# How to use *Aberration* in a sentence

She is normally calm and level headed, so this outburst is an

**aberration**.We considered our defeat to be an

**aberration**, since we'd easily beaten this team last season.The discovery of the

**aberration**of light in 1725, due to James Bradley, is one of the most important in the whole domain of astronomy.The residents considered the recent surge in burglaries to be an

**aberration**, since their neighborhood was known for its safety.The use of mirrors instead of lenses was another way to avoid chromatic

**aberration**.AdvertisementThe problem with many low priced cameras, is color

**aberration**in the final image.Orthodox evangelicalism is tempted to view it as an apostasy or an

**aberration**.Newton was led by this reasoning to the erroneous conclusion that telescopes using refracting lenses would always suffer chromatic

**aberration**.The

**aberration**is here unsymmetrical, the wave being in advance of its proper place in one half of the aperture, but behind in the other half.By one, and likewise by several, and even by an infinite number of thin lenses in contact, no more than two axis points can be reproduced without

**aberration**of the third order.AdvertisementSpherical

**aberration**and changes of the sine ratios are often represented graphically as functions of the aperture, in the same way as the deviations of two astigmatic image surfaces of the image plane of the axis point are represented as functions of the angles of the field of view.In a plane containing the image point of one colour, another colour produces a disk of confusion; this is similar to the confusion caused by two " zones " in spherical

**aberration**.For infinitely distant objects the radius of the chromatic disk of confusion is proportional to the linear aperture, and independent of the focal length (vide supra," Monochromatic

**Aberration**of the Axis Point "); and since this disk becomes the less harmful with an increasing image of a given object, or with increasing focal length, it follows that the deterioration of the image is proportional to the ratio of the aperture to the focal length, i.e.The most important is the chromatic difference of

**aberration**of the axis point, which is still present to disturb the image, after par-axial rays of different colours are united by an appropriate combination of glasses.His researches in optics, continued until his death, appear to have been begun about the year 1814, when he prepared a paper on the

**aberration**of light, which, however, was not published.AdvertisementThis implies that the whole of Western theology has been an

**aberration**or an exoteric veiling of the truth.'James Bradley discovered in 1728 the annual shifting of the stars due to the

**aberration**of light, and in 1748, the complicating effects upon precession of the "nutation" of the earth's axis.Again, since the constant of

**aberration**defines the ratio between the velocity of light and the earth's orbital speed, the span of the terrestrial circuit, in other words, the distance of the sun, is immediately deducible from known values of the first two quantities.The spherical

**aberration**of a diamond lens can be brought down to one-ninth of a glass lens of equal focus.With this mineral also spherical and chromatic

**aberration**are a fraction of that of a glass lens, but double refraction, which involves a doubling of the image, is fatal to its use.AdvertisementWhen well made such constructions are almost free from spherical

**aberration**, and the chromatic errors are very small.Axial

**aberration**is reduced by distributing the refraction between two lenses; and by placing the two lenses farther apart the errors of the pencils of rays proceeding from points lying outside the axis are reduced.As shown in Lens and

**Aberration**, for reproduction through a single lens with spherical surfaces, a combination of the rays is only possible for an extremely small angular aperture.The

**aberration**of rays in which the outer rays intersect the axis at a shorter distance than the central rays is known as " undercorrection."Correction of the spherical

**aberration**in strong systems with very large aperture can not be brought about by means of a single combination of two lenses, but several partial systems are necessary.AdvertisementIf, by these methods, a point in the optic axis has been freed from

**aberration**, it does not follow that a point situated only a very small distance from the optic axis can also be represented without spherical**aberration**.The representation, free from

**aberration**, of a small surface-element, is only possible, as Abbe has shown, if the objective simultaneously fulfils the " sine-condition," i.e.The removal of the spherical

**aberration**and the sine-condition can be accomplished only for two conjugate points.By using these glasses and employing minerals with special optical properties, it is possible to correct objectives so that three colours can be combined, leaving only a quite slight tertiary spectrum, and removing the spherical

**aberration**for two colours.A further

**aberration**which can only be overcome with difficulty, and even then only partially, is the " curvature of the field, " i.e.A second method for diminishing the spherical

**aberration**was to alter the distances of the single systems, a method still used.The lower surface of the slip causes undercorrection on being traversed by the pencil, with over-correction when it leaves it; and since the

**aberration**of the surface lying farthest from the object, i.e.In order to counteract this

**aberration**the whole objective must be correspondingly under-corrected.In the apochromats the chromatic difference of the spherical aberrations is eliminated, for the spherical

**aberration**is completely avoided for three colours.In the case of a suitable ocular magnification, the details will be well seen, while the

**aberration**circles remain invisible.I also looked into the immense size of chromatic

**aberration**in the human eye.The image, despite the spherical

**aberration**, was by far superior to any existing microscope made by his contemporaries.The transformation from apparent to topocentric consists of allowing for diurnal

**aberration**.I knew the cause to be lateral chromatic

**aberration**.The annual

**aberration**is the**aberration**correction for an imaginary observer at the Earth's center.Three SLD glass elements are employed for effective compensation of color

**aberration**, which is a common problem with super-wide angle lenses.Overall, the COM concluded that the results from the in vitro chromosomal

**aberration**assays were likely to represent a cytotoxic response.The reduction of almost all visible chromatic

**aberration**at 60x magnification on the base model ES 80 GA SD is a real breakthrough.The spherical

**aberration**correction is in this region too.Rudolf guides Santa's sleigh with the biological

**aberration**of a red, glowing nose capable of penetrating thick fog?If you are using an achromatic refractor, the focus errors will be larger due to chromatic

**aberration**of the telescope.But the difficulties interposed by spherical and chromatic

**aberration**had arrested progress in that direction until, in 1655, Huygens, working with his brother Constantijn, hit upon a new method of grinding and polishing lenses.In Bode's Jahrbuch (1776-1780) he discusses nutation,

**aberration**of light, Saturn's rings and comets; in the Nova acta Helvetica (1787) he has a long paper "Sur le son des corps elastiques," in Bernoulli and Hindenburg's Magazin (1787-1788) he treats of the roots of equation and of parallel lines; and in Hindenburg's Archiv (1798-1799) he writes on optics and perspective.This expression for the intensity becomes rigorously applicable when f is indefinitely great, so that ordinary optical

**aberration**disappears.Our investigations and estimates of resolving power have thus far proceeded upon the supposition that there are no optical imperfections, whether of the nature of,, a regular

**aberration**or dependent upon irregularities of material and workmanship. In practice there will always be a certain**aberration**or error of phase, which we may also regard as the deviation of the actual wavesurface from its intended position.The effect of

**aberration**may be considered in two ways.The results in the second case show that an increase of aperture up to that corresponding to an extreme

**aberration**of half a period has no ill effect upon the central band (ยง 3), but it increases unduly the intensity of one of the neighbouring lateral bands; and the practical conclusion is that the best results will be obtained from an aperture giving an extreme**aberration**of from a quarter to half a period, and that with an increased aperture**aberration**is not so much a direct cause of deterioration as an obstacle to the attainment of that improved definition which should accompany the increase of aperture.This

**aberration**can, however, be successfully controlled by a suitable eyepiece (see below).I can only hope these recent comments are an

**aberration**or better yet, taken completely out of context..."Some polyamorists argue that, since many other cultures embrace the idea of multiple partners, monogamy is an

**aberration**.The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of

**aberration**or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical

**aberration**of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.At Pulkowa he redetermined the " constant of

**aberration**...**Aberration**Of Light This astronomical phenomenon may be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, according to the latitude of the star; consequently at any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true position.The application of this observation to the phenomenon which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in 1727, he published his theory of the

**aberration**of light - a corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.James Gregory, in his Optica Promota (1663), discusses the forms of images and objects produced by lenses and mirrors, and shows that when the surfaces of the lenses or mirrors are portions of spheres the images are curves concave towards the objective, but if the curves of the surfaces are conic sections the spherical

**aberration**is corrected.He did not attempt the formation of a parabolic figure on account of the probable mechanical difficulties, and he had besides satisfied himself that the chromatic and not the spherical

**aberration**formed the chief faults of previous telescopes.When all is taken into consideration it is scarcely possible to reduce the secondary colour

**aberration**at the focus of such a double object-glass to less than a fourth part of that prevailing at the focus of a double objective of the same aperture and focus, but made of the ordinary crown and flint glasses.The chromatic

**aberration**of the object-glass of one of these telescopes is corrected for photographic rays, and the image formed by it is received on a highly sensitive photographic plate.It requires the middle of the aperture stop to be reproduced in the centres of the entrance and exit pupils without spherical

**aberration**.The total

**aberration**of two or more very thin lenses in contact, being the sum of the individual aberrations, can be zero.In most cases, two thin lenses are combined, one of which has just so strong a positive

**aberration**(" under-correction," vide supra) as the other a negative; the first must be a positive lens and the second a negative lens; the powers, however, may differ, so that the desired effect of the lens is maintained.Freedom from

**aberration**for two axis points, one of which is infinitely distant, is known as " Herschel's condition."A second method of correcting the spherical

**aberration**depends FIG.The definition is better according as the chromatic and spherical aberrations are removed; there always remains in even the best constructions some slight

**aberration**.In consequence of these residual aberrations, every object-point is not reproduced in an ideal image-point, but as a small circle of

**aberration**.Object details will only be well seen if the

**aberration**circles are small in comparison.I realize that this extends the tube length and will cause some spherical

**aberration**.It incorporates aspherical lens elements in the front, as well as rear lens groups, to correct spherical

**aberration**.Its design employs three (3) aspherical lens elements to minimize spherical

**aberration**, astigmatism and sagittal comma flare.Because almost all reflecting telescopes produce diffraction spikes, many people are used to seeing them and don't consider them an

**aberration**.In addition to the doubt thrown on this result by the discrepancy between various determinations of the constant of

**aberration**, it is sometimes doubted whether the latter constant necessarily expresses with entire precision the ratio of the velocity of the earth to the velocity of light.In telescopes of the best construction and of moderate aperture the performance is not sensibly prejudiced by outstanding

**aberration**, and the limit imposed by the finiteness of the waves of light is practically reached.If, on the other hand, we suppose the aperture given, we find that

**aberration**begins to be distinctly mischievous when it amounts to about a quarter period, i.e.Another obvious inference from the necessary imperfection of optical images is the uselessness of attempting anything like an absolute destruction of spherical

**aberration**.If we inquire what is the greatest admissible longitudinal

**aberration**(Sf) in an object-glass according to the above rule, we find Sf =Xa 2 (2), a being the angular semi-aperture.If Q be on the circle described upon OA as diameter, so that u = a cos 4,, then Q' lies also upon the same circle; and in this case it follows from the symmetry that the unsymmetrical

**aberration**(depending upon a) vanishes.They are here focused (so far as the rays in the primary plane are concerned) upon the circle OQ' A, and the outstanding

**aberration**is of the fourth order.If it were desired to use an angular aperture so large that the

**aberration**according to (13) would be injurious, Rowland points out that on his machine there would be no difficulty in applying a remedy by making v slightly variable towards the edges.This Makuzu faience, produced by the now justly celebrated Miyagawa ShOzan of Ota (near Yokohama), survives in the form of vases and pots having birds, reptiles, flowers, crustacea and so forth plastered over the surfacespecimens that disgrace the period of their manufacture, and represent probably the worst

**aberration**of Japanese ceramic conception.If the path is to be unaltered by the motion of the aether, as the law of astronomical

**aberration**suggests, this must differ from fds/V by terms not depending on the path - that is, by terms involving only the beginning and end of it.But the aether at a great distance must in any case be at rest; while the facts of astronomical

**aberration**require that the motion of that medium must be irrotational.He concluded that there could be no refraction without dispersion, and hence that achromatism was impossible of attainment (see

**Aberration**).When the earth is at A, in consequence of

**aberration**, the star is displaced to a point a, its displacement sa being parallel to the earth's motion at A; when the earth is at B, the star appears at b; and so on throughout an orbital revolution of the earth.This constant length subtends an angle of about 40" at the earth; the " constant of

**aberration**" is half this angle.For relatively short focal lengths a triple construction such as this is almost necessary in order to obtain an objective free from

**aberration**of the 3rd order, and it might be thought at first that, given the closest attainable degree of rationality between the colour dispersions of the two glasses employed, which we will call crown and flint, it would be impossible to devise another form of triple objective, by retaining the same flint glass, but adopting two sorts of crown instead of only one, which would have its secondary spectrum very much further reduced.The extension of the image away from the axis or size of field available for covering a photographic plate with fair definition is a function in the first place of the ratio between focal length and aperture, the longer focus having the greater relative or angular covering power, and in the second a function of the curvatures of the lenses, in the sense that the objective must be free from coma at the foci of oblique pencils or must fulfil the sine condition (see

**Aberration**).If the angle u l be very small, O', is the Gaussian image; and 0', 0' 2 is termed the " longitudinal

**aberration**," and 0'1R the " lateral**aberration**" of the pencils with aperture u 2.If the pencil with the angle u 2 be that of the maximum

**aberration**of all the pencils transmitted, then in a plane perpendicular to the axis at O' 1 there is a circular " disk of confusion" of radius 0' 1 R, and in a parallel plane at 0'2 another one of radius 0' 2 R 2; between these two is situated the " disk of least confusion."The component S 1 of the system, situated between the aperture stop and the object 0, projects an image of the diaphragm, termed by Abbe the " entrance pupil "; the " exit pupil " is the image formed by the component S2 j which is placed behind the aperture stop. All rays which issue from 0 and pass through the aperture stop also pass through the entrance and exit pupils, since these are images of the aperture stop. Since the maximum aperture of the pencils issuing from 0 is the angle u subtended by the entrance pupil at this point, the magnitude of the

**aberration**will be determined by the position and diameter of the entrance pupil.A system fulfilling this condition and free from spherical

**aberration**is called " aplanatic " (Greek a-, privative, irXavrl, a wandering).Systems free of this

**aberration**are called " ortho scopic " (ipgos, right, r ' 0-K071-6 1/, to look) .This

**aberration**is quite distinct from that of the sharpness of reproduction; in unsharp reproduction, FIG.In optical systems composed of lenses, the position, magnitude and errors of the image depend upon the refractive indices of the glass employed (see Lens, and above, " Monochromatic

**Aberration**").Further, James Bradley discovered in 1728 the annual shifting of the stars due to the

**aberration**of light (see**Aberration**), and in 1748, the complicating effects upon precession of the " nutation " of the earth's axis.The second

**aberration**which must be removed from microscope objectives are the chromatic. To diminish these a collective lens of crown-glass is combined with a dispersing lens of flint; in such a system the red and the blue rays intersect at a point (see**Aberration**).Chromatic

**Aberration**, where different frequencies of light refract at different angles causing blurred images.For still images, the Nikon D300S has enhanced chromatic

**aberration**editing, which removes color fringing and artifacts before the photo is even downloaded.Compared to previous Rebel lenses, the T2i lens has increased sharpness and decreased chromatic

**aberration**.Not very long after the disappearance of serfdom in the most advanced communities comes into sight the new system of colonial slavery, which, instead of being the spontaneous outgrowth of social necessities and subserving a temporary need of human development, was politically as well as morally a monstrous

**aberration**.In general, we may say that

**aberration**is unimportant when it nowhere (or at any rate over a relatively small area only) exceeds a small fraction of the wavelength (X).Thus in estimating the intensity at a focal point, where, in the absence of

**aberration**, all the secondary waves would have exactly the same phase, we see that an**aberration**nowhere exceeding 4X can have but little effect.Its original use was the determination of geographical latitudes in the field work of geodetic operations; more recently it has been extensively employed for the determination S of variation of latitude, at fixed stations, under the auspices of the International Geodetic Bureau, and for the astronomical determination of the constant of

**aberration**.Of thin positive lenses with n= 1-5, four are necessary to correct spherical

**aberration**of the third order.A lens system comprising two elements, used to reduce chromatic

**aberration**.A review of the simplest cases of

**aberration**will now be given.The swing to the right in the voter survey were considered to be a short-term

**aberration**and of no consequence to the election.Hence for the rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently termed the

**aberration**due to these two motions.Both the

**aberration**of axis points, and the deviation from the sine condition, rapidly increase in most (uncorrected) systems with the aperture.When parallel rays fall directly upon a spherical mirror the longitudinal

**aberration**is only about one-eighth as great as for the most favourably shaped single lens of equal focal length and aperture.Assured that his explanation was true, Bradley corrected his observations for

**aberration**, but he found that there still remained a residuum which was evidently not a parallax, for it did not exhibit an annual cycle.It has been in the past a source of much perplexity to observers of transits, but is now understood to be a result of irradiation, produced by the atmosphere or by the

**aberration**of the telescope.Bradley recognized the fact that the experimental determination of the

**aberration**constant gave the ratio of the velocities of light and of the earth; hence, if the velocity of the earth be known, the velocity of light is determined.