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abdication

abdication Sentence Examples

  • After his abdication Northumbrian history degenerates into a record of dynastic murders.

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  • Together with Shulguin, he submitted the Act of Abdication for signature to Nicholas II.

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  • After the abdication of Charles V.

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  • In 1848 Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference took place here between Austrian and German statesmen.

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  • In March 1490 the county of Tirol was added to his possessions through the abdication of his kinsman, Count Sigismund, and this district soon became his favourite residence.

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  • A revolt within the city soon afterwards resulted in the abdication of the reigning emperor Maurice, and in the elevation of Phocas to the throne, which seems to have been accomplished by one of the circus factions against the wish of the troops.

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  • On the abdication of Prince Alexander (Sept.

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  • It is certain that, after the abdication and exile of Louis, Hortense lived in France with her two children, in close relation with the imperial court.

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  • to an abdication, the necessity of which was becoming more and more evident.

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  • After his abdication he married the countess and spent the rest of his life in quiet retirement upon his private estate in Silesia.

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  • In 1814 he voted for Napoleon's abdication, which won for him a seat in the chamber of peers; but during the Hundred Days he served Napoleon, and in consequence, on the second Restoration, was for a short while excluded.

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  • From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to give an effectual check to an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II., and the fortifications were greatly strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian.

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  • Joseph took this step in April 1811, and proceeded to Paris in order to extort better terms, or offer his abdication; but he had to return with a monthly subsidy of 50o,000 francs and the promise that the army of the centre (the smallest of the five French armies) should be under his control.

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  • It was a virtual act of abdication.

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  • He returned with the insurrectionary troops to Sofia, and order was restored only after much loss of life; Stamboliiski was obliged to go into hiding, even after the King's abdication.

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  • Charles thereupon declared his abdication to have been made under duress and therefore null and void.

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  • Nevertheless it led to his abdication.

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  • Convoked by Talleyrand on the 1st of April, it pronounced the word abdication on the morrow.

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  • At last, on the nth of April, he wrote the deed of abdication.

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  • He retired to Malmaison, the home of Josephine, where she had died shortly after his first abdication.

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  • Closing Years (from the second abdication, June 22nd 1815, to death).

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  • From the time of the abdication Pippin was sole master; and in 751, after consulting Pope Zacharias, he took the title of king and removed the feeble Childeric to a monastery.

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  • At the time of Napoleon's first abdication (April 11, 1814), Joseph and Jerome Bonaparte tried to keep the empress under some measure of restraint at Blois; but she succeeded in reaching her father the emperor Francis while Napoleon was on his way to Elba.

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  • The grand vizier's efforts to take advantage of the peace to introduce order in the country were unavailing; he was driven from office, and disorders ensued which led to the sultan's abdication.

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  • All that remained was to obtain the abdication of Benedict XIII., the successor of the Avignon pope Clement VII., but the combined efforts of the council and the emperor were powerless to overcome the obstinacy of the Aragonese pope.

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  • On the 13th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announcement to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 18th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered into between Wellington and Soult.

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  • The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.

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  • On the 26th of July 1343, the citizens rose in arms, demanded the duke's abdication, and besieged him in the palace.

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  • Here, also, in 1808, the insurrection broke out which ended in the abdication of Charles IV.

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  • In the summer of 1651 Christina was, with difficulty, persuaded to reconsider her resolution to abdicate, but three years later the nation had become convinced that her abdication was highly desirable, and the solemn act took place on the 6th of July 1654 at the castle of Upsala, in the presence of the estates and the great dignitaries of the realm.

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  • The popular demands presented by Corsini were for the abdication of Leopold in favour of his son, an alliance with Piedmont and the reorganization of Tuscany in accordance with the eventual and definite reorganization of Italy.

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  • He therefore withdrew to the isle of Oland till the abdication of Christina (June 5, 1654) called him to the throne.

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  • In 1554, when Charles was meditating his abdication, and wished to secure the position of his son, he summoned Philip to Flanders again, and arranged the marriage with Mary, queen of England, who was the daughter of his sister Catherine, in order to form a union of Spain, the Netherlands and England, before which France would be powerless.

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  • The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.

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  • In 8 i i Charles made his will, which shows that he contemplated the possibility of abdication.

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  • Ten days later the fallen emperor recognized the inevitable and signed the Act of Abdication at Fontainebleau.

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  • On the 11th of February 1873, however, Amedeo, abandoned by his partisans and attacked more fiercely than ever by his opponents, signed his abdication.

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  • In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitza to arrest the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in Servia after the abdication of King Milan.

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  • Abdication >>

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  • On the first abdication of Napoleon (April 11th, 1814) and the restoration of the Bourbons, he, however, retired to Rome where he received a welcome.

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  • On the second abdication of the emperor (June 22nd, 1815) Fesch retired to Rome, where he spent the rest of his days in dignified ease, surrounded by numerous masterpieces of art, many of which he bequeathed to the city of Lyons.

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  • Returning to Rome, he offered Napoleon his help during the Hundred Days (1815), stood by his side at the "Champ de Mai" at Paris, and was the last to defend his prerogatives at the time of his second abdication.

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  • On Napoleon's second abdication Jerome proceeded to Wurttemberg, was threatened with arrest unless he gave up his wife and child, and was kept under surveillance at Goppingen; finally he was allowed to proceed to Augsburg, and thereafter resided at Trieste, or in Italy or Switzerland.

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  • He yielded, however, to the instances of the government of Charles VI., and pretending that he wished to have an interview with Gregory XII., with a view to their simultaneous abdication, he advanced to Savona, and then to Porto Venere.

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  • This ducal residence, enlarged and embellished by its subsequent occupants, became eventually the famous palace of the Netherlands which witnessed the abdication of Charles V.

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  • No systematic effort was made by the imperial authorities to put an end to the movement until the reign of Decius (250-251), whose policy of suppression was followed by Diocletian (303 ff.) and continued for some years after his abdication.

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  • He was restored to the throne of Tuscany after the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and was received with enthusiasm by the people, but had again to vacate his capital for a short time in 1815, when Murat proclaimed war against Austria.

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  • This office he resigned in 1813 through his opposition to Napoleon, but assumed it again after the battle of Waterloo (1815) until a disagreement with the Prussian government in 1820 led to his abdication.

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  • After the first abdication of Napoleon in 1814, Daru retired into private life, but aided Napoleon during the Hundred Days.

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  • Maximilian now turned for support to the Mexican clericals; meditated abdication, but was dissuaded by his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I.

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  • He devoted some volumes to a history of Spain, which had a well-deserved success - Charles Quint, son abdication, son sejour, et sa mort au monastere de Yuste (1845); Antonio Perez et Philippe II.

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  • In 1838 the king began to suspect his heir of plotting with the Liberal party to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own abdication.

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  • It was to Asolo that Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, retired on her abdication.

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  • For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.

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  • On his abdication the amalgamation was dissolved, and the Franciscan element fled to the East and was finally suppressed by Boniface VIII.

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  • At Toulouse, after the allies had entered Paris, but bef ore the abdication of Napoleon had become known, the last battle of the war was fought.

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  • The emperors of Russia and Austria were still far away at the time of Napoleon's second abdication, and it was with Wellington that the commissioners of the provisional government opened negotiations preliminary to the surrender of Paris.

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  • There were some political disorders during the reign of Dom Pedro I., who was finally harassed into an abdication in favour of his son, Dom Pedro II., on the 7th of April 1831.

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  • Conveyed hither in June 1567 after her surrender at Carberry, she signed her abdication within its walls on the 4th of July and effected her escape on the 2nd of May 1568.

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  • His father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between that date and 1081.

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  • And finally, all her entreaties failed to prevent the abdication of Philip, who in 1724 gave up the throne to his heir, and retired to the palace of La Granja.

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  • 48), and they were present at the abdication of Charles in the great hall at Brussels in 1555.

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  • National discontent with a feeble government produced a revolution in 1808 by which he passed to the throne by the forced abdication of his father.

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  • When his father's abdication was extorted by a popular riot at Aranjuez in March 1808, he ascended the throne - not to lead his people manfully, but to throw himself into the hands of Napoleon, in the fatuous hope that the emperor would support him.

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  • He was in his turn forced to make an abdication and imprisoned in France, while Spain, with the help of England, fought for its life.

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  • Three days after this discovery Lord Lindsay, Lord Ruthven and Sir Robert Melville were despatched to Lochleven, there to obtain the queen's signature to an act of abdication in favour of her son, and another appointing Murray regent during his minority.

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  • The queen's abdication was revoked, messengers were despatched to the English and French courts, and word was sent to Murray at Glasgow that he must resign the regency, and should be pardoned in common with all offenders against the queen.

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  • She declined with scorn the proposal made by Elizabeth through Knollys, that she should sign a second abdication in favour of her son.

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  • Before his abdication Louis had issued, on the 6th of March, a proclamation promising the zealous co-operation of the Bavarian government in the work of German freedom and unity.

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  • In 1470 Albert, who had inherited Bayreuth on the death of his brother John in 1464, became elector of Brandenburg owing to the abdication of his remaining brother, the elector Frederick II.

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  • On the abdication of King Ferdinand, immediately after the Armistice which put an end to Bulgaria's disastrous share in the World War, Boris succeeded his father, Oct.

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  • When the resignation of the Dufaure cabinet brought about the abdication of Marshal MacMahon, Gambetta declined to become a candidate for the presidency, but gave his support to Grevy; nor did he attempt to form a ministry, but accepted the office of president of the chamber of deputies (January 1879).

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  • He remained in Sicily until the news of Napoleon's abdication recalled him to France.

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  • In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and Daia (Maximinus), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world.

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  • By the treaty of Trachenberg (July 12, 1813) the Grand Alliance was completed; on the 16th, 17th and 18th of October the battle of Leipzig was fought; and the victorious advance into France was begun, which issued, on the 11th of April 1814, in Napoleon's abdication.

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  • But after the abdication of Alexander, Count Kalnoky stated in the Delegations that Austria-Hungary would not permit Russia to interfere with the independence of Bulgaria.

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  • The chief objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the building of railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused serious anxiety.

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  • The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.

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  • The quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV., and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince.

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  • The fact that in 1814, by Napoleon I.'s abdication in his favour, the king of Rome (as he was then styled) became for a few days titular emperor "by the will of the people," was held by Prince Louis Napoleon to justify his own assumption of the style of Napoleon III.

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  • The British forces, under General Oswald, took Zante, Cephalonia and Cerigo in 1809, and Santa Maura in 1810; Colonel (afterwards Sir Richard) Church (q.v.), reduced Paxo in 1814; and after the abdication of Napoleon, Corfu, which had been well defended by General Donzelot, was, by order of Louis XVIII., surrendered to Sir James Campbell.

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  • On the abdication of King Otho of Greece in 1862 the Greek people by universal suffrage voted Prince Alfred of England to the throne, and when he declined to accept the Cess crown England was asked to name a successor.

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  • After the abdication of Malik ul-`Aziz, he fell from favour and lived in retirement until his death in 1234.

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  • In the following year (656) the leaders of the rebels came once more from Egypt and Irak to Medina with a more numerous following; and the caliph again tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend to keep. But the rebels caught him in a flagrant breach of his word, 4 and now demanded his abdication, besieging him in his own house, where he was defended by a few faithful subjects.

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  • Nasr received him with the greatest honour, hoping to get his aid against Kirmani, but IIarith, to whom 3000 men of his tribe, the Tamim, had gone over, demanded Nasr's abdication and tried to make himself master of Merv.

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  • On the 1st of May 305, the day of Diocletian's abdication, he also, but without his colleague's sincerity, divested himself of the imperial dignity at Mediolanum (Milan), which had been his capital, and retired to a villa in Lucania; in the following year, however, he was induced by his son Maxentius to reassume the purple.

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  • Ignatius, continuing to refuse the abdication which could alone have given Photius's elevation a semblance of legality, was treated with extreme severity.

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  • Knox returned in time to guide the Assembly which sat on the 25th of June 1567 in dealing with this unparalleled crisis, and to wind up the revolution by preaching at Stirling on the 9th of July 1567, after Mary's abdication, at the coronation of the infant king.

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  • in 1771 and to close with the abdication of Gustavus IV.

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  • abdication of his father, he at once assumed the title of shah at Kazvin.

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  • This was interpreted as an act of abdication; on the same day the national council met, and chose Mahommed Alis son, Sultan Ahmad Mirza, aged thirteen, as his successor.

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  • The Long Parliament was expelled in April 1653 and the council of state dissolved; the Little, or Nominated, parliament which followed ended its existence by abdication; and Cromwell, officially lord general of the army, with a new council of state, remained the only recognized authority in the country.

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  • The abdication of Amadeus led to the proclamation of the federal republic. The senate and congress, very largely composed of monarchists, permitted themselves to be dragged along into democracy by the republican minority headed by Salmeron, Figueras, Pi y Margall and Castelar.

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  • Maria da Gloria (then aged seven); but this abdication was made contingent upon her marriage with her uncle D.

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  • He was a captain in the 2nd regiment of Prussian Dragoon Guards when he was elected domn or prince of Rumania on the 10th of April 1866, after the compulsory abdication of Prince Alexander John Cuza.

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  • The conspirators forced him to the table, and tried to compel him to sign his abdication.

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  • After Napoleon's abdication in 1814 he submitted to the new government, but was placed on the retired list in September.

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  • On the other hand, the attempt made in 1901 by the Holy Synod at Athens, with the co-operation of Queen Olga of Greece (a Russian princess), to circulate a modern Greek version of the Gospels was resented as a symptom of a Pan-Slavist conspiracy, and led to an ebullition of popular feeling which could only be pacified by the withdrawal of the obnoxious version and the abdication of the metropolitan of Athens.

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  • After the first abdication of Napoleon he declared himself a Royalist, received the order of St Louis, and acted as minister for war from the 3rd of December 1814 to the 11th of March 1815.

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  • (1637-1736), sultan of Turkey, son of Mahommed IV., succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II.

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  • He belonged to a noble Saxon family, was bishop of Bamberg, and chancellor to the emperor Henry III., to whom he was indebted for his elevation to the papacy upon the abdication of Gregory VI.

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  • On the abdication of Charles, his Ill')' son Philip II.

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  • On the revival of the Roman empire in the West by Charlemagne in Soo, the title (at first in the form imperator, or imperator Augustus, afterwards Romanorum imperator Augustus) was taken by him and by his Frankish, Italian and German successors, heads of the Holy Roman Empire, down to the abdication of the emperor Francis II.

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  • In 1599, on the abdication of Sigismund Bfithory in Transylvania, Michael, in league with the imperialist forces, and in connivance with the Saxon burghers, attacked and of Tran- defeated his successor Andreas Bathory near Hermannstadt, and, seizing himself the reins of government, secured his proclamation as prince of Transylvania.

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  • Richard carried out his part of the bargain; he executed a deed of abdication in which he owned himself insufficient and useless.

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  • He fled to France, and a convention parliament, summoned without the royal writ, declared that his flight was equivalent to abdication, and offered the crown in joint sovereignty to William and Mary (1689).

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  • The invasion of France followed in 1814, the abdication of Napoleon, the restoration of the Bourbons and the assembling of the congress of Vienna.

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  • While the relationship between Ea (q.v.) and Marduk is thus marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Bel of Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige.

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  • Three days before his abdication he was induced to sign a constitution (that of 1838) imposed on Servia by the Porte, at the instance of Russia, with the object of undermining his position.

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  • The political history of Servia from 1879 to the abdication of King Milan on 3rd March 1889 was an uninterrupted struggle between King Milan and the Progressives on one side, and Russia with her adherents, the Servian Radicals, on the other.

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  • On the abdication of Prince Alexander (Sept.

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  • He took his place at once as archbishop of Canterbury, witnessed the abdication of Richard in the Tower of London, led the new king, Henry IV., to his throne in presence of the peers, and crowned him on the 13th of October 1399.

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  • It is certain that, after the abdication and exile of Louis, Hortense lived in France with her two children, in close relation with the imperial court.

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  • "SUN YAT-SEN (1867-), Chinese leader of the revolutionary movement which ended in the abdication of the Manchu dynasty in Feb.

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  • 12 an Imperial edict announced the abdication of the Emperor; it surrendered the reins of government to the representatives of the sovereign people and declared that henceforth the constitution should be Republican; at the same time, the organization of the new form of government was entrusted, " with full powers," to Yuan Shih-k'ai.

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  • Preferring the solid advantage of orderly life to an unstable liberty, it acquiesced in the abdication of 1439, when the States consented to taxation for the support of a permanent army without any periodical renewal of their authorization.

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  • But during the atrocious holocausts formidable states had grown up around France, observing her and threatening her; and on the other hand, as on the morrow of the Hundred Years War, the lassitude of the country, the lack of political feeling on the part of the upper classes and their selfishness, led to a fresh abdication of the nations rights.

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  • The peace of Sainte Menehould, four years after the death of Henry IV., was a virtual abdication of the monarchy (May 1614); it was time for a move in the other direction.

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  • When the abdication of Christina of Sweden caused a quarrel between Charles Gustavus of Sweden and John Casimir of Poland, by which the emperor and the elector of Brandenburg hoped to profit, Mazarin (August 15, 1658) leagued the Rhine princes against them; while at the same time the substitution of Pope Alexander VII.

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  • The great empire of East and West fell in ruins with the emperors abdication at Fontainebleau.

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  • The defection of the military and civil aristocracy, which brought about Napoleons abdication, the refusal of a regency, and the failure of Bernadotte, who wished to resuscitate the Consulate, enabled Talleyrand, vicepresident of the senate and desirous of power, to persuade the Allies to accept the Bourbon solution of the difficulty.

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  • After Napoleons abdication, ~nd exile to the island of Elba, came the Revolutions abdication of her conquests: the first treaty of Paris (May 30th) confirmed Frances renunciation of Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, and her return within her pre-revolutionary frontiers, save for some slight rectifications.

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  • His indifference to their good, or his utter inability to see where it lay, was conspicuously shown when, on his abdication in 1556, he left his hereditary Flemish possessions to his son Philip, and not to his brother Ferdinand.

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  • A raging mob surrounded the palace, clamouring for Godoys head; and the favorites life was only saved by Charles TVs announcement of his abdication in favor of Ferdinand (March 17).

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  • a declaration that his abdication had been involuntary, and, occu- Napoleon pied Madrid (March 23, i8o8).

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  • The singular weakneas of the government revealed by this abdication of part of the essential functions of the civil power would have led to its speedy downfall, but for the truce cried during the festivities connected with the marriage of the king with Princess Victoria Eugnie Ena of Battenberg, which took place on the 31st of May.

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  • Succeeded on abdication of Charles V.

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  • Ferdinand VII..1808-1833Was proclaimed king on the forced abdication of his father.

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  • He was, however, really indispensable, for his resignation must be followed by a Liberal ministry, parliamentary control over the army, and probably the abdication of the king.

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  • The turning-point of his career was his separation from his wife, the archduchess Christina of Austria, in 1599, an event followed by his own abdication the same year, in order that he might take orders.

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  • After the abdication of Amadeus and the proclamation of the federal republic, Canovas took the lead of the propaganda in favour of the restoration of the Bourbons, and was their principal agent and adviser.

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  • of the emperor's forced abdication on the 11th of April 1814 reached Milan on the 16th, and roused hopes of independence.

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  • About 1467 his only son, John, died, and increasing infirmity led him to contemplate abdication.

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  • Early in the 16th century, however, owing to the death or abdication of several princes, the family had become narrowed down to the two branches of Anhalt-Cothen and Anhalt-Dessau.

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  • Constantine was at Warsaw; Nicholas, who on the 3rd of May of the same year had become chief of the 2nd division of the infantry of the Guard, was too conscious of his unpopularity in the army - the fruit of his drastic discipline - to dare to assume the crown without a public abdication on the part of the legitimate heir.

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  • After his abdication Northumbrian history degenerates into a record of dynastic murders.

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  • In 1821 he became king of Savoy by the abdication of his brother, and the construction of the highroad from Cagliari to Porto Torres was begun (not without opposition on the part of the inhabitants) in 1822.

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  • In March 1490 the county of Tirol was added to his possessions through the abdication of his kinsman, Count Sigismund, and this district soon became his favourite residence.

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  • In 1840, on the abdication of his father, he ascended the throne as William II.

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  • After the abdication of Amadeus of Savoy, Martos played a prominent part in the proclamation of the federal republic, in the struggle between the executive of that republic and the permanent committee of the Cortes, backed by the generals and militia, who nearly put an end to the executive and republic in April 1873.

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  • A military conspiracy was formed, and on the night of the 10th of August the prince was seized in the palace at Sofia, and compelled to sign his abdication; he was then hurried to the Danube at Rakhovo, transported on his yacht to Reni, and handed over to Russian authorities, by whom he was allowed to proceed to Lemberg.

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  • After the death of Margaret, Charles appointed his sister Mary, the widowed queen of Hungary, to the regency, and for twenty years she retained her post, until the abdication Mary of in fact of Charles V.

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  • Already the emperor was beginning to feel weary of the heavy burdens which the government of so many realms had imposed upon him, and in 1549 he presented Philip to the states of the Netherlands, that they might take the oath of allegiance to him, and Philip swore to maintain all ancient rights, privileges and customs. The abdication of Charles V.

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  • It was a virtual act of abdication.

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  • A revolt within the city soon afterwards resulted in the abdication of the reigning emperor Maurice, and in the elevation of Phocas to the throne, which seems to have been accomplished by one of the circus factions against the wish of the troops.

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  • The circumstances under which, at an extraordinary general chapter convoked by him shortly after his return, he resigned the office of ministergeneral (September 1220) are explained in the article Franciscans: here, as illustrating the spirit of the man, it is in place to cite the words in which his abdication was couched: "Lord, I give Thee back this family which Thou didst entrust to me.

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  • In 1556 Philip II., by the abdication of his father Charles V., became king of Spain.

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  • He had led the country out of the despondency which followed the defeat of Novara and the abdication of Charles Albert, through all the vicissitudes of national unification to the final triumph at Rome.

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  • He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.

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  • There is good reason to suppose that the Beauforts had gone so far as to contemplate a forced abdication on the score of the king's ill-health.

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  • Ferdinand, now that the young archduke was of age, was able to carry out the abdication which he and his wife had long desired.

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  • The first task was to reduce Hungary to obedience, for the Magyars refused to acknowledge the validity of the abdication in so far as it cou~ cerned Hungary, on the ground that such an act would only be valid with the consent of the Hungarian parliament.

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  • He denounced the peace of Augsburg as a pact with heresy; nor would he recognize the abdication of Charles V.

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  • Pierre d'Ailly himself had not long before taken part in the drawing up of a letter to the king in which the advantages of this double abdication were set forth, but since then his zeal had seemed to cool a little.

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  • to an abdication, the necessity of which was becoming more and more evident.

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  • The following year he and his disciple Gerson formed part of the great embassy sent by the princes to the two pontiffs, and while in Italy he was occupied in praiseworthy but vain efforts to induce the pope of Rome to remove himself to a town on the Italian coast, in the neighbourhood of his rival, where it was hoped that the double abdication would take place.

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  • Together with Shulguin, he submitted the Act of Abdication for signature to Nicholas II.

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  • He returned with the insurrectionary troops to Sofia, and order was restored only after much loss of life; Stamboliiski was obliged to go into hiding, even after the King's abdication.

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  • Charles thereupon declared his abdication to have been made under duress and therefore null and void.

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  • Nevertheless it led to his abdication.

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  • Convoked by Talleyrand on the 1st of April, it pronounced the word abdication on the morrow.

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  • At last, on the nth of April, he wrote the deed of abdication.

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  • He retired to Malmaison, the home of Josephine, where she had died shortly after his first abdication.

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  • Closing Years (from the second abdication, June 22nd 1815, to death).

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  • From the time of the abdication Pippin was sole master; and in 751, after consulting Pope Zacharias, he took the title of king and removed the feeble Childeric to a monastery.

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  • At the time of Napoleon's first abdication (April 11, 1814), Joseph and Jerome Bonaparte tried to keep the empress under some measure of restraint at Blois; but she succeeded in reaching her father the emperor Francis while Napoleon was on his way to Elba.

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  • The grand vizier's efforts to take advantage of the peace to introduce order in the country were unavailing; he was driven from office, and disorders ensued which led to the sultan's abdication.

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  • All that remained was to obtain the abdication of Benedict XIII., the successor of the Avignon pope Clement VII., but the combined efforts of the council and the emperor were powerless to overcome the obstinacy of the Aragonese pope.

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  • On the 13th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announcement to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 18th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered into between Wellington and Soult.

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  • After his abdication he married the countess and spent the rest of his life in quiet retirement upon his private estate in Silesia.

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  • The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.

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  • After the abdication of Charles V.

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  • On the 26th of July 1343, the citizens rose in arms, demanded the duke's abdication, and besieged him in the palace.

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  • Here, also, in 1808, the insurrection broke out which ended in the abdication of Charles IV.

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  • In 1814 he voted for Napoleon's abdication, which won for him a seat in the chamber of peers; but during the Hundred Days he served Napoleon, and in consequence, on the second Restoration, was for a short while excluded.

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  • In the summer of 1651 Christina was, with difficulty, persuaded to reconsider her resolution to abdicate, but three years later the nation had become convinced that her abdication was highly desirable, and the solemn act took place on the 6th of July 1654 at the castle of Upsala, in the presence of the estates and the great dignitaries of the realm.

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  • From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to give an effectual check to an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II., and the fortifications were greatly strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian.

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  • In 1848 Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference took place here between Austrian and German statesmen.

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  • The popular demands presented by Corsini were for the abdication of Leopold in favour of his son, an alliance with Piedmont and the reorganization of Tuscany in accordance with the eventual and definite reorganization of Italy.

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  • But his second wife, an ambitious intrigante, soon tired of her quiet life, and induced him to return to Turin and attempt to revoke his abdication.

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  • He therefore withdrew to the isle of Oland till the abdication of Christina (June 5, 1654) called him to the throne.

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  • In 1554, when Charles was meditating his abdication, and wished to secure the position of his son, he summoned Philip to Flanders again, and arranged the marriage with Mary, queen of England, who was the daughter of his sister Catherine, in order to form a union of Spain, the Netherlands and England, before which France would be powerless.

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  • The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.

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  • In 8 i i Charles made his will, which shows that he contemplated the possibility of abdication.

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  • Ten days later the fallen emperor recognized the inevitable and signed the Act of Abdication at Fontainebleau.

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  • On the 11th of February 1873, however, Amedeo, abandoned by his partisans and attacked more fiercely than ever by his opponents, signed his abdication.

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  • In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitza to arrest the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in Servia after the abdication of King Milan.

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  • On the first abdication of Napoleon (April 11th, 1814) and the restoration of the Bourbons, he, however, retired to Rome where he received a welcome.

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  • On the second abdication of the emperor (June 22nd, 1815) Fesch retired to Rome, where he spent the rest of his days in dignified ease, surrounded by numerous masterpieces of art, many of which he bequeathed to the city of Lyons.

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  • Joseph took this step in April 1811, and proceeded to Paris in order to extort better terms, or offer his abdication; but he had to return with a monthly subsidy of 50o,000 francs and the promise that the army of the centre (the smallest of the five French armies) should be under his control.

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  • Returning to Rome, he offered Napoleon his help during the Hundred Days (1815), stood by his side at the "Champ de Mai" at Paris, and was the last to defend his prerogatives at the time of his second abdication.

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  • On Napoleon's second abdication Jerome proceeded to Wurttemberg, was threatened with arrest unless he gave up his wife and child, and was kept under surveillance at Goppingen; finally he was allowed to proceed to Augsburg, and thereafter resided at Trieste, or in Italy or Switzerland.

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  • The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.

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  • He yielded, however, to the instances of the government of Charles VI., and pretending that he wished to have an interview with Gregory XII., with a view to their simultaneous abdication, he advanced to Savona, and then to Porto Venere.

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  • This ducal residence, enlarged and embellished by its subsequent occupants, became eventually the famous palace of the Netherlands which witnessed the abdication of Charles V.

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  • No systematic effort was made by the imperial authorities to put an end to the movement until the reign of Decius (250-251), whose policy of suppression was followed by Diocletian (303 ff.) and continued for some years after his abdication.

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  • He was restored to the throne of Tuscany after the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and was received with enthusiasm by the people, but had again to vacate his capital for a short time in 1815, when Murat proclaimed war against Austria.

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  • This office he resigned in 1813 through his opposition to Napoleon, but assumed it again after the battle of Waterloo (1815) until a disagreement with the Prussian government in 1820 led to his abdication.

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  • After the first abdication of Napoleon in 1814, Daru retired into private life, but aided Napoleon during the Hundred Days.

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  • Maximilian now turned for support to the Mexican clericals; meditated abdication, but was dissuaded by his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I.

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  • He devoted some volumes to a history of Spain, which had a well-deserved success - Charles Quint, son abdication, son sejour, et sa mort au monastere de Yuste (1845); Antonio Perez et Philippe II.

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  • In 1838 the king began to suspect his heir of plotting with the Liberal party to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own abdication.

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  • It was to Asolo that Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, retired on her abdication.

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  • For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.

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  • On his abdication the amalgamation was dissolved, and the Franciscan element fled to the East and was finally suppressed by Boniface VIII.

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  • At Toulouse, after the allies had entered Paris, but bef ore the abdication of Napoleon had become known, the last battle of the war was fought.

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  • The emperors of Russia and Austria were still far away at the time of Napoleon's second abdication, and it was with Wellington that the commissioners of the provisional government opened negotiations preliminary to the surrender of Paris.

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  • There were some political disorders during the reign of Dom Pedro I., who was finally harassed into an abdication in favour of his son, Dom Pedro II., on the 7th of April 1831.

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  • Conveyed hither in June 1567 after her surrender at Carberry, she signed her abdication within its walls on the 4th of July and effected her escape on the 2nd of May 1568.

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  • His father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between that date and 1081.

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  • (See Constance, Council Of.) From the abdication of Gregory XII.

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  • And finally, all her entreaties failed to prevent the abdication of Philip, who in 1724 gave up the throne to his heir, and retired to the palace of La Granja.

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  • 48), and they were present at the abdication of Charles in the great hall at Brussels in 1555.

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  • National discontent with a feeble government produced a revolution in 1808 by which he passed to the throne by the forced abdication of his father.

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  • When his father's abdication was extorted by a popular riot at Aranjuez in March 1808, he ascended the throne - not to lead his people manfully, but to throw himself into the hands of Napoleon, in the fatuous hope that the emperor would support him.

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  • He was in his turn forced to make an abdication and imprisoned in France, while Spain, with the help of England, fought for its life.

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  • Three days after this discovery Lord Lindsay, Lord Ruthven and Sir Robert Melville were despatched to Lochleven, there to obtain the queen's signature to an act of abdication in favour of her son, and another appointing Murray regent during his minority.

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  • The queen's abdication was revoked, messengers were despatched to the English and French courts, and word was sent to Murray at Glasgow that he must resign the regency, and should be pardoned in common with all offenders against the queen.

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  • She declined with scorn the proposal made by Elizabeth through Knollys, that she should sign a second abdication in favour of her son.

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  • Before his abdication Louis had issued, on the 6th of March, a proclamation promising the zealous co-operation of the Bavarian government in the work of German freedom and unity.

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  • In 1470 Albert, who had inherited Bayreuth on the death of his brother John in 1464, became elector of Brandenburg owing to the abdication of his remaining brother, the elector Frederick II.

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  • On the abdication of King Ferdinand, immediately after the Armistice which put an end to Bulgaria's disastrous share in the World War, Boris succeeded his father, Oct.

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  • When the resignation of the Dufaure cabinet brought about the abdication of Marshal MacMahon, Gambetta declined to become a candidate for the presidency, but gave his support to Grevy; nor did he attempt to form a ministry, but accepted the office of president of the chamber of deputies (January 1879).

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  • He remained in Sicily until the news of Napoleon's abdication recalled him to France.

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  • In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and Daia (Maximinus), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world.

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  • By the treaty of Trachenberg (July 12, 1813) the Grand Alliance was completed; on the 16th, 17th and 18th of October the battle of Leipzig was fought; and the victorious advance into France was begun, which issued, on the 11th of April 1814, in Napoleon's abdication.

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  • But after the abdication of Alexander, Count Kalnoky stated in the Delegations that Austria-Hungary would not permit Russia to interfere with the independence of Bulgaria.

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  • The chief objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the building of railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused serious anxiety.

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  • The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.

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  • The quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV., and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince.

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  • The fact that in 1814, by Napoleon I.'s abdication in his favour, the king of Rome (as he was then styled) became for a few days titular emperor "by the will of the people," was held by Prince Louis Napoleon to justify his own assumption of the style of Napoleon III.

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  • The British forces, under General Oswald, took Zante, Cephalonia and Cerigo in 1809, and Santa Maura in 1810; Colonel (afterwards Sir Richard) Church (q.v.), reduced Paxo in 1814; and after the abdication of Napoleon, Corfu, which had been well defended by General Donzelot, was, by order of Louis XVIII., surrendered to Sir James Campbell.

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  • On the abdication of King Otho of Greece in 1862 the Greek people by universal suffrage voted Prince Alfred of England to the throne, and when he declined to accept the Cess crown England was asked to name a successor.

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  • After the abdication of Malik ul-`Aziz, he fell from favour and lived in retirement until his death in 1234.

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  • In the following year (656) the leaders of the rebels came once more from Egypt and Irak to Medina with a more numerous following; and the caliph again tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend to keep. But the rebels caught him in a flagrant breach of his word, 4 and now demanded his abdication, besieging him in his own house, where he was defended by a few faithful subjects.

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  • Nasr received him with the greatest honour, hoping to get his aid against Kirmani, but IIarith, to whom 3000 men of his tribe, the Tamim, had gone over, demanded Nasr's abdication and tried to make himself master of Merv.

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  • On the 1st of May 305, the day of Diocletian's abdication, he also, but without his colleague's sincerity, divested himself of the imperial dignity at Mediolanum (Milan), which had been his capital, and retired to a villa in Lucania; in the following year, however, he was induced by his son Maxentius to reassume the purple.

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  • Ignatius, continuing to refuse the abdication which could alone have given Photius's elevation a semblance of legality, was treated with extreme severity.

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  • Knox returned in time to guide the Assembly which sat on the 25th of June 1567 in dealing with this unparalleled crisis, and to wind up the revolution by preaching at Stirling on the 9th of July 1567, after Mary's abdication, at the coronation of the infant king.

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  • At the time of her abdication the state was on the verge of bankruptcy, and the financial difficulty had superinduced a serious political agitation.

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  • in 1771 and to close with the abdication of Gustavus IV.

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  • abdication of his father, he at once assumed the title of shah at Kazvin.

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  • This was interpreted as an act of abdication; on the same day the national council met, and chose Mahommed Alis son, Sultan Ahmad Mirza, aged thirteen, as his successor.

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  • The Long Parliament was expelled in April 1653 and the council of state dissolved; the Little, or Nominated, parliament which followed ended its existence by abdication; and Cromwell, officially lord general of the army, with a new council of state, remained the only recognized authority in the country.

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  • The abdication of Amadeus led to the proclamation of the federal republic. The senate and congress, very largely composed of monarchists, permitted themselves to be dragged along into democracy by the republican minority headed by Salmeron, Figueras, Pi y Margall and Castelar.

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  • Maria da Gloria (then aged seven); but this abdication was made contingent upon her marriage with her uncle D.

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  • He was a captain in the 2nd regiment of Prussian Dragoon Guards when he was elected domn or prince of Rumania on the 10th of April 1866, after the compulsory abdication of Prince Alexander John Cuza.

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  • The conspirators forced him to the table, and tried to compel him to sign his abdication.

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  • After Napoleon's abdication in 1814 he submitted to the new government, but was placed on the retired list in September.

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  • It was intended that that title should henceforth be hereditary, but it again fell into abeyance during the struggles between the Pfemyslide princes which followed the abdication of Vladislav in 1173.

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  • On the other hand, the attempt made in 1901 by the Holy Synod at Athens, with the co-operation of Queen Olga of Greece (a Russian princess), to circulate a modern Greek version of the Gospels was resented as a symptom of a Pan-Slavist conspiracy, and led to an ebullition of popular feeling which could only be pacified by the withdrawal of the obnoxious version and the abdication of the metropolitan of Athens.

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  • After the first abdication of Napoleon he declared himself a Royalist, received the order of St Louis, and acted as minister for war from the 3rd of December 1814 to the 11th of March 1815.

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  • (1637-1736), sultan of Turkey, son of Mahommed IV., succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II.

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  • He belonged to a noble Saxon family, was bishop of Bamberg, and chancellor to the emperor Henry III., to whom he was indebted for his elevation to the papacy upon the abdication of Gregory VI.

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  • On the abdication of Charles, his Ill')' son Philip II.

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  • On the revival of the Roman empire in the West by Charlemagne in Soo, the title (at first in the form imperator, or imperator Augustus, afterwards Romanorum imperator Augustus) was taken by him and by his Frankish, Italian and German successors, heads of the Holy Roman Empire, down to the abdication of the emperor Francis II.

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  • In 1599, on the abdication of Sigismund Bfithory in Transylvania, Michael, in league with the imperialist forces, and in connivance with the Saxon burghers, attacked and of Tran- defeated his successor Andreas Bathory near Hermannstadt, and, seizing himself the reins of government, secured his proclamation as prince of Transylvania.

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  • Richard carried out his part of the bargain; he executed a deed of abdication in which he owned himself insufficient and useless.

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  • He fled to France, and a convention parliament, summoned without the royal writ, declared that his flight was equivalent to abdication, and offered the crown in joint sovereignty to William and Mary (1689).

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  • The invasion of France followed in 1814, the abdication of Napoleon, the restoration of the Bourbons and the assembling of the congress of Vienna.

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  • While the relationship between Ea (q.v.) and Marduk is thus marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Bel of Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige.

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  • Three days before his abdication he was induced to sign a constitution (that of 1838) imposed on Servia by the Porte, at the instance of Russia, with the object of undermining his position.

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  • The political history of Servia from 1879 to the abdication of King Milan on 3rd March 1889 was an uninterrupted struggle between King Milan and the Progressives on one side, and Russia with her adherents, the Servian Radicals, on the other.

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  • 12 an Imperial edict announced the abdication of the Emperor; it surrendered the reins of government to the representatives of the sovereign people and declared that henceforth the constitution should be Republican; at the same time, the organization of the new form of government was entrusted, " with full powers," to Yuan Shih-k'ai.

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  • But during the atrocious holocausts formidable states had grown up around France, observing her and threatening her; and on the other hand, as on the morrow of the Hundred Years War, the lassitude of the country, the lack of political feeling on the part of the upper classes and their selfishness, led to a fresh abdication of the nations rights.

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  • The peace of Sainte Menehould, four years after the death of Henry IV., was a virtual abdication of the monarchy (May 1614); it was time for a move in the other direction.

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  • When the abdication of Christina of Sweden caused a quarrel between Charles Gustavus of Sweden and John Casimir of Poland, by which the emperor and the elector of Brandenburg hoped to profit, Mazarin (August 15, 1658) leagued the Rhine princes against them; while at the same time the substitution of Pope Alexander VII.

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  • The great empire of East and West fell in ruins with the emperors abdication at Fontainebleau.

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  • The defection of the military and civil aristocracy, which brought about Napoleons abdication, the refusal of a regency, and the failure of Bernadotte, who wished to resuscitate the Consulate, enabled Talleyrand, vicepresident of the senate and desirous of power, to persuade the Allies to accept the Bourbon solution of the difficulty.

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  • After Napoleons abdication, ~nd exile to the island of Elba, came the Revolutions abdication of her conquests: the first treaty of Paris (May 30th) confirmed Frances renunciation of Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, and her return within her pre-revolutionary frontiers, save for some slight rectifications.

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  • His indifference to their good, or his utter inability to see where it lay, was conspicuously shown when, on his abdication in 1556, he left his hereditary Flemish possessions to his son Philip, and not to his brother Ferdinand.

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  • A raging mob surrounded the palace, clamouring for Godoys head; and the favorites life was only saved by Charles TVs announcement of his abdication in favor of Ferdinand (March 17).

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  • a declaration that his abdication had been involuntary, and, occu- Napoleon pied Madrid (March 23, i8o8).

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  • The old king and queen, pensioned by the French government, retired to Rome; Abdication Ferdinand was kept for six years under strict military of Charles guard at Talleyrands chteau of Valencay (see IV.

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  • The singular weakneas of the government revealed by this abdication of part of the essential functions of the civil power would have led to its speedy downfall, but for the truce cried during the festivities connected with the marriage of the king with Princess Victoria Eugnie Ena of Battenberg, which took place on the 31st of May.

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  • Succeeded on abdication of Charles V.

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  • Ferdinand VII..1808-1833Was proclaimed king on the forced abdication of his father.

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  • He was, however, really indispensable, for his resignation must be followed by a Liberal ministry, parliamentary control over the army, and probably the abdication of the king.

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  • The turning-point of his career was his separation from his wife, the archduchess Christina of Austria, in 1599, an event followed by his own abdication the same year, in order that he might take orders.

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  • After the abdication of Amadeus and the proclamation of the federal republic, Canovas took the lead of the propaganda in favour of the restoration of the Bourbons, and was their principal agent and adviser.

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  • of the emperor's forced abdication on the 11th of April 1814 reached Milan on the 16th, and roused hopes of independence.

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  • About 1467 his only son, John, died, and increasing infirmity led him to contemplate abdication.

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  • Early in the 16th century, however, owing to the death or abdication of several princes, the family had become narrowed down to the two branches of Anhalt-Cothen and Anhalt-Dessau.

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  • Constantine was at Warsaw; Nicholas, who on the 3rd of May of the same year had become chief of the 2nd division of the infantry of the Guard, was too conscious of his unpopularity in the army - the fruit of his drastic discipline - to dare to assume the crown without a public abdication on the part of the legitimate heir.

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  • In 1840, on the abdication of his father, he ascended the throne as William II.

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    1
  • After the death of Margaret, Charles appointed his sister Mary, the widowed queen of Hungary, to the regency, and for twenty years she retained her post, until the abdication Mary of in fact of Charles V.

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  • Already the emperor was beginning to feel weary of the heavy burdens which the government of so many realms had imposed upon him, and in 1549 he presented Philip to the states of the Netherlands, that they might take the oath of allegiance to him, and Philip swore to maintain all ancient rights, privileges and customs. The abdication of Charles V.

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  • The circumstances under which, at an extraordinary general chapter convoked by him shortly after his return, he resigned the office of ministergeneral (September 1220) are explained in the article Franciscans: here, as illustrating the spirit of the man, it is in place to cite the words in which his abdication was couched: "Lord, I give Thee back this family which Thou didst entrust to me.

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  • He had led the country out of the despondency which followed the defeat of Novara and the abdication of Charles Albert, through all the vicissitudes of national unification to the final triumph at Rome.

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  • He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.

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  • There is good reason to suppose that the Beauforts had gone so far as to contemplate a forced abdication on the score of the king's ill-health.

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  • of Spain, to whom, in 1555 on the abdication of the emperor, he transferred his services, and by whom he was employed in the Netherlands.

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  • Ferdinand, now that the young archduke was of age, was able to carry out the abdication which he and his wife had long desired.

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  • He denounced the peace of Augsburg as a pact with heresy; nor would he recognize the abdication of Charles V.

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  • Pierre d'Ailly himself had not long before taken part in the drawing up of a letter to the king in which the advantages of this double abdication were set forth, but since then his zeal had seemed to cool a little.

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  • The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.

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  • of Spain, to whom, in 1555 on the abdication of the emperor, he transferred his services, and by whom he was employed in the Netherlands.

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  • He took his place at once as archbishop of Canterbury, witnessed the abdication of Richard in the Tower of London, led the new king, Henry IV., to his throne in presence of the peers, and crowned him on the 13th of October 1399.

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  • "SUN YAT-SEN (1867-), Chinese leader of the revolutionary movement which ended in the abdication of the Manchu dynasty in Feb.

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  • Preferring the solid advantage of orderly life to an unstable liberty, it acquiesced in the abdication of 1439, when the States consented to taxation for the support of a permanent army without any periodical renewal of their authorization.

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  • In 1556 Philip II., by the abdication of his father Charles V., became king of Spain.

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