Abolished Sentence Examples
The title of giudice was abolished and a feudal marquisate substituted.
The second division of the law abolished (Article 14) all restrictions upon the right of meeting of members of the clergy.
Capital punishment was abolished in 1877, penal servitude for life being substituted.
When the majority shall at length vote for the abolition of slavery, it will be because they are indifferent to slavery, or because there is but little slavery left to be abolished by their vote.
When that system was abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia became more equal.Advertisement
Article If abolished the need for reyal exequatur and placet for ecclesiastical publications, but stibordinated the enjoyment of temporalities by bishops and priests to the concession of state exequalur and placet.
The pope abolished the order, however, as it seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived its usefulness.
Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.
Feudalism was abolished in 1836, and in 1848 complete political union with Piedmont was granted, the viceregal government being suppressed, and the island being divided into three divisions of which Cagliari, Sassari and Nuoro were the capitals.
On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades abolished espionage and the censorship, and ordered the release of political prisoners.Advertisement
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily underwent an important modification when the local sanctuaries were abolished under the "Deuteronomic" reform, and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's time formed the essence of every act of religion were limited to the central altar, which most men could visit only at rare intervals.
In Ireland imprisonment for debt was abolished by the Debtors Act (Ireland) 1872, and in Scotland by the Debtors (Scotland) Act 1880.
The state tobacco monopoly was abolished in 1817.
In 1864 he went as Hessian envoy to Vienna, retiring in 1872 when the post was abolished.
The Cour des Comptes, an ancient tribunal, was abolished in 1791, and reorganized by Napoleon I.Advertisement
Subsequently, it was decided to repeal these additional tenths, the first being abolished in 1886 and the rest in 1887.
In France it was abolished in 1867, in Belgium in 1871, in Switzerland and Norway in 187 4, and in Italy in 1877.
Luther, in spite of his belief in the Real Presence, regarded it as the most harmful of all the medieval festivals and, though he fully realized its popularity, it was the first that he abolished.
Encouraged by this success, he even made the further suggestion that the remaining metallic portion of the circuit might perhaps some day be abolished and a system of wireless telegraphy established.'
In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.Advertisement
At the end of 1889 Crispi abolished the differential duties against French imports and returned to the general Italian tariff, but France declined to follow his lead and maintained her prohibitive dues.
The state monopoly was abolished in 1832, and mining has since been carried on by private enterprise.
The influx of new ideas provoked civil war, in which the already decadent Shogunate was abolished and the authority of the Mikado restored.
The court of the Honour of Peverel, held at Basford in Nottinghamshire, which formerly exercised jurisdiction in the hundreds of Scarsdale, the Peak and Wirksworth, was abolished in 1849.
Maurice made no use of his advantage; he merely restored the former frontier and abolished the subsidies which had formerly been paid to the Persians.Advertisement
It was said in 1859 that the church owned one-third of the real and personal property of the republic. The reform laws of that year nationalized its property, abolished its numerous orders and institutions and deprived it of state support and of all participation in political affairs.
The Dual Control had been abolished by a khedivial decree of 18th January 1883, and1replaced by an English financial adviser.
In 1872 the Banat regiments followed suit; and in 1873 the old military organization was abolished in the rest of the frontier.
The dual system of education, established in 1871, was abolished in 1890, and the administrative machinery consolidated under a minister of the Crown and an advisory board.
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
Dispensations, and also the one-year voluntariat, which had become a short cut for the so-called intellectual class to employment in the civil service rather than a means of training reserve officers, were abolished.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.
Though the territorial authority of the papal see was practically abolished in 1870, the fact that Rome is the seat of the administrative centre of the vast organization of the church is not without significance to the nation.
The Cassa Ecclesiastica was abolished, and in its stead was instituted a Fondo pet Culto, or public worship fund.
These he abolished, and, taking the appointment into his own hands, gave German bishops to the see.
The result was the formation of an assembly at Modena which abolished feudal dues and customs, declared for manhood suffrage and established the Cispadane Republic (October 1796).
John and his friends feared lest the inquiry promised into the extent of the hated forest areas would be carried out too rigorously, and that these would be seriously curtailed, if not abolished altogether.
Twelve knights in each county are to make a thorough inquiry into all evil customs connected with the forests, and these are to be utterly abolished.
When peculiars were abolished (vide infra) the dean of Arches disappeared, and his title, in the 19th century, was erroneously given to the official principal.
The patriarchate was abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by a council at St Petersburg in 1721 to a Holy Governing Synod.
These attempts, however, to perpetuate the usage were finally discredited by Huxley's important Lectures on Comparative Anatomy (1864), in which the term was finally abolished, and the "radiate mob" finally distributed among the Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Vermes (Platyhelminthes), Coelenterata and Protozoa.
In many birds the spaces between the metasternum and the posterior processes and again the spaces between this and the oblique process are filled up by proceeding ossification and either remain as notches, or as fenestrae, or they are completely abolished so that the breastbone is turned into one solid more or less oblong plate.
And even in a democratic commonwealth the sentiment of nobility may exist, though all legal privilege has been abolished or has never existed.
Its charter is said to date from 121 8, and it was the seat of the courts of the earls of Strathearn till 1 747, when heritable jurisdictions were abolished.
These elect a head-man (starosta) and a collector of taxes, who was responsible, at least until the ukaz of October 3906, which abolished communal responsibility for the payment of taxes, for the repartition among individuals of the taxes imposed on the commune.
Portugal, on the other hand, having abolished the Inquisition in 1821, has since 1826 allowed Jews freedom of religion, and there are synagogues in Lisbon and Faro.
Four miles west by north of Stranraer is situated Lochnaw Castle, the ancient seat of the Agnews, who were hereditary sheriffs of Galloway till 1747, when hereditable jurisdictions were abolished.
Its medieval importance as an intermediary of trade between Europe and the East was greatly impaired by the opening of the Red Sea route, and finally abolished by the Suez Canal; and Syria is at present important mainly for the sentimental reason that it contains the holiest places of Judaism and Christianity, and for the strategic reason that it lies on the flank of the greatest traderoute of the eastern hemisphere.
Separate school districts were abolished; a new city superintendent, with associate superintendents, was appointed; the scattered and unrelated school agencies were consolidated; new high schools and junior high schools established and buildings erected, such as the Schenley high school, built in 1916 at a cost of $1,500,000 and accommodating 2,000 students.
Under the short-lived republican government in Spain Porto Rico was in1870-1874a province with a provincial deputation, and in 1873 slavery was abolished.
It was Orduin who first abolished the onerous system of tolls on exports and imports, and established a combination of native merchants for promoting direct commercial relations between Sweden and Russia.
California was admitted as a free state, and the slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia; these were concessions to the North.
In 1772 it was decided by the English courts that a slave as soon as he set foot on the soil of the British Isles became free; the slave trade, however, continued actively until 1807, when an Act was passed to prevent British subjects dealing in slaves; in 1811 the traffic in slaves was declared to be felony; in 1833 the status of slavery was abolished throughout the British Dominions.
Fresh doubts arose as to the effect of this omission; and a correspondence on the subject took place between the British government and the government of the republic before the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa, the former maintaining that the preamble of 1881, by which alone any self government was granted, was still in force, and therefore that the suzerainty - whatever it involved - remained; the Transvaal government, on the other hand, contending that the suzerainty had been abolished by the substitution of the 1884 convention for that of 1881.
So entirely was slavery a habit of the people, that as late as 1905, after the slave-trade had been abolished for three years, it was found that, in consequence of a famine which rendered food difficult to obtain, a whole tribe (the Tangali) were selling themselves as slaves to their neighbours.
The slave-trade was immediately abolished, and the slave-market which was held at Bauchi, as in all Fula centres, was closed.
The old college attained to great celebrity as an educational institution, and produced many excellent scholars, but it was abolished in 1877, in order to concentrate the grant available for higher-class education upon the Punjab University at Lahore.
In 1832 the office of resident was abolished, and the tract was annexed to the North-Western Provinces.
After slavery had fallen Phillips associated himself freely with reformers occupied in other paths, herein separating himself from the other patrician of the movement, Edmund Quincy, who always frankly said that after slavery was abolished there was nothing else worth fighting for.
In 1420 it fell once more under the rule of the bishop, who maintained his authority until 1566, when it was abolished in consequence of the Reformation.
In 1781 it was made by Russia the capital of the Riga viceroyalty, but fifteen years later, the viceroyalty having been abolished, it was made the capital of Livonia.
The Maillotins, as the Parisian insurgents were named from the weapon they used, gained the upper hand in Paris, and were able temporarily to make terms, but the commune of Rouen was abolished, and the Tuchins, as the marauders in Languedoc were called, were pitilessly hunted down.
Among other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 men.
In 1869, however, a third additional tenth was added to the previously existing additional two-tenths, and, unlike the tenths of the land tax, they have not been abolished.
The forced paper currency, instituted in 1866, was abolished in 1881, in which year were dissolved the Union of Banks of Issue created in 1874 to furnish to the state treasury a milliard of lire in notes, guaranteed collectively by the banks.
In the annual "customs" of Dahomey, now abolished, hundreds of human victims were offered.
The ministry of Lord North, however, was tottering, and soon after fell; the Board of Trade was abolished by the passing of Burke's bill in 1782, and Gibbon's salary vanished with it - no trifle, for his expenditure had been for three years on a scale somewhat disproportionate to his private fortune.
To supply money for his many undertakings Clement revived the practice of selling reservations and expectancies, which had been abolished by his predecessor.
All the Pharisaic ordinances which Hyrcanus had abolished were reaffirmed as binding.
The Leibzoll (body-tax) was also abolished, in addition to the special law-taxes, the passport duty, the nightduty and all similiar imposts which had stamped the Jews as outcast, for they were now (Dec. 19) to have equal rights with the Christian inhabitants."
Soon after his accession he abolished the distinctive Jewish dress, abrogated the poll-tax, admitted the Jews to military service and their children to the public schools, and in general opened the era of emancipation by the Toleranzpatent of 1782.
As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.
But the day of medieval intolerance had passed, and in 1867 the new constitution " abolished all disabilities on the ground of religious differences," though anti-Semitic manipulation of the law by administrative authority has led to many instances of intolerance.
The " toleration-tax " was abolished in 1846.
The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
The much-debated Corn Laws, after undergoing various modifications, and proving the fruitful source of business uncertainty, social discontent and angry partisanship, were finally abolished in 1846, although the act was not consummated until three years later.
In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.
In the sheep section of the Smithfield show the classes for ewes were finally abolished in 1898, and the classes restricted to wethers and wether lambs, whose function is exclusively the production of meat.
The office of state commissioner of common schools was created in 1837, abolished in 1840 and revived in 1843.
It was abolished in 1880 as regards all leases entered into after the 11th of November 1881, where the land demised exceeded two acres in extent, and the landlord was left to remedies akin to ejectment (Hypothec Abolition, Scotland, Act 1880).
The office of lieutenantgovernor was abolished by the present constitution.
Peace was his reward; on the 24th of December 1814 the treaty was signed; and after visiting Geneva for the first time since his boyhood, and assisting in negotiating a commercial convention (1815) with England by which all discriminating duties were abolished, Gallatin in July 1815 returned to America.
By cancelling the political power of the Areopagus and multiplying the functions of the popular law-courts, Ephialtes abolished the last checks upon the sovereignty of the commons.
The penal code of November 1821 abolished many odious customs and punishments of the old code, and allowed publicity in criminal trials.
With the growing certainty of touch a stiffness of movement appears which gradually disturbs the listener who can appreciate freedom, whether in the classical forms which Wagner has now abolished, or in the majestic flow of Wagner's later style.
By the Peace of Apamea (188) the Seleucid navy was abolished; Antiochus undertook to keep no more than to ships of war.
Thus annates were abolished, the abuse of "reservation" of the patronage of benefices by the pope was much limited, and the right claimed by the pope of "next presentation" to benefices not yet vacant (known as gratiae expectativae) was done away with altogether.
Hadrian took from masters the power of life and death and abolished the subterranean prisons.
They protested against the multiplication of slaves from motives of vanity in the houses of the great, against the gladiatorial combats (ultimately abolished by the noble self-devotion of a monk) and against the consignment of slaves to the theatrical profession, which was often a school of corruption.
On the 2nd of April 1792 Wilberforce again moved that the trade ought to be abolished; an amendment in favour of gradual abolition was carried, and it was finally resolved that the trade should cease on the 1st of January 1796.
But Bonaparte abolished that trade during the Hundred Days, though he also failed to win back the people of San Domingo, or, as it was now called by its original name, Haiti, to obedience.
At the congress of Vienna (November 1814) the principle was acknowledged that the slave trade should be abolished as soon as possible; but the determination of the limit of time was reserved for separate negotiation between the powers.
Bonaparte, as we have seen, abolished the French slave trade during his brief restoration, and this abolition was confirmed at the second peace of Paris on the 10th of November, 1815, but it was not effectually carried out by French legislation until March 1818.
The Dutch trade was closed In 1814; the Swedish had been abolished in 1813.
It was abolished by a decree of the Mexican republic on 15th September 1829.
Washington in his will provided for the emancipation of his own his first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery in his country might be abolished by law," and again he wrote that to this subject his own suffrage should never be wanting.
It must not be forgotten that either before or soon after the formation of the Union the Northern States - beginning with Vermont in 1777, and ending with New Jersey in 1804 - either abolished slavery or adopted measures to effect its gradual abolition within their boundaries.
On 28th September 1871 the Brazilian chambers decreed that slavery should be abolished throughout the empire.
The plan was formed, and, in spite of some opposition from the nobles, which was suppressed, it became law, and serfdom was abolished (19th February 3rd March 1861).
Slavery itself has been abolished in the Zanzibar, British, German and Portuguese dominions, and had ceased in Madagascar even before its conquest by the French.
In his opinion - which is, in form at least, perfectly orthodox - the church of Peter will be, not abolished, but purified; actually, the hierarchy effaces itself in the third age before the order of the monks, the viri spirituales.
The constitution of 1845 made the popular suffrage final in the choice of the governor, abolished property qualifications, and began to pare executive powers for the benefit of the General Assembly or the people.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
The power of the Bosnian nobles, though shaken by their defeat, remained unbroken; and they resisted vigorously when their kapetanates were abolished in 1837; and again when a measure of equality before the law was conceded to the Christians in 1839.
All Turkish subjects, of whatever race or religion, have equal juridical and political rights and obligations, and all discrimination as to military service has been abolished.
Officials, he says, with grand titles and no responsible duties have been abolished, and departments with responsible chiefs created.
The ancient guediks have not been abolished, the government not daring to deprive them of their privileges; but since the Tanzimat no new ones have been created, industry being declared free.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
The remnants of the abolished new troops were collected and formed into regiments affiliated to the Janissaries under the name of seymen-i-jedid; the dignitaries of state were called upon to take an oath of fidelity and loyalty.
The Reformation abolished the pastoral staff almost everywhere.'
The next day royalty was abolished, and on the 22nd it was decided that all documents should be henceforth dated from the year I.
On the 21st of September 1792 the Convention declared royalty abolished, and in January it tried the king for his treason against the nation, and condemned him to death.
The old law, however, never abolished this institution.
In the Upper House he was the spokesman of the gentry against the magnates, whose inordinate privileges he would have curtailed or abolished.
With the passing of the Act of Union of Wales and England in 1536 however, the jura regalia of the county palatine of Pembroke were abolished, and the prosperity of the town began to decline.
The equites then voted with the first class, the distinction between the sex suffrakia and the other centuries being abolished.
The equites equo privato were abolished (according to Herzog, not till the reign of Tiberius) and the term equites was officially limited to the equites equo publico, although all who possessed the property qualification were still considered to belong to the "equestrian order."
The body-guard of Augustus, consisting of foreign soldiers (chiefly Germans and Batavians), abolished by Galba, was revived from the time of Trajan or Hadrian under the above title.
The organization of the Protestant Church was formerly connected with the corporation of the nobles of Livonia and Courland, but the rights of presentation pertaining to the manorial estates of the knights and to the Government estates have been abolished by the introduction of a democratic free church.
This 25 kilometre neutral zone was abolished in 1905 when France surrendered Chantabun to the Siamese, who in their turn ceded the port of Krat and the provinces of Melupre and Bassac, together with various trading concessions to France on the right bank of the Mekong.
Slavery was not abolished until the 13th of May 1888, but a number of successful colonies had already been founded in these states.
The Brazilian Company founded by Vieyra, which so materially contributed to preserve its South American possessions to Portugal, had been abolished in 1721 by John V.; but such an instrument being well suited to the bold spirit of Pombal, he established a chartered company again in 1755, to trade exclusively with Maranhao and Para; and in 1759, in spite of the remonstrance of the British Factory at Lisbon, formed another company for Parahyba and Pernambuco.
Thenceforward affairs went on prosperously; the mining districts continued to be enlarged; the trading companies of the littoral provinces were abolished, but the impulse they had given to agriculture remained.
During the session of 1830 the chambers adopted a criminal code in which punishment by death for political offences was abolished.
He imagines certain combinations by which this triple tyranny can be abolished, but his solution seems to require the creation of families without heads, countries without governments and property without rights of possession.
The monte del popolo seized the lion's share of the government; the riformatori were recalled, the aggregati abolished and the noveschi condemned to perpetual banishment from the government and the city.
The government was now reconstituted under the protection of the French agents; the balia was abolished, its very name having been rendered odious by the tyranny of Spain, and was replaced by a similar magistracy styled capitani del popolo e reggimento.
It controlled the operations for improving the sea entrance until 1893, when on the establishment of responsible government it was abolished.
Mr Moor remained premier until the office was abolished by the establishment of the Union of South Africa.
It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.
In 1860 full religious liberty was guaranteed, and the identification of church and state abolished.
In 1869 he was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the conditions of industry.
Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened the bank crisis of 1893.
These scales were not, as is vulgarly supposed, wholly abolished in favour of our modern tonality in the 17th century.
For a considerable time Barasat town was the headquarters of a joint magistracy, known as the "Barasat District," but in 1861, on a readjustment of boundaries Barasat district was abolished by order of government, and was converted into a subdivision of the Twenty-four Parganas.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
He now became president of the Education Committee and promptly abolished the system which had had Robespierre's support.
Under this division some of the recognized administrative units were greatly altered in area or even abolished, and the capital status of several cities was apparently affected.
With their approval a bishop was again consecrated, after six years' interval (1881-1887), for the Anglican congregations in Jerusalem and the East; and the features which had made the plan objectionable to many English churchmen were now abolished.
Its use, however, has never been abolished by law.
The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
The old-established collection of second-hand book-shops in Holywell Street was only abolished by the widening of the Strand, and a large proportion then removed to Charing Cross Road.
But in 1888 the Local Government Act, dealing with the area of the metropolis as a separate county, created the London County Council as the central administrative body, possessing not only the powers of an ordinary county council, but also extensive powers of town management, transferred to it from the abolished Board of Works.
For judicial purposes Westminster was merged with the county of London in 1889, and the Liberty of the Tower was abolished in 1894.
The common hunt, an office abolished in 1807, was filled by John Courtenay in 1417.
Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
It was abolished in 1871.
The system of the catasto, which led to abuses, was abolished, and a progressive income-tax (decima scalata) was introduced with the object of lightening the burdens of the poor, who were as a rule Medicean, at the expense of the rich; but as it was frequently increased the whole community came to be oppressed by it in the end.
The system of forced loans was abolished and a 1 o% tax on real property introduced in its stead, and a law of amnesty for political offenders enacted.
The parlamenti were abolished and a monte di pieta to advance money at reasonable interest was created.
The weakness of the government becoming every day more apparent, several constitutional changes were made, and many old institutions, such as that of the podesta and capitano del popolo, were abolished; finally in 1502, in order Piero Capponi.
Lorenzo, entered Florence with the Spanish troops; a parlamento was summoned, and a packed balia formed which abolished the Greater Council and created a constitution similar to that of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
But Florence was torn by factions - the Ottimati the signory was abolished, Alessandro created gonfaloniere for life, and his lordship made hereditary in his family by imperial patent.
Among his first acts were the deposition of Cyrus, the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in favour of John, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the sixth general council.
The privileges of the old fraternities were not formally abolished until 1835; and the substantial remains or spectral forms of some are still visible in other towns besides London.
After the Restoration, to appease the planters, doubtful as to the title under which they held the estates which they had converted into valuable properties, the proprietary or patent interest was abolished, and the crown took over the government of the island; a duty of 41% on all exports being imposed to satisfy the claims of the patentees.
In their new environment the Nestorians abandoned some of the rigour of Catholic asceticism, and at a synod held in 499 abolished clerical celibacy even for bishops and went so far as to permit repeated marriages, in striking contrast not only to orthodox custom but to the practice of Aphraates at Edessa who had advocated celibacy as a condition of baptism.
In 1694 he was elected a master in the university of Glasgow - an office that was converted into the professorship of moral philosophy in 1727, when the system of masters was abolished at Glasgow.
All the heavy labour in the coast provinces was performed by them down to 1855, when African slavery was abolished.
S' 3' S' p called voluntary loans was abolished, and replaced by a tax of ro% (la decima) on all real property.
The public school system of Rhode Island was established in 1800, abolished in 1803, and re-established in 1828.
In 1842 he had a principal hand in the preparation of the revised tariff, by which duties were abolished or sensibly diminished in the case of 1200 duty-paying articles.
In the following session Religious Tests in the universities were abolished, and a bill to establish secret voting was carried through the House of Commons.
The Shosagoto has not been abolished, nor is there any reason why it should be.
About the year 1500, the liberties of the town, long defended against the encroachments of the popes, were entirely abolished.
The old division of duties by which the southern secretary had the correspondence with the colonies and the western powers of Europe, and the northern secretary with the others, had been abolished on the formation of the Rockingham cabinet.
The writ was abolished by 29 Car.II.
At the restoration in 1868 the shogunate was abolished, and the population of Yedo speedily decreased.
His father had attempted a coup d'etat, which had failed, with the result that on his death the office of stadtholder was abolished.
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction is exercised only over the clergy, and all rights of asylum are abolished.
As a result of the Polish rebellion of 1830, in which the peasantry, whether Lithuanian, Polish or White Russian, did not take so great a part as the upper classes, the university of Vilna was abolished in 1832, its faculties being transferred in bulk to Kiev and in part to Kharkov and St.
Muraviov, which measure was only abolished in 1904.
The residency shares with that of Ternate the administration of the Moluccas, the previous government of which was abolished in 1867.
He is entitled to consecrate all the bishops within his province and was formerly entitled, upon consecrating a bishop, to select a benefice within his diocese at his option for one of his chaplains, but this practice was indirectly abolished by 3 and 4 Vict.
He is entitled to nominate eight chaplains, who had formerly certain statutory privileges, which are now abolished.
The tax was abolished in 1267 by the Hanseatic League, but it was revived by the Swedes in 1688, and confirmed by Hanover.
The French plundered the churches, abolished monks, nuns and nobles, and set up forthwith the ways and doings of the French Revolution.
The basis of taxation was widened, sinecures abolished, schools opened in the country districts, legal procedure simplified, and Police established on an English footing.
This constitution (abolished in 1903) ended a period of government by presidential casting votes and official ascendancy.
It centralizes power in a council of five (mayor and four councilmen), nominated at a non-partisan primary and voted for on a non-partisan ticket by the electors of the entire city, ward divisions having been abolished.
The office was abolished in 1792.
In 1610 he presided as moderator over the assembly in which presbytery was abolished, in 1615 he was made archbishop of St Andrews and primate of Scotland, and in 1618 procured the sanction of the privy council to the Five Articles of Perth with their ratification by parliament.
Though, for some unexplained reason, he abolished the mimes, so beloved of the populace, at the outset of his reign, he availed himself of the occasion of his first triumph to restore them again.
In 1589 he became duke of Brunswick, and two years later he abolished the Catholic rites in Halberstadt.
Its character is distinctly democratic. The property qualification of state senators and the restriction of suffrage to those who have paid county or poll taxes are abolished; but suffrage is limited to male adults who can read the state constitution in English, and can write their names, unless physically disqualified, and who have registered.
In 1905, by a law approved on the 10th of March, it was finally abolished.
In 1888, however, the state superintendency was abolished, and county superintendencies were created instead, the legislature thus returning, in a measure, to the old system of local control.
In secular affairs Charles abolished the office of duke, placed counts over districts smaller than the former duchies, and supervised their government by means of missi dominici, officials responsible to himself alone.
The convict lease system in its most objectionable form was abolished in 1883, and convicts are now employed on state account or by private contract.
Fayetteville was incorporated as a town in 1841, and in 1859 received a city charter, which was abolished by act of the Legislature in 1867; under a general law of 1869 the town was re-incorporated; and in 1906 it became a city of the first class.
The slave trade has been abolished, and though domestic slavery is allowed, all children of slaves born after the 31st of December 1905 are free.
Peace seemed assured in Uganda; territorial limits to religious teaching were abolished, English Roman Catholic priests were added to the French Fathers, and the material progress of the country was very marked.
This monopoly had been abolished in 1787, and the trade had been declared free to all Danish subjects, but practically the old arrangement was continued under disguised forms. Jon Sigurbsson began a hard struggle against the Danish government to obtain a reform.
Two years later political reverses forced the pope to sanction the existence of the council, which not only concluded a treaty with the Bohemian heretics but abolished the papal fees for appointments, confirmation and consecration - above all, the annates - and greatly reduced papal reservations; it issued indulgences, imposed tenths, and established rules for the government of the papal states.
Next year the Mass, processions and the images of saints were abolished.
Property qualifications for the suffrage and for office-holding - universal through colonial times - were abolished in the main in 1780.
The property qualification of the governor was not abolished until 1892.
The same year he was elected sheriff of New York county, then a lucrative post because of the system of fees (later abolished), and in 1917 president of the Board of Aldermen of New York City.
New Granada (which included the present republics of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) was created a viceroyalty in 1718 (soon abolished, but re-created in 1740).
Queen Elizabeth abolished the office of constable.
The university, founded in 1549, was abolished in 1804, being converted into a lyceum.
When the colleges of freedmen and slaves, who assisted the presidents of the festival, were abolished by Julius Caesar, it fell into disuse.
Shortly afterwards the images were removed from the churches, and many ceremonies and festivals were abolished.
The corporation was abolished in 1886.
Seigniorage was abolished for both gold and silver in 1666, when it was provided that no charge should be made at the Mint for coining and assaying.
This classification of the members into those who were in full communion and those who belonged only to the " Half Way Covenant " was vigorously attacked by Jonathan Edwards, but it was not abolished until the early years of the 19th century.
Serfdom was abolished in 1819, but the peasants remained under the jurisdiction of their landlords.
But under the second constitution the most that was required of any white voter was the payment to the state er county of taxes on either personal or real property, and by an amendment of 1826 this requirement was abolished.
But the constitution of 1821 abolished the council of appointment and gave the choice of the principal state departmental officers to the legislature, and the constitution of 1846 transferred the choice of these officers from the legislature to the people, where it has since remained.
In 1851 a compromise measure was substituted, increasing the state appropriation to $800,000 and exempting indigent parents from the " rate bill," which was finally abolished in 1867.
Two years later, by a revision of the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, the prohibition on manufactures was abolished, the privileges of the original charter with respect to patroons were extended to " all good inhabitants of the Netherlands," and the estate of a patroon was limited to 4 m.
In 1876 the provincial system was abolished.
Religious equality was extended to the Reformed Church in 1818, and the separate diet of Upper Lusatia was abolished.
The feudal character of the first chamber was abolished, and its members made mainly elective from among the highest tax-payers, while an almost universal suffrage was introduced for the second chamber.
The king retorted by dissolving the diet and summoning the old estates abolished in 1848.
In Luxemburg, compulsory arbitration in matters affecting commercial partnerships was abolished in 1879 (law of the 16th of April 1879).
This joint commission of trade and plantations was abolished in 1675, and it was not until twenty years later that it was revived under William III.
In spite of the reform of the civil law in other respects (June 1 1911) these provisions remained in force until the republic. Owing to the opposition of the Christian Socialist party, they were even then not abolished; but they were relaxed by numerous dispensations in individual cases.
In 1906 the deaneries of East and West Dartford, North and South Mailing, Greenwich and Woolwich were abolished, and Shoreham and Tunbridge were transferred from Maidstone to Rochester archdeaconry.
They were again reduced to dependence on the Franks by Charles Martel, who abolished the office of duke and divided the country among Frankish counts.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
Feudalism was abolished; the Code Napoleon was introduced; the Jews were freed from repressive laws; and education received some impulse in its higher departments.
Slavery, once common, has been gradually abolished by a series of laws, the last of which came into force in 1905.
By a law passed in 1903, the ancient system of recruiting the army and navy from the descendants of former prisoners of war was abolished in favour of compulsory service by all able-bodied men.
On the 11th of February 1477 she was compelled to sign a charter of rights, known as "the Great Privilege," by which the provinces and towns of the Netherlands recovered all the local and communal rights which had been abolished by the arbitrary decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create in the Low Countries a centralized state.
One day's gratuitous labour out of seven or more can be demanded of labourers either on private or on government estates; but in 1882 this form of labour was for the most part abolished as far as government estates were concerned, each labourer so exempted paying one guilder per year.
In 1798 it was abolished and its authority vested in a "Council of the Asiatic Possessions."
They reformed the judicature, introduced elementary education for the natives, and abolished slavery in Java as from the 1st of January 1860.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
The custom of suttee, or widow-burning, has long been abolished in the state, but the people retain all their superstitions regarding witches and sorcery; and as late as 1870, a Bhil woman, about eighty years old, was swung to death at Kushalgarh on an accusation of witchcraft.
In 1901, to aid in meeting the expenses of the South African war, a moderate revenue duty was again imposed on sugar; and in 1902 the shilling duty on corn and flour (abolished in 1869) was restored, but again taken off in 1903.
The main features of the tariff history of the United States since the Civil War have been that the internal taxes have been almost entirely swept away, the import duties on purely revenue articles similarly abolished, while those import duties that operated to protect domestic industries have been maintained, and indeed in many cases increased.
The duty on wool, typical among the duties on raw materials, was completely abolished, and with this change came a great reduction in the duties upon woollen goods.
At the same time the differential duty on refined sugar, which operated as protection to the sugar trust, was not abolished, as the ardent tariff reformers had proposed, but kept in substance not greatly changed.
The decemvirate, one of the triumphs of the plebs, could hardly have been abolished by that body, but would naturally have been overthrown by the patricians.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
The liberum veto and all the intricate and obstructive machinery of the anomalous old system were for ever abolished.
Castlereagh's great efforts were rewarded by a declaration that the slave trade was to be abolished, though each power was left free to fix such a date as was most convenient to itself.
The Magdeburg rights, which the city enjoyed from 1516, were abolished in 1835, and the ordinary form of town government introduced; and in 1840 it was made subject to the common civil law of the empire.
In 1562 the Council of Trent abolished the office of " pardoner."
Now that he saw an opportunity to become master he became reactionary and abolished the federal constitution.
In 1788 Pfaff became professor of mathematics in Helmstedt, and so continued until that university was abolished in 1810.
By decree of the 24th of November 1860, the ministry of Algeria and the colonies was abolished and the office of governor-general reestablished with increased powers.
In the eighteenth century besides the pleasure fair, still held in February, there was another in October, now abolished.
The wars which attended his accession both in Hungary and in Persia terminated unfavourably for Turkey, and her prestige received its first check in the peace of Sitvattirok, signed in 1606, whereby the annual tribute paid by Austria was abolished.
Women occupy a low position in the social scale, though slavery has been abolished at the instance of Russia.
Saxon moneyers pound, or Tower pound, 5400 grains, abolished in 1527.
Troy weight was abolished, from the 1st of January 1879, by the Weights and Measures Act 1878, with the exception only of the Troy ounce, its decimal parts and multiples, legalized in 1853, 16 Vict.
That very year, 1538, a commission of cardinals, including Reginald Pole, Contarini, Sadolet, Caraffa (afterwards Paul IV.), Fregoso and others, had reported that the conventual orders, which they had to deal with, had drifted into such a state that they should all be abolished.
Seeing then that the Catholic sovereigns had been forced to expel them, that many bishops and other eminent persons demanded their extinction, and that the Society had ceased to fulfil the intention of its institute, the pope declares it necessary for the peace of the Church that it should be suppressed, extinguished, abolished and abrogated for ever, with all its houses, colleges, schools and hospitals; transfers all the authority of its general or officers to the local ordinaries; forbids the reception of any more novices, directing that such as were actually in probation should be dismissed, and declaring that profession in the Society should not serve as a title to holy orders.
Under the constitution of 1824 all race distinctions are abolished, and these diverse ethnic elements are nominally free and equal.
It was, however, a consequence of his work that in q 1786 the provinces and kingdoms were replaced by twelve intendencias (Guadalajara, Zacatecas, Durango, Sonora, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Merida, Oaxaca, Valladolid, Guanajato, San Luis Potosi, Mexico), whose governors and minor officials were directly dependent on the viceroy, the former alcaldes, mayores and corregidores, who were very corrupt, being abolished.
In 1895 the 6% external debt was converted into a 5% debt, the bonds of which remained at a premium for 1902; in 1896 the alcabalas or interstate customs and municipal octrois were abolished, and replaced in part by direct taxation and increased stamp duties.
Heretofore the Federalist regime had taxed the people to support the Congregational Church, but now the Baptists, Methodists and Universalists joined the Democrats, and in 1819 this state support was abolished by the " Toleration Act."
By an act passed in 1873, known as Fawcett's Act, all tests were abolished, and the prizes and honours of all grades hitherto reserved for Protestants of the Established Church were thrown open to all.
In 75 he was consul, and excited the hostility of the optimates by carrying a law that abolished the Sullan disqualification of the tribunes from holding higher magistracies; another law de judiciis privatis, of which nothing is known, was abrogated by his brother.
A statue was erected in 1875 to the sixth earl of Mayo,, who represented the borough (abolished in 1885) from 1857 to 1868.
The corporation in the 18th century consisted of a portreeve and eleven burgesses, and was abolished when the town was reincorporated in 1853.
After the downfall of Oldenbarneveldt the office of lands'- advocate was abolished, and a new post, tenable for five years only, was erected in its place with the title of Raad-Pensionaris, or Pensionary of the Council, usually called by English writers.
The office was abolished after the conquest of Holland by the French in 1795.
In England, during the religious changes of the 16th century, such of these customs as had already taken root were abolished; and with them the practice of reserving the Eucharist in the churches appears to have died out too.
Its domestic government has gradually, though not very quickly, improved since that time - the oppressive game-laws in particular having been abolished.
In 1789 property qualifications were general, but now in all the northern and western states these have been long since abolished, and the electoral suffrage is practically manhood suffrage.
Lettres de cachet were abolished by the Constituent Assembly, but Napoleon reestablished their equivalent by a political measure in the decree of the 9th of March 1801 on the state prisons.
In 1898 the state ordered the sale of the salt lands, because the revenues were less than the expense of keeping up the works; but state ownership was maintained until 1908, when the last of the lands were sold and the office of superintendent of salt lands, created in 1797, was abolished.
In 1871, the New Brunswick legislature abolished the separate school system, and a contest arose which was finally settled by the authority of the legislature being sustained, though certain concessions were made to the Roman Catholic dissentients.
Subsequently a similar difficulty arose in Manitoba, where the legislature in 1890 abolished the system of separate schools which had been established in 1871.
Five years later, with unrestricted reciprocity relegated to the background, and with a platform which demanded tariff revision so adjusted as not to endanger established interests, and which opposed the federal measure designed to restore in Manitoba the separate or Roman Catholic schools which the provincial government had abolished, Laurier carried the country, and in July 1896 he was called by Lord Aberdeen, then governor-general, to form a government.
The see remained vacant from 1580 to 1606, and from 1638 till the Restoration, and, after the accession of William II., the episcopacy was finally abolished (1697), although many of the clergy refused to conform.
In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
The constitution of 1875 abolished the one-fifth revenue provision, made the support of the schools, except that derived from the land grant of 1819, and poll taxes, depend upon the appropriation of the legislature, and established separate schools for whites and blacks.
According to the presidential plan of reorganization, a provisional governor for Alabama was appointed in June 1865; a state convention met in September of the same year, and declared the ordinance of secession null and void and slavery abolished; a legislature and a governor were elected in November, the legislature was at once recognized by the National government, and the inauguration of the governor-elect was permitted after the legislature had, in December, ratified the thirteenth amendment.
Merlin's code abolished confiscation, branding and imprisonment for life, and was based chiefly on the penal code drawn up in September 1791.
Recovering the crown lands, he abolished the principle of ministerial responsibility, the legislative power of the two chambers, and other reforms, virtually restoring affairs to their condition before 1833.
In 1581 episcopacy was abolished as a result of the report of a commission on which Craig had sat; he also assisted at the composition of the Second Book of Discipline and the National Covenant of 1580, and in 1581 compiled "Ane Shorte and Generale Confession" called the "King's Confession," which was imposed on all parish ministers and graduates and became the basis of the Covenant of 1638.
Both the Board of Trade and Plantations and the additional secretary were abolished in 1782, and the executive business wholly given over to the home office.
He was a member of the state legislature from 1782 to 1798, and in 1791 drafted the act which abolished primogeniture in South Carolina.
The first three of these services were abolished in 1859 by royal warrant - that is to say by the exercise of the same authority which had instituted them.
But the influence of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord is very marked and characteristic. The reflex functions of the cord are entirely abolished, and it has been experimentally shown that this is due to a direct influence upon the cells in the anterior cornua.
The system of contract labour, which was abolished by the act of Congress in 1900, and under which labourers had been restrained from leaving their work before the end of the contract term, concerned few labourers except the Japanese.
Reason, according to Wundt, is like pure reason according to Kant; except that Wundt, receiving Kantism through NeoKantism, thinks that reason arrives at " ideals " not a priori, but by the logical process of ground and consequent, and, having abolished the thing in itself, will not follow Kant in his inconsequent passage from pure to practical reason in order to postulate a reality corresponding to " ideals " beyond experience.
These "Torgau Articles" (March 1530) tell merely why Saxony had abolished certain ecclesiastical abuses.
Compulsory military service was abolished in 1868, the army having till then been 91 strong.
This pamphlet excited considerable controversy, and is supposed to have influenced Pitt in re-establishing the sinking fund for the extinction of the national debt, which had been created by Walpole in 1716 and abolished in 1733.
He also received the right to appoint bishops, who - except in Rome and the suburbicarian districts - were to be Italian subjects; and, with a significant exception, the exequatur, placet regium, and every form of government permission for the publication and execution of acts of ecclesiastical authority were abolished.
He abolished all privileges which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was withdrawn altogether.
The annexation by Frederick was followed by a complete reorganization ' in which the obsolete powers of the local dynasts were abolished and Silesia became a mere province of the highly centralized Prussian state.
Taxes on real estate have been abolished and those on personal property are being reduced, although the heavy expenditures on the new capitol at Harrisburg checked the movement temporarily.
Sir William Keith, her deputy, was hostile to the council, which he practically abolished, and was popular with the assembly, which he assiduously courted, but was discharged by Mrs Penn after he had quarrelled with James Logan, secretary of the province.
It continued the unicameral legislative system, abolished the office of governor, and provided for an executive council of twelve members.
Under the constitution of 1790 the office of governor was restored, the executive council and the council of censors were abolished, and the bicameral legislative system was adopted.
At the Reformation the celebration of All Souls' Day was abolished in the Church of England, though it has been renewed in certain churches in connexion with the "Catholic revival."
In 1822 the old fairs were abolished in favour of six fairs on the second Wednesdays in May, July, September, October, November and December.
In March 1852 the federal diet abolished the constitution of 1831, together with the reforms of 1848, and in April issued a new provisional constitution.
Barcelona was formerly surrounded by a strong line of ramparts, and defended, or more correctly, overawed by a citadel on the north-east, erected in 1715 by Philip V.; but these fortifications being felt as a painful restriction on the natural development of the city, were, in spite of the opposition of the central government, finally abolished by the local authorities in 1845.
It was abolished by Napoleon in 1811 and was restored in 1815.
Mexico has abolished its former orders, the Mexican Eagle, 1865, and Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1853; as has Brazil those of the Southern Cross, 1822, Dom Pedro I., 1826, the Rose, 1829, and the Brazilian branches of the Portuguese orders of Christ, St Benedict of Aviz and St James.
The republican Order of Columbus, founded in 1890, was abolished in 1891.
On the fall of the latter in 1529, he was made chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and the same year speaker of the House of Commons, presiding over the famous assembly styled the Black or Long Parliament of the Reformation, which abolished the papal jurisdiction.
By 1815 idolatry was abolished in the larger islands of the group and there ensued the task of building up a Christian community.
In May 1894 King Alexander, by another coup d'etat, abolished the liberal constitution of 1889 and restored the conservative one of 1869.
The government monopoly which had long existed was abolished in 1867 and free trade was established in salt between the members of the customs-union.
A great stimulus was given to manufacturing industry in Bavaria by the law of 1868, which abolished the last remains of the old restrictions of the gilds, and gave the whole country the liberty which had been enjoyed by the Rhine Palatinate alone.
The Bavarians offered no resistance to the change which thus abolished their dukedom; and their incorporation with the Frankish dominions, due mainly to the unifying influence of the church, was already so complete that Charlemagne did not find it necessary to issue more than two capitularies dealing especially with Bavarian affairs.
It was abolished at the Revolution, reintroduced during the Restoration, and formall y abolished by a state decree of 1830.
The system of compulsory cultivation of coffee was abolished in Sumatra in 1908.
The stadholderate, the offices of captain and admiral-general, and all the ancient organization of the United Netherlands were abolished, and were transformed into the Batavian Republic, in close alliance with France.
The blessing of the palms and the procession were, however, abolished at the Reformation, and the name "Palm Sunday," though it survives in popular usage, is not mentioned in the Book of Common Prayer.
This was prescribed by the Church order (Kirchenordnung) of 1540, but without the ceremony of blessing the palms; it was abolished by the revised Church order of 1572.
In 1860 the communal octrois or duties on articles of food brought into the towns was abolished; in 1863 the navigation of the Scheldt was made free, and a treaty of commerce established with England.
Under this law in all districts under clerical control the unsectarian schools were abolished.
Serfdom was abolished in 1807; but the liberated peasants received no allotments of land, and the old patrimonial jurisdictions were retained.
The elective municipal councils, which enjoyed de jure very large rights, including that of maintaining their own police, although in reality they were under the rule of the nobility, were practically abolished, and Russian officials were nominated in their place and entrusted with all their rights.
One diocese (Podlasie) was abolished, and a new one established at Kielce, while several bishops were sent out of the country.
These were intended as a substitute for the paid canvassers, about to be abolished by Mr Gladstone's Reform Bill.
Manila is important chiefly for its commerce, and to make it the chief distributing point for American goods consigned to Eastern markets the American government undertook the harbour improvements, and abolished the tonnage dues levied under Spanish rule.
During the next forty years of his life he enjoyed great influence in Geneva as the advocate of a more liberal theology than had prevailed under the preceding generation, and it was largely through his instrumentality that the rule obliging ministers to subscribe to the Formula Consensus Helvetica was abolished in 1706, and the Consensus itself renounced in 1725.
But progress was slow, and was accompanied by measures which abolished the states general, the last survival of feudal liberties.
In 1834 the monopoly of the East India Company was abolished and an era of rapid progress in the new industry began.
Export duties were abolished in 1865 and transit dues in 1861.
Turnpikes were abolished in Prussia in 1874 and in Saxony in 1885.
Pippin and his son Charles Martel, who was mayor of the palace from 717 to 741, renewed the struggle with the Germans and were soon successful in re-establishing the central power which the Merovingian kings had allowed to slip from their grasp. The ducal office was abolished in Thuringia, a series of wars reduced the Alamanni to strict dependence, and both countries were governed by Frankish officials.
The matter came before the diet, which was opened at Augsburg in July 1582, but the case was left undecided; afterwards, however, the Reichshofrat declared against the insurgents, although it was not until 1598 that Protestant worship was abolished and the Roman Catholic governing body was restored.
She abolished serfdom, granted municipal rights to the cities, established an admirable system of elementary and secondary education, and invited all classes to compete for civil offices; and ample means were provided for the approaching struggle by drastic military reform.
The Liberal ministries of 1848 were dismissed, the constitutions were changed or abolished, and new chambers were elected under a severely restricted suffrage.
It also abolished the ecclesiastical court, which, in fact, had proved to be almost unworkable, for no priests would appeal to it.
The Eastern empire was abolished, and a feudal Latin empire erected in its stead.