On the 23rd of January 1743, direct negotiations between the two powers were opened at Abo, and on the 7th of August 1743 Sweden ceded to Russia all the southern part of Finland east of the river Kymmene, which thus became the boundary between the two states, including the fortresses of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn.
Abo remains the ecclesiastical capital of Finland, is the seat of the Lutheran archbishop and contains a fine cathedral dating from 1258 and restored after the fire of 1827.
For w = i the form is A i ai+Bib i, which we may write aob l -albo = ao(I) b -(I)abo; the remaining perpetuants, enumerated by z I - 2' have been set forth above.
At the peace congress of Abo (January - August 1743) he insisted that the whole of Finland should be ceded to Russia, by way of completing the testament of Peter the Great.
Gezelius, bishop of Abo, obtained an order from the Swedish government for the appropriation of certain corn-tithes, still known as Bibel Tryck-Tunnan.
After completing his studies at Abo, he entered the army and served for several years in the Netherlands, in Hungary under Prince Eugene, and in Flanders under Waldeck (1690-1695).
Chief among the tribes are the Dualla, the Ba-kwiri, the Ba-Long, the Ba-Farami, the Wuri, the Abo and the BaKundu.
The group, which forms part of the Finnish province of Abo-Bjdrneborg, consists of nearly three hundred islands, of which about eighty are inhabited, the remainder being desolate rocks.
The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (Ian) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo, capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545).
The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather, &c. The chief ports are Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg, Hanger and Vasa.
For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents.
(1692-1696) the country suffered terribly from famine and pestilence; in the diocese of Abo alone 60,000 persons died in less than nine months.
In 1741 the Swedes made an effort to recover the ceded province, but through wretched management suffered disaster, and were compelled to capitulate in August 1742, ceding by the peace of Abo, next year, the towns of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn.
The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827.
The earliest writer in the Finnish vernacular was Michael Agricola (1506-1557), who published an A B C Book in 1544, and, as bishop of Abo, a number of religious and educational works.
By the peace of Abo (May 7, 1 743) the terms of the empress were accepted; and only that small part of Finland which lay beyond the Kymmene was retained by Russia.
Peace of Abo, 1743.
These two treaties were, in effect, the corner-stones of a fresh coalition against Napoleon, and were confirmed on the outbreak of the FrancoRussian War by a conference between Alexander and Charles John at Abo on the 30th of August 1812, when the tsar undertook to place an army corps of 35,000 men at the disposal of the Swedish crown prince for the conquest of Norway.
The treaty of Abo, and indeed the whole of Charles John's foreign policy in 1812, provoked violent and justifiable criticism among the better class of politicians in Sweden.
ABO-BJORNEBORG, a province occupying the S.W.
The province occupies a prominent position in Finland for its manufacture of cottons, sugar refinery, wooden goods, metals, machinery, paper, &c. Its chief towns are: Abo (pop. 42,639), BjOrneborg (16,053), Raumo (5501), Nystad (4165), Mariehamn (r171), Nadendal (917).
When the Estates of Finland seceded from Sweden and accepted the Emperor Alexander of Russia as their grand duke at the Diet of Borg, in 1809, Abo became the capital of the new state, and so remained till 1819 when the seat of government was transferred to Helsingfors.
Abo is the seat of the first of the three courts of appeal of Finland.
BJORNEBORG (Finnish, Pori), a district town of Finland, province of Abo-Bjorneborg, on the E.