Conifers are rare, and the Scotch pine, which is abundant on the sandy plains, takes the place of the Abies.
In the genus Abies, the silver firs, the cones are erect, and their scales drop off when the seed ripens; the leaves spread in distinct rows on each side of the shoot.
Silver Fir (Abies pectinate).
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
This tree appears to have been the true "Abies" of the Latin writers - the "pulcherrima abies" of Virgil.
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
The silver fir (Abies sibirica, Pinus pectinata) and the stone-pine (P. Cembra) are quite common; they reach the higher summits, where the last-named is represented by a recumbent species (Cembra pumila).
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
Cerris and the hop-hornbeam (Ostrya); of the second class the rare Cilician silver fir (Abies cilicica) may be noticed.
A magnificent conifer, the A tlantic pinsapo (Abies Pinsapo), is found on the heights round Bougie.
The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.
The trees most commonly found are the plane, poplar, maple, walnut, oak, the Cupressus funebris, and various varieties of the genera Pinus, Abies and Larix.
Abies - Silver Fir.
the Mexican " oyamel," or fir (Abies religiose) becomes the principal species, interspersed with evergreen oak, arbutus and elder.
The Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalensis) and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian rampant cedar (Cembra pumila) and the Kurilian bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense).
The white fir, or Norway spruce (Abies excelsa), is exported fro Russia, Sweden and Norway, where it grows in enormous quantit It is the tallest and straightest of European firs, growing with a slender trunk to a height of from 80 to 100 ft.
On the alpine range itself and its immediate branches, at a height of 6000 to 10,000 ft., we have abundant growth of large forest trees, among which conifers are the most noble and prominent, such as Cedrus Deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinuslongifolia, P. Pinaster,P. Pinea (the edible pine) and the larch.
Abies smithiana extends into Afghanistan; Abies webbiana forms dense forests at altitudes of 8000 to 12,000 ft., and ranges from Bhutan to Kashmir; several junipers and the common yew (Taxus baccata) also occur.
Among the indigenous trees are the Abies excelsa, Abies microsperma, Pinus sinensis, Pinus pinea, three species of oak, five of maple, lime, birch, juniper, mountain ash, walnut, Spanish chestnut, hazel, willow, hornbeam, hawthorn, plum, pear, peach, Rhus vernicifera, (?) Rhus semipinnata, Acanthopanax ricinifolia, Zelkawa, Thuja orientalis, Elaeagnus, Sophora Japonica, &c. Azaleas and rhododendrons are widely distributed, as well as other flowering shrubs and creepers, Ampelopsis Veitchii being universal.
The white silver fir (abies coucola) and the silver or red fir (ab.
The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pinus abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland.
Of the Coniferae, Podocarpus and Pinus longifolia alone descend to the tropical zone; Abies Brunoniana and Smithiana and the larch (a genus not seen in the western mountains) are found at 8000, and the yew and Picea Webbiana at 10,000 ft.
In the less exposed localities, on northern slopes and sheltered valleys, the European forms become more numerous, and we find species of alder, birch, ash, elm, maple, holly, hornbeam, Pyrus, &c. At greater elevations in the interior, besides the above are met Corylus, the common walnut, found wild throughout the range, horse chestnut, yew, also Picea Webbiana, Pinus, excelsa, Abies Smithiana, Cedrus Deodara (which tree does not grow spontaneously east of Kumaon), and several junipers.
Tree vegetation, which reaches up as high as 6500 and 8150 ft., the latter limit on the north and west, consists of magnificent forests of birch, poplar, aspen, and Coniferae, such as Pinus cembra, Abies sibirica, Larix sibirica, Picea obovata, and so on, though the fir is not found above 2500 ft., while the meadows are abundantly clothed with brightlycoloured, typical assortments of herbaceous plants.
The commonest firs are Abies nordmannia and A.
Abies), on each side of which is situated an inverted ovule, consisting of a nucellus surrounded by a single integument.
Abies pectinata, &c.) the ripe cone differs from those of Pinus, Picea and Cedrus in the large size of the carpellary scales, which project as conspicuous thin appendages beyond the distal margins of the broader and more woody seminiferous scales; the long carpellary scale is a prominent feature also in the cone of the Douglas pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii).
15, D) Sequoia, &c., there are always two sets of bundles; the upper set, having the phloem uppermost, as in the seminiferous scale of Abies or Pinus, are regarded as belonging to the outgrowth from the carpellary scale and specially developed to supply the ovules.
Pinus and Picea) - in which the cone-scales persist for some time after the seeds are ripe - the cones hang down and so facilitate the fall of the seeds; in Cedrus, Araucaria and Abies the scales become detached and fall with the seeds, leaving the bare vertical axis of the cone on the tree.
In the wood of Cypressus, Cedrus, Abies and several other genera, parenchymatous cells occur in association with the xylem-tracheids and take the place of the resin-canals of other types.
Abies, Tsuga, Larix, &c., the mesophyll is heterogeneous, consisting of palisade and spongy parenchyma.
Nageia) a canal occurs below each vein; in Tsuga, Torreya, Cephalotaxus, Sequoia, &c., a single canal occurs below the midrib; in Larix, Abies, &c., two canals run through the leaf parallel to the margins.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
gigantea (the only two surviving species of this generic type are now confined to a few localities in California, but were formerly widely spread in Europe and elsewhere), Pinus Coulteri, P. Lambertiana, &c. Farther south, a few representatives of such genera as Abies, Cupressus, Pinus and juniper are found in the Mexican Highlands, tropical America and the West Indies.
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.
Cedrus atlantica, a variety of Abies Pinsapo, Juniperus thurifera, Callitris quadrivalvis, occur in the north-west region, which may be regarded as the southern limit of the Mediterranean region.
There are small amounts of sugar pine, yellow pine, red fir and silver fir (Abies grandis and A.
The black coral (Antipathes abies), formerly abundant in the Persian Gulf, and for which India is the chief market, has a wide distribution and grows to a considerable height and thickness in the tropical waters of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.
Less known turpentines are obtained from the mountain pine, P. Pumilio, the stone pine, P. Cembra, the Aleppo pine, P. halepensis, &c. The so-called Canada balsam, from Abies balsamea, is also a true turpentine.
Among other characteristic trees are the Spanish pine (Pinus hispanica), the Corsican pine (P. Li,r-icio), the Pinsapo fir (Abies Pinsapo), and the Quercus Tozza, the last belonging to the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.
Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) Common frankincense or thus, Abietis resina, is the term applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot water and strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Pix abietina.
Of the Abies group, the silver fir (A.
The forests consist of several species of evergreen and deciduous oaks, " oyamel " (Abies religiosa), the arbutus or strawberry tree, the long-leaved Pinus liophylla and the short-leaved " ocote " or Pinus montezumae and the alder, with an undergrowth of elder (Sambucus mexicana), broom and shrubby heath.
In many species of Abies (e.g.
Taking first this most northerly locality, in Grinnell Land, we find the flora to comprise 2 horsetails, i i Conifers (including the living Pinus Abies), 2 grasses, a sedge, 2 poplars, a willow, 2 birches, 2 hazels, an elm, a Viburnum, a water-lily, and a lime.
Syns., Abies mertensiana and Albertiana.
Alleghany Fir (Abies Fraseri) - Reaches 90 feet high in its own country, with smooth bark having resinous blisters.
Alpine Fir (Abies Lasiocarpa) - A beautiful spire-like tree 150 feet high, with white bark and very small cones, purple, 2 to 3 inches long, and red male flowers, the foliage gracefully curved.
California Red Fir (Abies Magnifica) - A stately mountain tree of 200 to 250 feet, with brown bark (red within), and very large light purple cones, 6 to 8 inches long.
Columbia Fir (Abies Nobilis) - A mountain tree, 200 to 300 feet high, with deep glaucous foliage and brown cones 5 to 7 inches long.
Maries Silver Fir (Abies Mariesi) - A tall, pyramidal tree with spreading branches and dark purple cones, 4 to 5 inches long.
Mount Babor Fir (Abies Numidica) - A tree of medium height with bright green foliage.
Spanish Silver Fir (Abies Pinsapo) - A large Fir, with bright green prickly foliage, thriving in almost any soil and in chalky districts.
Saghalien Silver Fir (Abies Sachalinensis) - A tall tree with greyish-brown bark, narrow leaves, and small cones.
Veitchs Silver Fir (Abies Veitchi) - A tall tree of over 100 feet.
Webbs Fir (Abies Webbiana) - An Indian Fir, sometimes nearly 100 feet high, and one of the most distinct.
Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea) - A slender northern forest Fir rarely attaining a height of more than 80 feet, and much smaller in high Arctic regions.
California White Fir (Abies Lowiana) - A lovely tree, often 150 feet high, long leaves, and light green cones, turning yellow at maturity.
Cephalonian Fir (Abies Cephalonica) - A vigorous Fir of about 60 feet high, hardy in this country in a variety of soils, best planted in a high position to prevent it starting into growth too early.
Crimean Fir (Abies Nordmanniana) - A beautiful dark green tree, with rigid branches and dense dark green foliage and large cones.
Hoary White Fir (Abies Concolor) - A whitish tree of medium height, with thick, grey bark.
Japanese Silver Fir (Abies Firma) - A tree of sometimes 150 feet in height, with light brown bark and foliage of a glossy green.
Jesso Silver Fir (Abies Brachyphylla) - A handsome and hardy tree, over 100 feet high, with bright green foliage and short leaves.
Mount Taurus Fir (Abies Cilicica) - A graceful tree, 40 feet to 60 feet high, with slender branches.
Puget Sound Fir (Abies Grandis) - A stately tree 200 feet high, with dark green cones 2 to 3 inches long, and dark shining leaves, white below.
Santa Lucia Fir (Abies Bracteata) - A stately tree, often 150 feet high in its native country.
Silver Fir (Abies Pectinata) - A noble tree of the mountains of Central Europe.
Trees that were once included under this head are now placed under Abies and also Pinus, to which the reader should refer for trees he seeks which are not placed under this heading.
As regards grouping and other matters, what has been said of Pinus and Abies may be considered as applying to a great extent to these trees also.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.