Abies Sentence Examples
Conifers are rare, and the Scotch pine, which is abundant on the sandy plains, takes the place of the Abies.
In the genus Abies, the silver firs, the cones are erect, and their scales drop off when the seed ripens; the leaves spread in distinct rows on each side of the shoot.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
This tree appears to have been the true "Abies" of the Latin writers - the "pulcherrima abies" of Virgil.
The silver fir (Abies sibirica, Pinus pectinata) and the stone-pine (P. Cembra) are quite common; they reach the higher summits, where the last-named is represented by a recumbent species (Cembra pumila).Advertisement
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
Cerris and the hop-hornbeam (Ostrya); of the second class the rare Cilician silver fir (Abies cilicica) may be noticed.
A magnificent conifer, the A tlantic pinsapo (Abies Pinsapo), is found on the heights round Bougie.
The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.
The trees most commonly found are the plane, poplar, maple, walnut, oak, the Cupressus funebris, and various varieties of the genera Pinus, Abies and Larix.Advertisement
The Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalensis) and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian rampant cedar (Cembra pumila) and the Kurilian bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense).
The white fir, or Norway spruce (Abies excelsa), is exported fro Russia, Sweden and Norway, where it grows in enormous quantit It is the tallest and straightest of European firs, growing with a slender trunk to a height of from 80 to 100 ft.
On the alpine range itself and its immediate branches, at a height of 6000 to 10,000 ft., we have abundant growth of large forest trees, among which conifers are the most noble and prominent, such as Cedrus Deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinuslongifolia, P. Pinaster,P. Pinea (the edible pine) and the larch.
Abies smithiana extends into Afghanistan; Abies webbiana forms dense forests at altitudes of 8000 to 12,000 ft., and ranges from Bhutan to Kashmir; several junipers and the common yew (Taxus baccata) also occur.
Among the indigenous trees are the Abies excelsa, Abies microsperma, Pinus sinensis, Pinus pinea, three species of oak, five of maple, lime, birch, juniper, mountain ash, walnut, Spanish chestnut, hazel, willow, hornbeam, hawthorn, plum, pear, peach, Rhus vernicifera, (?) Rhus semipinnata, Acanthopanax ricinifolia, Zelkawa, Thuja orientalis, Elaeagnus, Sophora Japonica, &c. Azaleas and rhododendrons are widely distributed, as well as other flowering shrubs and creepers, Ampelopsis Veitchii being universal.Advertisement
The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pinus abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland.
Of the Coniferae, Podocarpus and Pinus longifolia alone descend to the tropical zone; Abies Brunoniana and Smithiana and the larch (a genus not seen in the western mountains) are found at 8000, and the yew and Picea Webbiana at 10,000 ft.
In the less exposed localities, on northern slopes and sheltered valleys, the European forms become more numerous, and we find species of alder, birch, ash, elm, maple, holly, hornbeam, Pyrus, &c. At greater elevations in the interior, besides the above are met Corylus, the common walnut, found wild throughout the range, horse chestnut, yew, also Picea Webbiana, Pinus, excelsa, Abies Smithiana, Cedrus Deodara (which tree does not grow spontaneously east of Kumaon), and several junipers.
Tree vegetation, which reaches up as high as 6500 and 8150 ft., the latter limit on the north and west, consists of magnificent forests of birch, poplar, aspen, and Coniferae, such as Pinus cembra, Abies sibirica, Larix sibirica, Picea obovata, and so on, though the fir is not found above 2500 ft., while the meadows are abundantly clothed with brightlycoloured, typical assortments of herbaceous plants.
In the wood of Cypressus, Cedrus, Abies and several other genera, parenchymatous cells occur in association with the xylem-tracheids and take the place of the resin-canals of other types.Advertisement
Abies, Tsuga, Larix, &c., the mesophyll is heterogeneous, consisting of palisade and spongy parenchyma.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.
Cedrus atlantica, a variety of Abies Pinsapo, Juniperus thurifera, Callitris quadrivalvis, occur in the north-west region, which may be regarded as the southern limit of the Mediterranean region.Advertisement
The black coral (Antipathes abies), formerly abundant in the Persian Gulf, and for which India is the chief market, has a wide distribution and grows to a considerable height and thickness in the tropical waters of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.
Less known turpentines are obtained from the mountain pine, P. Pumilio, the stone pine, P. Cembra, the Aleppo pine, P. halepensis, &c. The so-called Canada balsam, from Abies balsamea, is also a true turpentine.
Among other characteristic trees are the Spanish pine (Pinus hispanica), the Corsican pine (P. Li,r-icio), the Pinsapo fir (Abies Pinsapo), and the Quercus Tozza, the last belonging to the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.
The forests consist of several species of evergreen and deciduous oaks, " oyamel " (Abies religiosa), the arbutus or strawberry tree, the long-leaved Pinus liophylla and the short-leaved " ocote " or Pinus montezumae and the alder, with an undergrowth of elder (Sambucus mexicana), broom and shrubby heath.
Taking first this most northerly locality, in Grinnell Land, we find the flora to comprise 2 horsetails, i i Conifers (including the living Pinus Abies), 2 grasses, a sedge, 2 poplars, a willow, 2 birches, 2 hazels, an elm, a Viburnum, a water-lily, and a lime.
Alleghany Fir (Abies Fraseri) - Reaches 90 feet high in its own country, with smooth bark having resinous blisters.
Alpine Fir (Abies Lasiocarpa) - A beautiful spire-like tree 150 feet high, with white bark and very small cones, purple, 2 to 3 inches long, and red male flowers, the foliage gracefully curved.
Maries Silver Fir (Abies Mariesi) - A tall, pyramidal tree with spreading branches and dark purple cones, 4 to 5 inches long.
Spanish Silver Fir (Abies Pinsapo) - A large Fir, with bright green prickly foliage, thriving in almost any soil and in chalky districts.
Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea) - A slender northern forest Fir rarely attaining a height of more than 80 feet, and much smaller in high Arctic regions.
California White Fir (Abies Lowiana) - A lovely tree, often 150 feet high, long leaves, and light green cones, turning yellow at maturity.
Cephalonian Fir (Abies Cephalonica) - A vigorous Fir of about 60 feet high, hardy in this country in a variety of soils, best planted in a high position to prevent it starting into growth too early.
Puget Sound Fir (Abies Grandis) - A stately tree 200 feet high, with dark green cones 2 to 3 inches long, and dark shining leaves, white below.
Trees that were once included under this head are now placed under Abies and also Pinus, to which the reader should refer for trees he seeks which are not placed under this heading.
As regards grouping and other matters, what has been said of Pinus and Abies may be considered as applying to a great extent to these trees also.