed Princess Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so swayed in political questions by Church influence that Liberal feeling became more and more anti-dynastic. Another incident which gave strength to the opposition was the sudden abolition of slavery without any compensation to slave-owners.

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  • Levasseur, L' Abolition de l'esclavage en Bresil (Paris, 1888); J.

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  • With the abolition of imprisonment for debt in 1881 the privileges of sanctuary came to an end.

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  • His main object, however, like that of Brougham, was the amelioration of the law, more by the abolition of cumbrous technicalities than by the assertion of new and striking principles.

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  • Thus his name is associated with the Fines and Recoveries Abolition Act 1833; the Inheritance Act 1833; the Dower Act 1833; the Real Property Limitation Act 1833; the Wills Act 1837; one of the Copyhold Tenure Acts 1841; and the Judgments Act 1838.

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  • It was not on legal technicalities, however, but on the broad principle of religious equality, that Campbell supported the abolition of church rates, in which he included the Edinburgh annuity-tax.

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  • Kenner as special commissioner to the courts of England and France to obtain recognition of the Confederacy on condition of the abolition of slavery.

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  • After the abolition of the police-censorship in 1848 he published a new edition, completed in 1876, restoring the original form of the work.

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  • The visible signs of this contemptuous point of view were (1) the suspension of the august dignity of palatine, which, after the death of Tamas Nadasdy, " the great palatine," in 1562, was left vacant for many years; (2) the abolition or attenuation of all the ancient Hungarian court dignitaries; (3) the degradation of the capital, Pressburg, into a mere provincial town; and (4) the more and more openly expressed determination to govern Hungary from Vienna by means of foreigners, principally German or Czech.

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  • Immediately before the elections, however, Deak succeeded in reuniting all the Liberals on the common platform of " The Ten Points ": (1) Responsible ministries, (2) Popular representation, (3) The incorporation of Transylvania, (4) Right of public meeting, (6) Absolute religious liberty, (7) Universal equality before the law, (8) Universal taxation, (9) The abolition of the Aviticum, an obsolete and anomalous land-tenure, (io) The abolition of serfdom, with compensation to the landlords.

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  • At Mile End the king met Wat Tyler; a lengthy and tumultuous conference, during which several persons were slain, took place, in which Tyler demanded the immediate abolition of serfdom and all feudal services, and the removal of all restrictions on freedom of labour and trade, as well as a general amnesty for the insurgents.

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  • They desired equal rights for all citizens, the abolition of monopolies and abuses, together with the maintenance of the state's independence.

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  • They urged, among other things, due enforcement of the liquor law, more police protection, the abolition of the dynamite concession, and that foodstuffs should be duty free.

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  • Still further relief was afforded in 1844 and in 1850, on the latter occasion by the abolition of all tolls between Melnik and the Saxon frontier.

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  • His Schiavitic e servaggio (Milan, 1868-1869) gave an account of the development and abolition of slavery and serfdom.

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  • At a convivial gathering on the, 8th of November he supported a toast to "the speedy abolition of all hereditary titles and feudal distinctions," and gave proof of his zeal by expressly repudiating his own title - a performance for which he was dismissed from the army.

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  • But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.

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  • One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls, statutelabour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.

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  • Among other internal reforms the abolition of the last traces of servitude in 1289, and the increase in the number of arti, first to 12 and then to 21 (7 maggiori and 14 minori) must be mentioned.

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  • This g Y P Y PP Y infamous law, however, aroused so much opposition that some of the very men who had proposed it assembled in secret to discuss its abolition, and a quarrel between the Albizzi and the Ricci having weakened the parte, a balia of 56 was agreed upon.

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  • Salvestro de' Medici, who had always opposed the parte, having been elected gonfaloniere in spite of its intrigues, proposed a law for the abolition of the admonitions, which was eventually passed (June 18, 1378), but the people had been aroused, and desired to break the power of the parte for good.

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  • This, apart from the effect of the abolition of the sugar bounties, has been mainly the result of the increased employment of improved processes, carried on in improved apparatus, under skilled supervision, and with due regard to the importance of the chemical aspects of the work.

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  • The British delegates wrote that it appeared that there were at that time but two methods of securing the suppression of the bounty system - an arrangement for limitation of the French and Russian bounties acceptable to the other sugar-producing states, in return for the total abolition of their bounties; or, a convention between a certain number of these states, providing for the total suppression of their bounties, and for the prohibition of entry into their territory of bounty-fed sugars, or countervailing duties prohibiting importation.

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  • In 1806 the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine involved an extension of this mediatizing process, though the abolition of the empire itself deprived the word "mediatization" of its essential meaning.

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  • The abolition of slavery in 1834 was attended by no ill results, the slaves continuing to work for their masters as hired servants, and a.

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  • Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.

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  • He opposed the removal of Jewish disabilities, arguing, we are told by a contemporary, " on the part of the Evangelicals," and pleaded for the gradual extinction, in preference to the immediate abolition, of slavery.

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  • On the first night of the debate Lord Howick, afterwards Lord Grey, who had been undersecretary for the Colonies, and who opposed the resolutions as proceeding too gradually towards abolition, cited certain occurrences on Sir John Gladstone's plantation in Demerara to illustrate his contention that the system of slave-labour in the West Indies was attended by great mortality among the slaves.

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  • On the 12th of March 1874 he informed Lord Granville that he could give only occasional attendance in the House of Commons during the current session, and that he must " reserve his entire freedom to divest himself of all the was carried, but the abolition of the paper-duty was defeated in the House of Lords.

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  • The chief official was the royal bailiff (Schultheiss), who is first mentioned in 1193, and whose powers were subsequently enlarged by the abolition, in 1219, of the office of the royal Vogt or advo- catus.

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  • Incidentally they are hastening the assimilation of the written and the spoken languages (genbun itchi) which may possibly prelude a still greater reform, abolition of the ideographic script.

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  • It has been frequently asserted by Western critics that the year (1876) which witnessed the abolition of sword-wearing in Japan, witnessed also the end of her artistic metal- Moderna,,d work.

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  • But shortly after the abolition of feudalism there had come into the possession of the former feudatories state loan-bonds amounting to some 18 millions sterling, which represented the sum granted by the treasury in commutation of the revenues formerly accruing to these men from their fiefs.

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  • In all ways he was the ardent advocate of what have in later times been known as "Liberal causes," the removal of all religious disabilities and tests, the suppression of private interests which hampered the public good, the abolition of the slave trade, and the emancipation of all classes and races of men from the strict control of authority.

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  • He was always in favour of the abolition of the slave trade (which he actually effected during his short tenure of office in 1806), of the repeal of the Test Acts, and of concessions to the Roman Catholics, both in Great Britain and in Ireland.

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  • In domestic politics Fox had no time to do more than insist on the abolition of the slave trade.

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  • After carrying his motion for the abolition of the slave trade on the 10th of June, he was forced to give up attendance in parliament, and he died in the house of the duke of Devonshire, at Chiswick, on the 13th of September 1806.

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  • She published An Essay on Slavery and Abolition with Reference to the Duty of American Females (1837), A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1842), The True Remedy for the Wrongs of Women (1851), Letters to the People on Health and Happiness (1855), The Religious Training of Children (1864), and Woman's Profession as Mother and Educator (1871).

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  • At the same time he did not argue for the complete abolition of the tests, but desired that they should be so framed as to make it possible for most Protestants conscientiously to subscribe to them.

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  • The abolition of serfdom without cancellation of the peasants' prerogatives as to pasturage and timber rights served to accentuate classantagonism.

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  • He strongly advocated the abolition of university tests (1853), and threw himself with great energy into all that affected the social life of the people.

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  • It describes his entering Rome on foot, amid the rejoicings of the citizens; his liberality towards his soldiers and to the citizens of Rome, a liberality that was extended even to persons under eleven years of age; his charities for the maintenance of the children of the poor; his remission of succession-duties in cases where the property was small or the heirs members of the testator's family; his establishment of free trade in corn between the various parts of the empire; his abandonment of vexatious and petty prosecutions for "high treason"; his punishment of informers; his abolition of pantomimes; his repairs of public buildings and his extension and embellishment of the Circus Maximus.

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  • But he was an active supporter of many popular movements - particularly of that which ended in the abolition of the slave trade; and he was throughout his entire life sincerely and profoundly attached to the political principles of the Whigs, both in their popular and in their aristocratic aspect.

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  • At the same time commerce was encouraged by the abolition of unauthorized tolls and by an improvement of the coinage; while the sale of arms to hostile peoples, and the trade in Christian slaves were forbidden.

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  • In conformity with President Johnson's plan of reconstruction, a constitution recognizing the abolition of slavery, renouncing the right of secession, and repudiating the war debt was adopted in 1864, and J.

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  • He was an ardent social reformer; he secured the abolition of corporal punishment in the schools, the suppression of lotteries, of houses of ill-fame and of obscene literature; he instituted reforms in the hospitals, and insisted on the honours of public burial for the poor.

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  • As president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition to Congress (12th February 1790) for immediate abolition of slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition of holding Christians in slavery.

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  • the abolition of slavery and of imprisonment for debt, and in perfecting a system of free public schools.

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  • It comprised the following items: the formation of a constitution which would strengthen the monarchy by calling to it the support of the whole nation, the drafting of a scheme of local self-government on democratic lines, the reform of the administration of justice and of the criminal law, and the abolition of the most burdensome of feudal and class privileges.

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  • In the middle of July he was chosen as one of the committee to prepare a draft of a constitution; and in the session of the Assembly which Mirabeau termed the orgie of the abolition of privileges (4th of August) he intervened in favour of discrimination and justice.

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  • He had been designed by his parents for the military profession, but the new light which now broke in upon him determined him to devote his entire energies to the abolition of the existing feudal system and to the establishment of a constitutional government.

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  • Formerly, writers accounted for the Lutheran movement by so magnifying the horrors of the pre-existing regime ity of the that it appeared intolerable, and its abolition consequently inevitable.

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  • In spite of the fact that the separation from Rome had been carried out during the sessions of a single parliament, and that there had been no opportunity for a general expression of opinion on the part of the nation, there of the is no reason to suppose that the majority of the people, thoughtful or thoughtless, were not ready to reconcile themselves to the abolition of the papal Henry supremacy.

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  • After a public disputation in which the Catholics were weakly represented, and a popular demonstration in favour of the new doctrines, the council of Geneva rather reluctantly sanctioned the abolition of the Mass.

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  • Since 1885 a large expenditure has been incurred in the abolition of grade For a summary statement of state labour laws in the United States in 1903 see Bulletin 54 of the United States Bureau of Labor, September 1904; and for a summary of labour laws in force at the end of 1907 see 22nd Annual Report (for 1907) of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor (Washington, 1908).

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  • The debt of the state (especially the contingent debt, secured by sinking funds) has been steadily rising since 1888, and especially since 1896, chiefly owing to the erection of important public buildings, the construction of state highways and metropolitan park roadways, the improvement of Boston harbour, the abolition of grade crossings on railways, and the expenses incurred for the Spanish-American War of 1898.

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  • The reforms proposed included the adoption of European time, the European calendar, and the Latin alphabet; the abolition of veiling of women - as a practice of far-reaching, injurious influence upon the race; the abolition of the annual, month-long fast of Ramazan, and of the Feasts of Bairam.

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  • By the Angevines Potenza was made a domain of the San Severino family; in the beginning of the 15th century it was held by Francesco Sforza, and in 1435 it passed to the Guevara family; the Loffredi, who succeeded by marriage, continued in possession till the abolition of the great fiefs.

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  • These did not interfere with the general lines of Atkinson's strong and cautious finance, though the first of them was the abolition of his direct tax upon all property, personal as well as real, and the substitution therefor of a landtax of id.

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  • In their report the following measures were recommended: (i.) annulment of the act against promulgating illegal measures; (ii.) abolition of pay, save for the troops in the field and the archons; (iii.) restriction of the franchise to 5000 able to serve "with person and purse"; (iv.) the appointment of a special board to choose the 5000.

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  • programme were: (I) property qualification for franchise; (ii.) abolition of pay; (iii.) transference of some judicial powers.

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  • The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.

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  • Much was also done to promote trade and industry, notably by the revival of the Kammer Kollegium, or board of trade, and the abolition of some of the most harmful monopolies.

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  • In 1780 Burke made his celebrated attack on the public offices, which resulted in the abolition of the board.

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  • It might have been expected that the concession of universal suffrage in the case of the House of Deputies would have led to the abolition of the class system of voting for the legislative bodies of the several territories and the introduction of an equal franchise, and also to the doing away with the three-class system of voting - established on the Prussian model - in the case of the election of municipal representatives.

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  • Hungary's wishes were met by the introduction of a specially prompt procedure for the eventual future abolition of the suspension of the bank's obligation to cash its notes.

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  • Personal experience of the inconveniences and dangers of the prevailing system of preferment, the so-called myestnichestvo, or rank priority, which had paralysed the Russian armies for centuries, induced him to propose its abolition, which was accomplished by Tsar Theodore III.

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  • In the same year he took part in supporting the measure for the abolition of compulsory Church rates.

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  • In 1869 he sought to modify rather than to oppose the bill for the abolition of tests in the universities.

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  • As a fellow of Magdalen College, he had been desirous of changes which he felt himself bound by his oath from advocating; and he had taken part in the discussions on the abolition of tests in the old universities.'

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  • He was appointed commissary-in-chief (181i), and, on the abolition of that office (1816), auditor of the civil list.

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  • The arrangement was fraught with danger to the public tranquillity, and one of the reforms of the last sovereign was the abolition of the office of "Chao Uparach and a decree that the throne should in future descend from the king to one of his sons born of a queen, which decree was immediately followed by the appointment of a crown prince.

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  • These negotiations continued all through 1908 and resulted in a treaty, signed and ratified in 1909, by which Siam ceded to Great Britain her suzerain rights over the dependencies of Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and Perlis, Malay states situated in southern Siam just north of British Malaya, containing in all about a million inhabitants and for the most part flourishing and wealthy, and obtained the practical abolition of British jurisdiction in Siam proper as well as relief from any obligations which, though probably very necessary when they were incurred, had long since become mere useless and vexatious obstacles to progress towards efficient government.

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  • The cultivation of pepper, cochineal, cinnamon and indigo for the government had already ceased; De Waal restricted the area of the sugar plantations (carried on by forced native labour) as from 1878, and provided for their abolition after 1890.

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  • They strengthened the revolutionary Commune by decreeing its abolition, and then withdrawing the decree at the first sign of popular opposition; they increased the prestige of Marat by prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where his acquittal was a foregone conclusion.

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  • A considerable section of the priesthood demanded some dogmatical reforms, including the abolition of celibacy, the introduction of the vernacular into the Church services, and a more democratic administration of Church affairs.

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  • Both their continued maintenance and their final sudden abolition are in some respects divergent from the general course of British tariff history.

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  • The remodelling of the tariff system in the direction of free trade went on, little retarded by the maintenance of the Corn Laws and not much accelerated by their abolition.

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  • Still less does it hold good of raw materials, many of which had been really affected by the duties, and were largely imported after their abolition.

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  • In regard to all these, the abolition of protection meant a real sacrifice to domestic industries.

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  • In all his ideas he was dominated by an intense belief in the future and influence of the Englishspeaking people, in their democratic government and alliance for the purpose of peace and the abolition of war, and in the progress of education on unsectarian lines.

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  • In 1878 he advocated the abolition of the presidency and the senate.

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  • Thus wealth, position, court influence and ability combined gave the Czartoryscy a commanding position in Poland, and, to their honour be it said, they had determined from the first to save the Republic, whose impending ruin in existing circumstances they clearly foresaw, by a radical constitutional reconstruction which was to include the abolition of the liberum veto and the formation of a standing army.

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  • Serfdom was mitigated, preparatorily to its entire abolition; absolute religious toleration was established, and every citizen declared equal before the law.

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  • Castlereagh brought with him decided views, which however were not altogether those of his cabinet, and his position was weakened by the fact that Great Britain was still at war with the United States, and that public opinion at home cared for little but the abolition of the slave trade.

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  • In 1850-1851 he was a member of the convention to revise the Virginia constitution, and advocated white manhood suffrage, internal improvements, and the abolition of imprisonment for debt.

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  • After the abolition of the States of the Church, he was treated by the French as a state prisoner, and lived for some years at the abbey of Monticelli, solacing himself with music and with bird-shooting, pastimes which he did not eschew even after his election as pope.

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  • Holyoake founded a society in London which subsequently under the leadership of Charles Bradlaugh advocated the disestablishment of the Church, the abolition of the Second Chamber and other political and economic reforms.

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  • So, when during the Civil War Maryland was largely under Federal control and the demand arose for the abolition of slavery by the state, another constitutional convention was called, in 1864, which framed a constitution providing that those who had given aid to the Rebellion should be disfranchised and that only those qualified for suffrage in accordance with the new document could vote on its adoption.

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  • They both urged society towards the abolition of the previously prevailing industrial policy of European governments; and their arguments against that policy rested essentially on the same grounds.

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  • The restoration of freedom in any manufacture, when it has grown to considerable dimensions by means of high duties, should, he thinks, from motives of humanity, be brought about only by degrees and with circumspection - though the amount of evil which would be caused by the immediate abolition of the duties is, in his opinion, commonly exaggerated The case in which J.

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  • Cardinal Guidiccioni, one of the commission of three appointed to examine the draft constitution, was known to advocate the abolition of all existing orders, save four which were to be remodelled and put under strict control.

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  • The Bourbon sovereigns threatened to make war on the pope in return (France, indeed, seizing on the county of Avignon), and a joint note demanding a retractation, and the abolition of the Jesuits, was presented by the French ambassador at Rome on the 10th of December 1768 in the name of France, Spain and the two Sicilies.

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  • land grant given by the Spanish viceroy to Stephen Q Austin in 1820, and had been estranged from Mexico partly by the abolition of slavery under a decree of President Guerrero, and partly by the prospect of the Centralist constitution of 1836.

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  • His Liberalism found expression in the extension of press freedom, the repeal of imprisonment for debt, and the abolition of ecclesiastical tithes.

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  • It was not till 1748, when a decisive blow was struck at the power of the chiefs by the abolition of heritable jurisdictions, and the appointment of sheriffs in the different districts, that the arts of peace and social improvement made way in these remote regions.

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  • Elected a deputy of Paris to the National Convention, he at once spoke in favour of the immediate abolition of the monarchy, and the next day demanded that all acts be dated from the year 1 of the republic. At the trial of Louis XVI.

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  • By this time he had to some extent withdrawn from the advanced position which he at first occupied in organizing the Old Catholic Church, for he was not in agreement with its abolition of enforced celibacy.

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  • Although Governor Brown represented the poorer class of white citizens he had taken a course in law at Yale College, had practised law, and at the time of his election was judge of a superior court; although he had never held slaves he believed that the abolition of slavery would soon result in the ruin of the South, and he was a man of strong convictions.

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  • Though opposed to a monopoly of political power in the South by the great slaveholders, he deprecated anti-slavery agitation (even favouring denial of the right of petition on that subject) as threatening abolition or the dissolution of the Union, and went with his sectional leaders so far as to demand freedom of choice for the Territories, and protection for slavery where it existed - this even so late as 1860.

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  • He carried legislation for the abolition of primogeniture, secured equality of inheritance between relations of the same degree, and between men and women.

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  • Cranmer's preface " Concerning the Service of the Church " expressly mentions the abolition of this variety as one of the things to be achieved by a Book of Common Prayer.

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  • He returned on the eve of the abolition of the Shogunate, and followed Enomoto (q.v.) when the latter, sailing with the Tokugawa fleet to Yezo, attempted to establish a republic there in defiance of the newly organized government of the emperor.

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  • On the abolition of that court by the Judicature Act 1873, the jurisdiction was transferred to the common pleas division, and again on the abolition of that division was transferred to the king's bench division, in whom it is now vested.

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  • At the abolition of the monarchy in 1893, the crown domains were declared to be public lands, and, with the other government lands, were by the terms of annexation turned over to the United States in 1898.

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  • This famous navigator, who named the islands in honour of the earl of Sandwich, was received by the natives with many demonstrations of astonishment and delight; and offerings and prayers were presented to him by their priest in one of the temples; and though in the following year he was killed by a native when he landed in Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii, his bones were preserved by the priests and continued to receive offerings and homage from the people until the abolition of idolatry.

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  • His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000.

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  • The congratulations which the pope sent to the emperor William on receiving the announcement of the establishment of the German Empire (March 6, 1871) were a last exchange of civilities, and the abolition of the Catholic department in the Prussian ministry of public worship (July 8, 1871) quickly followed, together with the appointment of Falk as Kultusminister (Jan.

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  • This conflict, moreover, brought Ultra montanism the enormous advantage that, even after the abolition of the May Laws, it had still left to it a well-disciplined press, an admirable organization, and a network of interests and interested parties; and all these combined to make the Centrum the strongest and the most influential political party in Germany for the remainder of the 19th century.

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  • By instituting a permanent diet of Silesian princes and estates to co-operate with his vicegerent, he took an important step towards the abolition of particularism and the establishment of an effective central government.

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  • 1778) and later as quartermaster-general (1780-1785); he was also a member of the board of war from the 7th of November 1777 until its abolition.

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  • (3) The Apostolic Chamber (Reverends Camera Apostolica) was before the abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance, at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states.

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  • He sought to incorporate in a new code for the District of Columbia, in 1832, a prohibition of the slave trade in the district, at the same time opposing the abolition of slavery there without the consent of Maryland and Virginia, which had originally ceded the district to the United States.

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  • About 1831 both she and her husband began to identify themselves with the anti-slavery cause, and in 1833 she published An Appeal for that Class of Americans called Africans, a stirring portrayal of the evils of slavery, and an argument for immediate abolition, which had a powerful influence in winning recruits to the anti-slavery cause.

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  • The Order of Christ was founded on the abolition of the Templars by Dionysius or Diniz of Portugal and in 1318 in conjunction with Pope John XXII., both having the right to nominate to the order.

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  • 4), but the abolition of death itself is also declared (Is.

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  • In place of the old system of privileges and exemptions were set equality before the law, universal liability to taxation, abolition of serfdom, security of person and property, liberty of conscience and of the press.

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  • A column of Liberty (FrihedsStotte) rises in an open space, erected in 1798 to commemorate the abolition of serfdom.

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  • He resisted, but unsuccessfully, the abolition of the hereditary peerage.

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  • His governor-generalship (1827-1835) was notable for' many reforms, chief among which were the suppression of the Thugs, the abolition of suttee, and the making of the English language the basis of education in India.

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  • The slavery question, in one form or another, had become the great overshadowing issue in national, and even in state politics; the abolition movement, begun in earnest by W.

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  • On this point it must be borne in mind that the population of the larger towns, on account of the greater mobility of the population since the introduction of railways and the abolition of restrictions upon free settlement, has become more mixedBerlin, Leipzig, Hamburg, &c., showing proportionally more Roman Catholics, and Cologne, Frankfort-onMain, Munich more Protestants than formerly.

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  • The close connection with the Poles, the principle of federalism which they maintained,the support given to them by the Bavarian patriots, their protest against the revolution from above as represented equally by the annexation of Hanover and the abolition of the papal temporal power, threw them into strong opposition to the prevailing opinion, an opposition which received its expression When Hermann von Mallincrodt (182 I 1874), the most respected of their parliamentary leaders, declared that justice was not present at the birth of the empire.

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  • But before 1550 the drain of military expeditions to the continent, the quarrels of civil, military and ecclesiastical powers, and of citizens, and the emigration of colonists to the Main (not in small part due to the abolition of the encomiendas of the Indians), produced a fatal decadence.

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  • From the creation of the Bulgarian patriarchate of Ochrida in 893 to its abolition in 1767 the city was the ecclesiastical headquarters of the Bulgarians in the west of the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • But by the decree of the 4th of August, which in the general abolition of feudal rights involved the possessions of many German princes enclaves in Alsace and Lorraine, the Constituent Assembly had made the first move in the war against the established European system.

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  • For the Ruthenians, elated by their victory, refused to return to work, and demanded the abolition of all feudal obligations as the reward of their loyalty.

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  • Count Stadion began it in Galicia, where, before bombarding insurgent Cracow into submission (April 26), he had won over the Ruthenian peasants by the abolition of feudal dues and by forwarding a petition to the emperor for the official recognition of their language alongside Polish.

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  • Since Hungary reserved her right to fix the conditions on which recruits should be granted, the partisans of the Magyar words of command argued that the abolition of the German words of command in the Hungarian regiments might be made such a condition, despite the enumeration in the preceding clause 11, of everything appertaining to the unitary leadership and inner organization of the joint Austro-Hungarian army as belonging to the constitutional military prerogatives of the crown.

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  • Their main principles were the abolition of the curia or electoral class system and the establishment of the franchise on the basis of universal suffrage; and the division of Austria electorally into racial compartments within which each race would be assured against molestation from other races.

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  • In Boston he had met Benjamin Lundy, who had for years been preaching the abolition of slavery.

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  • Garrison sought the abolition of slavery by moral means alone.

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  • He thought it should bring its moral influence to bear in favour of abolition; but neither he nor his associates ever asked Congress to exercise any unconstitutional power.

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  • After the abolition of the slave-trade in the 19th century palm oil formed the staple article of commerce, and the various streams which drain the Niger coast near the mouth of the great river became known as the " Oil Rivers."

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  • *One, which by force of circumstances remained inoperative, was the abolition of the legal status of slavery, proclaimed in the year of Queen Victoria's jubilee (1897).

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  • Practical effect was given to the abolition of the legal status of slavery, in so far as all British courts were concerned.

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  • This happy condition had been brought about largely as the result of giving fiscal reform, accompanied by substantial relief to the taxpayers, the first place in the governments programme, and with the abolition of octroi duties in.

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  • The vexed question, of many centuries' standing, concerning the claim of Denmark to levy dues on vessels passing through the Sound, was settled by the abolition of the dues in 1857.

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  • The first bill laid before the Estates by the government was to impose an excise tax on the principal articles of consumption, together with subsidiary taxes on cattle, poultry, &c., in return for which the abolition of all the old direct taxes was promised.

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  • On the 17th of September the burgesses introduced a bill proposing a new constitution, which was to include local self-government in the towns, the abolition of serfdom, and the formation of a national army.

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  • Nor was the reforming principle limited to the abolition of serfdom.

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  • In 1779-1780 he was a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, where he voted for the abolition of slavery - he freed his own slaves whom he had brought from Maryland.

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  • He had only held this post for a few weeks when, in consequence of his refusal to vote with the government against the abolition of the house and window tax, he resigned both his office and his seat ' in parliament.

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  • He was an influential member of the constitutional convention of 1787, advocating the counting of all slaves as a basis of representation and opposing the abolition of the slavetrade.

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  • The abolition of the papal jurisdiction removed all obstacles to the divorce from Catherine and to the legalization of Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn (1533).

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  • Since that date the most important changes effected in the elementary education system were the abolition, in 1886, of individual inspection of the lower standards - afterwards extended to the whole of the standards, the inspectors applying a collective test, the " block-grant " system, to the efficiency of a school - and the abolition of school fees (1889) for the compulsory standards, the loss being made up principally by a parliamentary grant, and partly by a proportion, earmarked for the purpose, of the proceeds of the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act 1890, and the Education and Local Taxation Account (Scotland) Act 1892.

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  • The almost absolute power formerly wielded by the landlords, who within their own territories were lords of regality, hindered independent agricultural enterprise, and it was not till after the abolition of hereditable jurisdictions in 1748 that agriculture made real progress.

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  • But the abolition of the law of hypothec in 1879 - under which the landlord had a lien for rent upon the produce of the land, the cattle and sheep fed on it, and the live stock and implements used in husbandry - the Ground Game Act of 1880, the sevekal Agricultural Holdings Acts, and the construction of light railways improved matters and established a better understanding.

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  • Originally they were maintained by tolls, but this method, after several counties had obtained separate acts for its abolition, was superseded in 1883 by the act of 1878.

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  • Stewartries ceased with the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1748, though Kirkcudbrightshire still bears the designation.

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  • Thus, except in the case of the west coast trade with the colonies, Scotland had reaped little commercial benefit from the Union, and the loss of business caused by the abolition of the parliament, and the rush of noble families to London, was severely felt in Edinburgh.

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  • The abolition of hereditable jurisdictions and of the claims of feudal superiors to military service, after Culloden, broke the bond between chiefs and clans, and introduced new social and economical conditions, bequeathing the Land Question to the 10th century.

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  • Since the abolition of the old walls in 1863 and the conversion of their site into promenades, the town has rapidly assumed a modern appearance.

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  • In the Chamber he spoke chiefly on army questions; and was chairman of a commission appointed to consider army legislation, resigning in 1887 on the refusal of the Chamber to sanction the abolition of exemptions of any kind.

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  • In June the great popular festival "Dei Quattro Altari" is annually celebrated here in commemoration of the abolition of the feudal dominion in 1700.

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  • z In the slavery issue of 2848 the sentiment for abolition centred in the northern counties, the opposition in the southern.

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  • Besides the abolition of tests, effected by the act of 1871, many of the reforms there suggested, such as the revival of the faculties, the reorganization of the professoriate, the abolition of celibacy as a condition of the tenure of fellowships, and the combination of the colleges for lecturing purposes, were incorporated in the act of 1877, or subsequently adopted by the university.

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  • The abolition of this system was announced in 1906, and, as a partial substitute, it was decided to hold an annual examination in Peking of Chinese graduates educated abroad (Times, 22nd of October 1906).

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  • The abolition of order of merit at this examination was decided on in 1 9 06, and names of candidates appeared in this order for the last time in 1909.

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  • The lictors and the fasces were so inseparably connected that they came to be used as synonymous terms. The fasces originally represented the power over life and limb possessed by the kings, and after the abolition of the monarchy, the consuls, like the kings, were preceded by twelve fasces.

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  • The construction of roads, the abolition of direct taxes and of the system of farming the church lands, the securing of impartial administration of justice, and the establishment of educational institutions are among the services ascribed to his efforts.

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  • But after a tour through the principal islands Gladstone came to the conclusion that the abolition of the protectorate was not the wish of the mass of the people.

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  • That this abolition of the word Mass, as implying the offering of Christ's Body and Blood by the priest for the living and the dead was deliberate is clear from the language of those who were chiefly responsible for the change.

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  • In the latter connexion he enlarged on several points in which England had done less than many continental states for the abolition of monopolies and abuses.

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  • The agitation for the abolition of slavery, which really.

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  • began in earnest with the establishment of the Liberator by William Lloyd Garrison in 1831, soon led to the sending of innumerable petitions to congress for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, over which the Federal government had jurisdiction, and for other action by congress with respect to that institution.

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  • The appeal of the prophets, " is not for better institutions but for better men, not for the abolition of aristocratic privileges but for an honest and godly use of them."

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  • In 1576 he opposed the proposal of the Protestant princes to make a grant for the Turkish War conditional upon the abolition of the clause concerning ecclesiastical reservation, and he continued to support the Habsburgs.

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  • Of the measures proposed to this end he says: "I considered four, passed or reported, as forming a system by which every trace would be eradicated of ancient or future aristocracy, and a foundation laid for a government truly republican" - the repeal of the laws of entail; the abolition of primogeniture and the unequal division of inheritances (Jefferson was himself an eldest son); the guarantee of freedom of conscience and relief of the people from supporting, by taxation, an established church; and a system of general education.

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  • His two most memorable acts are the abolition of suttee and the suppression of the Thugs.

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  • See Bayard Tuckerman, William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1893).

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  • The abolition of the external slave trade proved very injurious to the trade of the seaports, but from 1860 onward the agricultural resources of the country were developed with increasing energy, a work in which Brazilian merchants took the lead.

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  • The long fight for the abolition of compulsory church-rates was finally successful in 1868, and then in 1870 Miall was prominent in the discussions aroused by the Education Bill.

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  • He was a supporter of the Church Missionary and the British and Foreign Bible societies, and laboured for the abolition of slavery.

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  • Its growth at first was slow, but on the abolition of the Cadiz monopoly in 1778 it became a free port and its trade increased so rapidly that it soon became one of the chief commercial centres of South America.

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  • He stayed at Sarai, their Volgan capital, all the winter, and not only succeeded in obtaining a mitigation of the tribute, but also the abolition of the military service previously rendered by the Russians to the Tatars.

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  • The chief recommendation put forward to mend the system comprised lengthening of all sentences, a diminution in the dietaries, the abolition of large gratuities, and, speaking broadly, a general tightening of the reins.

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  • In it he suggested that the following reforms should be carried out, some by administrative order and some by future legislation: (1) time for the payment of fines inflicted for minor offences; (2) disciplinary treatment outside prison for all offenders under 21 years of age; (3) punishment of those guilty of offences not involving moral turpitude to be relieved of all degrading features; (4) the reduction of the period of solitary confinement to a maximum of one month; (5) and the abolition of the ticket-of-leave system.

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  • Mill and Bentham, whose chief principles were representative government, vote by ballot, the abolition of a state church, frequent elections.

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  • The abolition of the Holy Empire in 1806 removed even the shadow of vassalage from the German reigning dukes, who retain their sovereign status under the new empire.

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  • Regulations were framed for the purpose of establishing adequate supervision over the revenue and expenditure for the abolition of irregular taxation and extortions, as well as the practice of farming out the collection of the revenue to individuals, and, generally, to adapt the whole collection and expenditure of the national revenue to modern ideas of public finance.

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  • His civil reforms include the abolition of the system of prepaying taxes which had weighed heavily upon the wealthier proprietors, the elevation of the serfs into a class of free tenants, the remodelling of family and of maritime law.

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  • He was a member of the Commune of Paris on the 10th of August 1792, and was elected deputy for Paris to the Convention, where he was the first to demand the abolition of royalty (on the 21st of September 1792), and he voted the death of Louis XVI.

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  • They agreed that there was strong evidence to show that " the contamination took place when the bottle was opened at Malkowal, owing to the abolition by the plague authorities of the technique prescribed by the Bombay laboratory, and to the consequent failure to sterilize the forceps which were used in opening the bottle, and which during the process were dropped on the ground "; and they complained of the inadequacy of the inquiries made by the Indian government, and called for Mr Haffkine's exoneration.

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  • On several occasions he was sent to Rome to negotiate the abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction and to defend the interests of the Angevins at Naples.

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  • He strenuously supported the abolition of the slave trade, and in 1789 wrote a paper on the subject.

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  • The active part he took in advocating the abolition of the slave-trade is evidence of a wider power of sympathy.

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  • Among his writings are: Introduction to the Study of Federal Government (1890), Formation of the Union (1892, in the Epochs of American History series), Practical Essays on American Government (1893), Studies in American Education (1895), Guide to the Study of American History (with Edward Channing, 1897), Salmon Portland Chase (1899, in the American Statesman series), Foundations of American Foreign Policy (1901), Actual Government (1903), Slavery and Abolition (1906, the volume in the American Nation series dealing with the period 1831-1841), National Ideals Historically Traced (1907), the 26th volume of the American Nation series, and many historical pamphlets and articles.

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  • He opposed the Reform Bill of 1832, but was a supporter of Catholic emancipation, and his objection to the continuance of resistance to the abolition of the Corn Laws led him to resign his seat for Dorset in 1846.

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  • Three years later the triumph of the Jacobins brought with it the " abolition of Christianity," and a spell of violent persecution, which gradually slackened under the Directory (1795-99) In 1799 Napoleon became First Consul, and at once set himself to deal with the ecclesiastical problem.

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  • Of the other measures of reform promoted by Abd-ul-Mejid the more important were - the reorganization of the army (1843-1844), the institution of a council of public instruction (1846), the abolition of an odious and unfairly imposed capitation tax, the repression of slave trading, and various provisions for the better administration of the public service and for the advancement of commerce.

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  • When the slave power became more aggressive, in and after the year 1831, Clay defended the right of petition for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and opposed Calhoun's bill forbidding the use of the mails to "abolition" newspapers and documents.

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  • While affirming that he was "no friend of slavery" he held abolition and the abolitionists responsible for the hatred, strife, disruption and carnage that menaced the nation.

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  • It is to du Fay also that we owe the abolition of the distinction between electrics and non-electrics.

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  • Garrison, Charles Sumner, Theodore Parker and James Freeman Clarke were among her friends; she advocated abolition, and preached occasionally from Unitarian pulpits.

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  • In 1845 he obtained the Hulsean Prize for his essay The Influence of Christianity in promoting the Abolition of Slavery in Europe.

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  • The success of the Baptists of Virginia in securing step by step the abolition of everything that savoured of religious oppression, involving at last the disestablishment and the disendowment of the Episcopal Church, was due in part to the fact that Virginia Baptists were among the foremost advocates of American independence, while the Episcopal clergy were loyalists and had made themselves obnoxious to the people by using the authority of Great Britain in extorting their tithes from unwilling parishioners, and that they secured the co-operation of free-thinking statesmen like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison and, in most measures, that of the Presbyterians.

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  • In his second tenure lie carried through (1880) the abolition of the grist tax, to take effect in 1884.

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  • Under him in the army department, now divided into higher committees and the headquarter staff, the latter comprising (since the abolition of the military staff department under Lord Kitchener's reorganization) the divisions of the chief of the general staff, the adjutant-general and the quartermaster-general.

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  • To him is attributed the foundation of Stockholm; but he is best known as a legislator, and his wise reforms prepared the way for the abolition of serfdom.

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  • In these circumstances, the " Landtmanna " party in the Riksdag, who desired the lightening of the military burden, joined those who desired the abolition of landlordism, and formed a compact and predominant majority in the Second Chamber, while the burgher and Liberal parties were reduced to an impotent " intelligence " minority.

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  • was at once attacked by another compact majority in the Upper, who on their side maintained that the hated land taxes were only a kind of rent-charge on land, were incidental to it and in no way weighed upon the owners, and, moreover, that its abolition would be quite unwarrantable, as it was one of the surest sources of revenue to the state.

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  • On the other hand, the First Chamber refused to listen to any abolition of the old military system, so long as the defence of the country had not been placed upon a secure basis by the adoption of general compulsory military service.

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  • He persuaded his ministers to constitute a special inquiry into the proposed abolition of land taxes, and in the address with which he opened the Riksdag of 1875 laid particular stress upon the necessity of giving attention to the settlement of these two burning questions, and in 1880 again came forward with a new proposal for increasing the number of years of service with the militia.

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  • He desired that it should be applied to a fund for insurance and old age pensions for workmen and old people, to the lightening of the municipal taxes by state contributions to the schools and workhouses, to the abolition of the land taxes and of the obligation of keeping a horse and man for military service, and, lastly, to the improvement of the shipping trade; but the Riksdag decided to devote it to other objects, such as the payment of the deficit in the budget, the building of railways and augmentation of their material, as well as to improvements in the defences of the country.

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  • The question of customs duties now settled, that of national defence was taken up afresh, and in the following year the government produced a complete scheme for the abolition of the land tax in the course of ten ears years ?

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  • President Montt then took in hand the question of a reform of the currency, the abolition of inconvertible paper money, and the re-establishment of a gold basis as the monetary standard of the republic. This reform of the currency became the keynote of the president's policy during the remainder of his term of office.

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  • But with the Indians this speculation leads to the complete abolition of all barriers between God and man, to a mystic pantheism, and to absorption in the universal Ego, in contrast with which the world becomes an unsubstantial phantasm and sinks into nothingness.

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  • The appointment greatly pleased the Persian court, and the shah lent a willing ear to his advocacy for the development of trade and commerce, construction of roads, abolition of various restrictions hampering Persian merchants, &c. The shah soon afterwards (May 26, i888) issued a proclamation assuring freedom of life and property to all his subjects, and (Oct.

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  • The well-intentioned abolition of the tax on meat also had not the desired result, for by a system of cornering the price of meat rose to more than it In the autumn of 1896 the grand vizier (Amin-es-Sultan) encountered much hostility from some members of the shahs Mi I t riai entourage and various high personages.

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  • the ministry of war and of marine; and in the latter capacity he effected some salutary reforms, such as the improvement of rations in the navy and the abolition of flogging.

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  • The abolition of the slave trade followed; and with the introduction of the protectorate ordinance in 1897 a house tax of 5s.

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  • As regards civil proceedings, this form of the writ is now rarely used, owing to the abolition of arrest on mesne process and the restriction of imprisonment for debt, or in execution of a civil judgment.

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  • Not that this led to any movement for the abolition of slavery.

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  • Nor was the virtual abolition of the cortes seriously felt at first, owing to the excellent internal administration of Pedro II.

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  • He remained in power during five years of unbroken peace (1851-1856), and carried many useful reforms. The most important of these was the so-called Additional Act of the 5th of July 1852, which amended the charter of 1826 by providing for the direct election of deputies, the decentralization of the executive, the creation of representative municipal councils, and the abolition of capital punishment for political offences.

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  • Among its most important acts were the expulsion of the religious congregations which had returned after 1834, the nationalization of their property, and the abolition, by decree, of the council of state, the upper house and all hereditary titles or privileges.

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  • To this end consider the effect of the abolition of a stratum on}i contiguous to a, ,, and on+2.

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  • The second minus the first, or the increase in the sum of tensions, is thus 2 (U n - o' n+l) (o n+ 1 - Q n +2) Hence, if an+1 be intermediate in magnitude between a,, and a71+2, the sum of tensions is increased by the abolition of the stratum; but, if a-n+1 be not intermediate, the sum is decreased.

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  • He subsequently took a leading share in the abolition of the privileges of the nobles and the Church.

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  • An ardent republican, it was he who in the first session of the National Convention (September 21, 1792) proposed the motion for the abolition of the kingship, in a speech in which occurred the memorable phrase that "kings are in the moral order what monsters are in the natural."

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  • His pen was as busy as his voice, and in four notable pamphlets he advocated the creation of companies of commerce, the abolition of the distinction between Old and New Christians, the reform of the procedure of the Inquisition and the admission of Jewish and foreign traders, with guarantees for their security from religious persecution.

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  • The churchwardens, who are representative officers of the parishes, are also executive officers of the bishops in all matters touching the decency and order of the churches and of the churchyards, and they are responsible to the bishops for the due discharge of their duties; but the abolition of church rates has relieved the churchwardens of the most onerous part of their duties, which was connected with the stewardship of the church funds of their parishes.

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  • Maximilian, indifferent as usual to matters of religious controversy, consented to the abolition of the Compacts, and these enactments, which had once been sacred to the Bohemian people, perished unregretted by all parties.

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  • Always himself on the unpopular side and an able but thoroughly fair critic of the majority, he habitually under-estimated his own worth; he was not only an anti-slavery leader when abolition was not popular even in New England, and a radical and rationalist when it was impossible for him to stay conveniently in the Unitarian Church, but he was the first president of the National Free Religious Association (1867) and an early and ardent disciple of Darwin and Spencer.

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  • A similar clause in the constitution of Massachusetts had been interpreted by the courts as an abolition of slavery, and an effort was made to have the same ruling applied in New Jersey, where the institution of slavery still existed.

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  • An attempt at abolition had previously been made in 1804 by an act declaring that every child born of a slave should be free, but should remain the servant of its mother's owner until twenty-five years of age if a male or twenty-one years of age if a female.

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  • Many of the early converts to the New Church were among the most fervent advocates of the abolition of slavery, one was the medical officer of the first batch of convicts sent to Botany Bay; from the house of another, William Cookworthy of Plymouth, Captain Cook sailed on his last voyage.

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  • Since the abolition of the Test Acts and the emancipation of the Catholics no Englishman has suffered any civil disability owing to his religion'; and the progress of democracy has given to the great so-called " Free Churches " a political power that rivals that of the Established Church.

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  • It will be seen that the scheme, as at present existing, has for its object the simplification of local government by the abolition of unnecessary independent authorities, and that this has been carried out almost completely, the principal exception being that in some cases burial boards still exist which have not been superseded either by urban district councils or by parish councils or parish meetings.

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  • Surfeited with glory, 2 The grant of the first-fruits was to be made contingent on a concession from the Irish clergy in the shape of the abolition of the sacramental test.

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  • They have been regarded with' much dislike by most economists, and some dues of the kind which existed in London, viz., dues on coal and wine imported, and metage dues on grain, were much imposed until their final abolition in recent years.

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  • Some English applications of free trade theory in recent times in the matter of import duties have been pedantic - the abolition of the shilling corn duty in 1869 by Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke) being typical of this pedantry, though it is not the only instance.

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  • This he succeeded in doing to a large extent, witnessing if not initiating the practical abolition of the corvee and many other reforms. The appointment of an Anglo-Indian official as judicial adviser to the khedive was, however, opposed by Riaz, who resigned in May 1891.

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  • In 1834 the abolition of slavery led to a decline in the prosperity of the islands, but as many of the slaves captured by British cruisers off the east coast of Africa were landed at Seychelles economic conditions were gradually ameliorated.

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  • In 1747 he decreed the abolition of serfdom, but this enactment was not carried 1 One of these, with the legend " Constantinvs Bassaraba De Brancovan D.G.Voevoda Et Princeps Valachiae Transalpinae," and having on the reverse the crowned shield of Walachia containing a raven holding a cross in its beak between a moon and a star, is engraved by Del Chiaro.

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  • Yet the taxes were continually on the increase, and the hospodar Scarlat Ghica (1758-61), though he tried to win some popularity by the removal of Turkish settlers and the abolition of the vakarit or tax on cattle and horses, which was peculiarly hateful to the peasantry, raised the total amount of taxation to 25,000,000 lion-dollars, about £I,000,000.

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  • His very reforms alienated the goodwill of all classes; of the nobles, by the abolition of forced labour; of the clergy, by the confiscation of monastic estates; of the masses, by the introduction of a tobacco monopoly and the inevitable collapse of the inflated hopes to which his agrarian reforms had given rise.

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  • Toward the end of the 19th century, after a decline in production due to the abolition of slavery and to civil wars, increased interest was shown abroad in Colombian mining operations.

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  • Meantime, however, the movement for the abolition of slavery was gaining strength in England, and the missionaries at length appealed from the colonists to the mother country.

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  • A proclamation was issued demanding the community of goods, the abolition of the right of inheritance, and the enfranchisement of women.

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  • The only remedy for this is the abolition of the law of inheritance, and the union of all the instruments of labour in a social fund, which shall be exploited by association.

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  • During the Civil War the denomination escaped an actual scission by following the neutral views of Campbell, who opposed slavery, war and abolition.

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  • Commutation, the enfranchisement of copyholds, and the abolition of military tenures in the reign of Charles II.

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  • The spirit of Livingston's code was remedial rather than vindictive; it provided for the abolition of capital punishment and the making of penitentiary labour not a punishment forced on the prisoner, but a matter of his choice and a reward for good behaviour, bringing with it better accommodations.

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  • It is to be noted that the first collection of Whittier's lyrics was the Poems written during the Progress of the Abolition Question in the United States, issued by a friend in 1837.

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  • The abolition of monopolies in 1904 (see below History) gave an impetus to trade.

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  • These enterprises themselves did not receive general support even among the Transcendentalist leaders, and the real significance of the movement was the stimulus which it gave to philanthropy, to the Abolition movement, and to a new ideal of individual character.

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  • But it is most noteworthy that the barons, while providing for the abolition of abuses which affect themselves, show an unselfish and patriotic spirit in laying down the rule that all the concessions which the king makes to them shall also be extended by themselves to their own sub-tenants.

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  • and clamoured for the abolition of all differences of rank, status and property.

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  • The abolition of Th feudal tenures and purveyance had long been decommons manded, and the conclusion of an arrangement which aim at had been mooted in the reign of James 1.

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  • The predominant landowners preferred the grant of an excise, which would be taken out of all pockets, to a land-tax which would exclusively be felt by those who were relieved by the abolition of the tenures.

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  • In the conduct of the war the British government had displayed little skill, frittering away its forces Abolition on distant expeditions, instead of concentrating them of the in support of Prussia or Russia, and the chief title slave- to fame of the Ministry of all the Talents is that it trade, secured the passing of the bill for the abolition of the slave-trade (March 25, 1807).

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  • The country which, in half-a-dozen years, had seen a radical reform of parliament, a no less radical reform of municipal corporations, the abolition of slavery, and the reconstruction of the poor laws, was longing for a period of political repose.

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  • In Jamaica the planters, who had sullenly accepted the abolition of slavery, were irritated by the passage of an act of parliament intended to remedy some grave abuses in the management of the prisons of the island.

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  • They were reinforced by many Liberals, who cared very little for protection, but a great deal about the abolition of slavery, and consequently objected to reducing the duties on foreign or slave-grown sugar.

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  • swept away the duty on one great necessary of life soap; he repealed the duties on 123 other articles; he reduced the duties on 133 others, among them that on tea; and he found means for paying for these reforms and for the gradual reduction and ultimate abolition of the income tax, which had become very unpopular, by (I) extending the tax to incomes of ioo a year; (2) an increase of the, spirit duties; and (3) applying the death duties to real property, and to property passing by settle-, ment.

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  • But the Lords ventured to reject a measure for the introduction of the ballot at elections, and refused to proceed with a bill for the abolition of purchase in the army.

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  • Two appointments, one to a judicial office, the other to an ecclesiastical preferment, in which Gladstone, about the same time, showed more disposition to obey the letter than the spirit of the law, confirmed the impression which the abolition of purchase had made.

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  • His measures were supported by Disraeli, who understood that Protection must bend to the menacing poverty of the time, though unprepared for total abolition of the corn tax and strongly of opinion that it was not for Peel to abolish it.

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  • Disraeli's opportunity was soon to come now; and in 1845, seeing it on the way, he launched the brilliantly destructive series of speeches which, though they could not prevent the abolition of the corn-laws, abolished the minister who ended them.

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  • Mr Gladstone approved, proposing the abolition of the Irish Church to begin with.

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  • The abolition of the Irish Church was followed by a coercion act, and the land act by suspension of Habeas Corpus.

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  • Since the abolition of the slave trade the chief export of the country is palm-oil.

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  • His articles on corporal punishment, which appeared in Russkaya Starina in 1881, brought about its abolition.

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  • Township government, owing to the abolition of the committee on general business and the consequent confusion of handling so many and minute details, and to the addition to the population of a large Irish element and a large New Hampshire element, both workmen in the quarries, reached the minimum of efficiency in 1840-1870; in 1870, however, the town-meetings were reformed, and in 1874 a committee to consider business details was again appointed.

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  • Joint deliberation would ensure a majority to the reformers and therefore the abolition of privileges and the extinction of feudal rights of property.

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  • Other deputies rose to demand the repeal of the game laws, the enfranchisement of such serfs as were still to be found in France, and the abolition of tithes and of feudal courts and to renounce all privileges, whether of classes, of cities, or of provinces.

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  • The abolition of privilege and the establishment of a parliamentary system were, he wrote, unalterable facts which it would be madness to dispute.

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  • It decreed Abolition the abolition of monarchy on the 21st of September.

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  • In large doses it has a depressant action on the nervous system, leading even to coma and total abolition of reflex action.

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  • (1873) was a plea for the abolition of juvenile imprisonment.

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  • With regard to the transition he advocated the progressive abolition of the right of aubaine, by reducing interest, rent, &c. For the goal he professed only to give the general principles; he had no ready-made scheme, no utopia.

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  • Consequently Nietzsche in effect maintains the following paradoxical position: he explains the existence of altruism upon egoistical principles; he advocates the total abolition of all altruism by carrying these same egoistical principles to their logical conclusion; he nevertheless appeals to that moral instinct which makes men ready to sacrifice their own narrow personal interests to the higher good of society - an instinct profoundly altruistic in character - as the ultimate justification of the ethics he enunciates.

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  • Solar physics has profited enormously by the abolition of glare during total eclipses.

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  • WILLIAM WILBERFORCE (1759-1833), English philanthropist whose name is chiefly associated with the abolition of the slave trade, was descended from a Yorkshire family which possessed the manor of Wilberfoss in the East Riding from the time of Henry II.

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  • On the 12th of May of the following year Wilberforce, in co-operation with Pitt, brought the subject of abolition again before the House of Commons; but the friends of the planters succeeded in getting the matter deferred.

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  • On the 27th of January following Wilberforce carried a motion for referring to a special committee the further examination of witnesses, but after full inquiry the motion for abolition in April 1791 was lost by 163 votes to 88.

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  • In the following April he carried a motion for gradual abolition by 238 to 85 votes; but in the House of Lords the discussion was finally postponed till the following session.

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  • Notwithstanding his unremitting labours in educating public opinion and annual motions in the House of Commons, it was not till 1807, the year following Pitt's death, that the first great step towards the abolition of slavery was accomplished.

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  • Springfield was a strong abolition centre before the Civil War, and from here active plans were put in operation for sending material aid in the form of men and arms to the "free state" party in Kansas.

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  • In this post he performed the most memorable actions of his life by the abolition of purchase and the institution of the short service system and the reserve in the army, measures which excited more opposition than any of the numerous reforms effected by the Gladstone government of that period, but which were entirely justified by their successful working afterwards.

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  • The council gradually dwindled, and probably came to an end without formal abolition.

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  • This increase was due to a variety of causes - the improvement in the political condition of the country, the creation of leaseholds after the abolition of the 40s.

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  • But with the abolition of the protective duties in 1826 a decline set in; and though Irish poplin is still celebrated, the industry now gives employment to a mere handful of people in Dublin.

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  • Religious tests were abolished in 1873, and the university is now open to all; but,!as a matter of fact, the vast majority of the students, even since the abolition of tests, have always belonged to the Church of Ireland, and the divinity school is purely Protestant.

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  • The Irish Education Act of 1892 provided that the parents of children of not less than 6 nor more than 14 years of age should cause them to attend school in the absence of reasonable excuse on at least 150 days in the year in municipal boroughs and in towns or townships under commissioners; and provisions were made for the partial or total abolition of fees in specified circumstances, for a parliamentary school grant in lieu of abolished school fees, and for the augmentation of the salaries of the national teachers.

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  • Ormonde, who was in London, could alone restore peace; all his disputes with Desmond were at once settled in his favour, and he was even allowed to resume the exaction of coyne and livery, the abolition of which had been the darling wish of statesmen.

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  • After the abolition of the state dispensary system in 1907 a State Dispensary Commission was created for winding up the business of the dispensary and distributing about $900,000 (of which $ioo,000 was still due) of dispensary funds.

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  • Many excellent highways were built for strategic purposes before the abolition of the Military Frontier in 1881.

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    0
  • During this period the colony had gone through an economic crisis by the abolition of the slave trade (1807), which had been since 1662 its chief financial support.

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  • at Sutri and declared that the pope was ready to surrender all the temporalities that had been bestowed on the clergy since the days of Charlemagne in return for freedom of election and the abolition of lay investiture.

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  • Burgundy followed the example of Austrasia, demanded the abolition of the mayoralty, and in 627 succeeded in obtaining her independence of Neustria and Austrasia and direct relations with the king.

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  • Severe discipline, suppression of fraudulent interference, furnishing of clothes and equipment by the king, regulation of rank among the officers, systematic revictualling of the army, settled means of manufacturing and furnishing arms and ammunition, placing of the army under the direct authority of the king, abolition Of great military charges, subordination of the governors of strongholds, control by the civil authority over the soldiers effected by means of paymasters and commissaries of stores; all this organization of the royal army was the work of le Tellier.

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  • The third estate insisted on the vote by head, the graduated abolition of privilege in all governmental affairs, a written constitution and union.

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    0
  • They wanted the abolition of the feudal system, the establishment of equality and a share in power.

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  • Dantonists, came a limitation to the powers of the Committee of Public Safety, now placed in dependence upon the Convention; and next followed the destruction of the revolutionary system, the Girondin decentralization and the resuscitation of departmental governments; the reform of the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 10th of August; the suppression of the Commune of Paris on the 1st of September, and of the salary of forty sous given to members of the sections; the abolition of the maximum, the suppression of the Guillotine, the opening of the j~rjsons, the closing of the Jacobin club (November if), and the henceforward insignificant existence of the popular societies.

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  • The viceroy ordered many reforms to be executed and proclaimed the abolition of slavery.

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  • His History of Christianity to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire (1840) had been completely ignored; but widely different was the reception accorded to the continuation of his work, his great History of Latin Christianity (1855), which has passed through many editions.

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  • This ministry was very unfortunate in its conduct of foreign affairs, but it deserves to be remembered with honour on account of the act passed in 1807 for the abolition of the slave trade.

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  • The northern states declined to fulfil the conditions of the treaties negotiated with the Niger Company or to submit to the abolition of the slave trade, and in 1902 Sokoto and Kano openly defied the British power.

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  • At Addiscombe in the neighbourhood was formerly a mansion dating from 1702, and acquired by the East India Company in 1809 for a Military College, which on the abolition of the Company became the Royal Military College for the East Indian Army, and was closed in 1862.

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  • It does not seem that the barons were ever summoned to parliament, and the title, like all parliamentary titles, has fallen into disuse since the abolition of feudal tenures.

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  • The colony was prosperous, but the free settlers were not at all satisfied with the system of government, and an agitation commenced in Van Diemen's Land, as well as in New South Wales, for the introduction of representative institutions and the abolition of transportation.

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  • After the abolition of compulsory church rates in 1868 the old ecclesiastical parish ceased to be of importance as an instrument of local government.

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  • Among other reforms the abolition of the foro ecclesiastico (privileged ecclesiastical courts) brought down a storm of hostility from the Church both on the king and on Cavour, but both remained firm in sustaining the prerogatives of the civil power.

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  • abolition of slavery itself would hardly have been possible.

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  • abolition of the British monarchy?

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  • abolition of episcopacy.

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  • abolition of vivisection.

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  • abolition of capital punishment.

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  • Thomas Andrews, newly appointed Lord Mayor of London, proclaims the abolition of the Monarchy.

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  • Letters to W. R. K. Douglas, Esq., M.P., advocating the abolition of Commercial Restrictions, 1820.

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  • Anti-Slavery Pottery Figure makes £ 4,800 at Auction This poignant pottery figure was made to commemorate the abolition of the slave trade by Parliament.

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  • The meeting got off to a lively start with the first motion proposing the abolition of the Men's Officer.

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  • Simon Hopkins wrote: I think the majority (especially if you include undergrads and fellows) would oppose the abolition of gowns.

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  • This independent review also recommended the abolition of up front tuition fees.

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  • He says the Ministry's purpose would be ' the eventual abolition of war ' .

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  • The gradual abolition of due process is opening our homes to quite casual searches.

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  • Further, the Keeper can continue to enter burdens in the title sheet even if they have been extinguished by feudal abolition.

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  • Weakened through years of underfunding, the Welfare State faced the prospect of outright abolition.

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  • He called for the immediate abolition of imprisonment for teenage girls.

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  • He was publicly executed amid scenes of drunkenness and disorder which contributed to the ultimate abolition of these revolting exhibitions.

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  • abolition movement.

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  • abolition act was finally passed.

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  • Alexander became an abolitionist and he is mentioned in the submissions to the Parliamentary Committee for the abolition for the slave trade.

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  • A controversial antislavery pamphlet has been republished in advance of next year's bicentenary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act.

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  • bicentenary of abolition.

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  • Cathedrals in Scotland became redundant with the abolition of Scottish bishoprics.

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  • We are coming up to the double centenary of the abolition of Britain's participation in the slave trade.

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  • Indeed, following the abolition of " live witness " committals, there is no advantage to the prosecution in avoiding a contested committal.

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  • eventual abolition of the wage system.

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  • evils of slavery and commemorative of its abolition in the British colonies.

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  • The abolition of special ex-dividend trading The " special ex-dividend " period is the period of 21 calendar days prior to the ex-dividend date.

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  • The abolition of animal experimentation does NOT mean that society will have to give up medical progress.

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  • favourhe 68 published responses which mentioned AMB and/or HBCS, only 6 at most can be read as favoring abolition.

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  • Abolition of " constructive malice " in killings in course or furtherance of other offenses.

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  • We fight for the abolition of the post of presidency - especially directly-elected presidents, who become little more than strutting elected monarchs.

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  • An editorial in the Lancet, linked to a review of asthma phenotypes, calls for the abolition of the term asthma.

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  • We also raise the demand of the abolition of specialist police units like the riot squad, whose function is to attack legitimate protests.

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  • It was old Karl Marx that wrote: ' The first requisite for the people's happiness is the abolition of religion ' .

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  • The subsequent abolition of the Irish self-government was one of the reasons for the huge growth in emigration in the nineteenth century.

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  • In which case their abolition will not necessarily abolish our 1,000 year old shires.

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  • subsection 2(b) allows for the abolition, alteration or establishment of a Community Health Council.

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  • thirteenth anniversary of the 1993 abolition of Soviet-era laws against male homosexuality.

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  • On the defeat of John Sandfield Macdonald's government in 1871 Blake became prime minister of Ontario, but resigned this office the same year in consequence of the abolition of dual representation.

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  • Its most important achievements were the registration at its eleventh sitting (r 9th December 1516) of the abolition of the pragmatic sanction, which the popes since Pius II.

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  • Other decrees denounced the abuse of indulgences, of festivals of saints, and of processions and suggested reforms; others again enjoined the closing of shops on Sunday during divine service, the issue of service-books with parallel translations in the vernacular, and recommended the abolition of all monastic orders except that of St Benedict, the rules of which were to be brought into harmony with modern ideas; nuns were to be forbidden to take the vows before the age of 40.

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  • Application for admission to the Union was now made to Congress, and on the 31st of December 186 2 an enabling act was approved by President Lincoln admitting the state on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution.

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  • Va.), where he served an apprenticeship to a saddler, and where - Wheeling being an important headquarters of the inter-State slave trade - he first became deeply impressed with the iniquity of the institution of slavery, and determined to devote his life to the cause of abolition.

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  • This occurred especially in the last half of the 19th century, largely owing to the abolition of the so-called beni ademprivili.

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  • In 1438 the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges adopted and put into practice the Basel decrees, and in spite of the incessant protests of the Holy See the Pragmatic was observed throughout the 15th century, even after its nominal abolition by Louis XI.

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  • Though he rejected the demand of the pope, who wished him to consent to the abolition of the compacts, he endeavoured to curry favour with the Roman see by punishing severely all the more advanced opponents of papacy in Bohemia.

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  • Since the abolition of flogging in the services, the use of the cat is now restricted to certain classes of offenders in military prisons (Army Act 1881, § 133).

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  • Prytaneis) is generally applied specially to those who, after the abolition of absolute monarchy, held the chief office in the state.

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  • It was this latter circumstance which ultimately led to its abolition.

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  • In the midst of other labours Jowett had been quietly exerting his influence so as to conciliate all shades of liberal opinion, and bring them to bear upon the abolition of the theological test, which was still required for the M.A.

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  • The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.

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  • After the establishment of responsible government the main questions at issue were the secular as opposed to the religious system of public instruction, protection as opposed to a revenue tariff, vote by ballot, adult suffrage, abolition of transportation and assignment of convicts, and free selection of lands before survey; these, and indeed all.

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  • One important variation, however, was a clause in the bill of rights providing for the abolition of slavery, Vermont being the first state in America to take such action.

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  • He belonged to the Root and Branch party, and spoke in favour of the petition of the London citizens for the abolition of episcopacy on the 9th of February 1641, and pressed upon the House the Root and Branch Bill in May.

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  • Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate.

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  • He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."

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  • The principles of the French Revolution were at this time being eagerly embraced in Ireland, especially among the Presbyterians of Ulster, and two months before the appearance of Tone's essay a great meeting had been held in Belfast, where republican toasts had been drunk with enthusiasm, and a resolution in favour of the abolition of religious disqualifications had given the first sign of political sympathy between the Roman Catholics and the Protestant dissenters of the north.

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  • Until 1893 the juridical status of the Banks of Issue was regulated by the laws of the 3oth of April 1874 on paper currency and of the 7th of April 1881 on the abolition of forced currency.

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  • His programme included these three points: (I) the celibacy of the clergy; (2) the abolition of ecclesiastical appointments made by the secular authority; (3) the vesting of the papal election in the hands of the Roman clergy and people, presided over by the curia of cardinals.

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  • Conservatives, acceptance of the railway redemption contracts, consolidation of the financial equilibrium, abolition 01 the !QrCe~

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  • The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.

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  • Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.

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  • The Chamber, though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by onefourth, and its complete abolition within four years.

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  • Nevertheless Magliani, who succeeded Seismit Doda, had neither the perspicacity nor the courage to resist the abolition of the grist tax.

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  • The first vote of the Chamber for the immediate diminution of the tax, and for its total abolition on 1st January F!

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  • was passed by the Chamber on 18th July 1879, providing for the immediate repeal of the grist tax on minor cereals, and for its total abolition on 1st January 1884.

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  • The unsatisfactory financial condition of the Florence, Rome and Naples municipalities necessitated state help, but the Chamber nevertheless proceeded with a light heart (23rd February 1881) to sanction the issue of a foreign loan for 26,000,000, with a view to the abolition of the forced currency, thus adding to the burdens of the exchequer a load which three years later again dragged Italy into the gulf of chronic deficit.

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  • e by subsequent confession of Mancini,then characterized the attitude of the central powers; but he was opposed to any formal alliance, lest it might arouse French resentment, while the new Franco-Italian treaty was still unconcluded, and the foreign loan for the abolition of the forced currency had still to be floated.

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  • The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.

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  • Thus it was with the abolition of the grist tax, the reform of the suffrage, the railway conventions and many other bills.

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  • Their mutinies were frequent and dangerous, and at last, in 1682, an unusually serious outbreak led Peter the Great to compass the abolition of the force.

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  • It was exceedingly burdensome, and its abolition by Edward the Confessor in 1051 was welcomed as a great relief.

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  • For several years Wakefield continued to direct the New Zealand Company, fighting its battles with the colonial office and the missionary interest, and secretly inspiring and guiding many parliamentary committees on colonial subjects, especially on the abolition of transportation.

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  • But the result did not lead to the abolition of all distinctions between the orders.

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  • I The abolition of the special courts of the peasants was announced in the same imperial ukaz (18th of October 1906) which promised the relief of the peasants from the arbitrary control of the communes, and permission for them to migrate elsewhere without losing their communal rights.

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  • The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.

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  • The abolition of the field courts martial was demanded; on the 13th of April a bill for the expropriation of landlords was carried by a twothirds majority,' and the 30th the Army Bill would have been lost but for the Polish vote.

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  • The most far-reaching of these reforms, carried in the first session of the third Duma, was the partial abolition of the communal and family ownership of land, which involved the establishment of a class of true peasant-proprietors.

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  • He was essentially humane; and it is worthy of notice that he was in favour of the abolition of slavery, while humane men like his friend Lord Sheffield, Dr Johnson and Boswell were opposed to the antislavery movement.

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  • He supported the king's administration in parliament, but opposed strongly the unjust measure which, on the abolition of the court of wards, placed the extra burden of taxation thus rendered necessary on the excise.

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  • After three months' tenure of this office he was returned by the department to the Constituent Assembly, where he voted with the Mountain, and brought forward the celebrated motion for the abolition of the presidential office.

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  • Reverting to incidents in England itself, in 1870 the abolition of university tests removed all restrictions on Jews at Oxford and Cambridge, and both universities have since elected Jews to professorships and other posts of honour.

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  • In the budgets for 1905 and 1906 considerable economies were effected by the curtailment of salaries, the abolition of various posts, and the reduction of the estimates for education and public works.

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  • (1875, &c.); Haverfield, " The Abolition of the Dictatorship," in Classical Review, iii.

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  • After the abolition of slavery, farms greatly decreased in size and increased in number; the number grew from 68,023 in 1870 to 220,803 in 1900; the average size fell from 369.7 acres in 1860 to 82.6 acres in 1900.

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  • The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.

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  • In1850-1851he filled the unexpired term of Thomas Corwin in the U.S. Senate, strenuously opposing Clay's compromise measures and advocating the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia.

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  • The abolition of debts was carried into effect, but the land distribution was put off by Agesilaus on various pretexts.

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  • He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.

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  • In the preamble to the former Turgot boldly announced as his object the abolition of privilege, and the subjection of all three orders to taxation; the clergy were afterwards excepted, at the request of Maurepas.

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  • He supported the North in the American crisis of 1862, using all his strength to explain what has since been universally recognized as the issue really at stake in the struggle, the abolition of slavery.

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  • In the meantime they won credit by popular measures such as the abolition of forced loans and of the objectionable habit of seizing hostages from the districts of the west where the royalist ferment was still strongly working.

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  • He was of the party of the "Mountain," and voted for the abolition of royalty and the death of the king.

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