Abbot Sentence Examples
It was a different Howie Abbot who took the news.
After having spent forty years in a cave at the foot of mount Sinai, he became abbot of the monastery.
The abbot of Fecamp seems to have originally held a market.
The manor belonged at an early date to the abbot of Westminster.
He was then persuaded by Abbot Herluin to open a school in the xvi.Advertisement
This stands on the site where, in 1618, the Protestants attempted to build a church, the forcible prevention of which by Abbot Wolfgang Solander was the immediate cause of the protest of the Bohemian estates and the "defenestration" of the ministers Martinic and Slavata, which opened the Thirty Years' War.
In 1520 Luther's De Captivitate Babylonica converted him into a zealous supporter of the Reformer's views, to which he won over the abbot among others.
He was successively councillor of the parlement of Grenoble, secretary to the king, almoner to Marie de' Medici, abbot of Aulnay and finally, in 1606, bishop of Sees.
Having assumed the monastic habit in the monastery of Deerhurst, he pased thence to Bath, where he became an anchorite and ultimately abbot, distinguishing himself by his piety and the austerity of his life.
At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a humanist, and in 1504 was appointed by the abbot of the Praemonstratensian monastery at Belbuck rector of the town school at Treptow.Advertisement
These materials were used by a continuator who wrote in the middle of the 15th century, and who is identified with Walter Bower,' abbot of the monastery of Inchcolm.
On the separation of the offices of bishop and abbot in 1122, the abbot's fee was carved out of the bishop's manor, but did not include the town.
It was later granted to the earls of Salisbury, who seem to have allowed it to fall into disrepair, for in 1315 and in 1319 the abbot of Sherborne was appointed to inquire into its condition.
The first known instance of a mitred abbot is Egelsinus of St Augustine's, Canterbury, who received the honour from Pope Alexander II.
In 1066 he became the first abbot of St Stephen's at Caen, a house which the duke had been enjoined to found as a penance for his disobedience to the Holy See.Advertisement
The first fine (for 100 marks) was made by the abbot of Bury St Edmunds between 30 and 31 January.
That undoubtedly reflected his background as a Benedictine abbot, for he regarded the Rule of St Benedict as the rule of his life.
The last abbot of Glastonbury, Richard Whiting, caused these relics to be spirited away, refusing to give them up.
The most famous of these is the " Life " written by a later abbot of Iona, St. AdomnÃ¡n.
Although he was the father of two children by Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha, one of them named Nithard, we have no authentic account of his marriage, and from 790 he was abbot of St Riquier, where his brilliant rule gained for him later the renown of a saint.Advertisement
In 978 Bishop Wulfsey introduced the stricter form of Benedictine rule into his cathedral of Sherborne, and became the first abbot.
He was discovered there one day by Flavius, the king of the Goths, who built a monastery on the place, of which he was the first abbot.
This symbolism is expressed in the words used, at least since the 10th century, by the consecrator in delivering the pastoral staff at the consecration of a bishop and the benediction of an abbot.
Close by are the remains of St Mary's Priory, which comprise a large Perpendicular gatehouse, refectory, precinct wall, abbot's gate and still-house.
The Roman Catholic Church has 4 archbishops; Esztergom (Gran), Kalocsa, Eger (Erlau) and Zagrab (Agram), and 17 diocesan bishops; to the latter must be added the chief abbot of Pannonhalma, who likewise enjoys episcopal rights.Advertisement
The regular clergy were if possible worse than the secular, with the exception of the Paulicians, the sole religious order which steadily resisted the general corruption, of whose abbot, the saintly Gregory, was the personal friend of Matthias.
Having become an Augustinian canon, he was appointed abbot of Cirencester in 1213.
Everywhere - at Rome, at Treves, at Moutier-en-Der, at Gerona in Spain, at Barcelona - he had friends or agents to procure him copies of the great Latin writers for Bobbio or Reims. To the abbot of Tours he writes that he is "labouring assiduously to form a library," and "throughout Italy, Germany and Lorraine (Belgica) is spending vast sums of money in the acquisition of MSS."
To these may be added a very short disquisition on the same subject addressed to Adalbold, and a similar one, on one of his own spheres, addressed to Constantine, abbot of Micy.
He became in 1005 the first abbot of Eynsham or Ensham, near Oxford, another foundation of ZEthelma r's.
The last mention of Alfric Abbot, probably the grammarian, is in a will dating from about 1020.
They had endowed it with the manor and hundred of Faversham; this grant caused many disputes between the abbot and men of Faversham concerning the abbot's jurisdiction.
Faversham was probably a member of Dover from the earliest association of the Cinque Ports, certainly as early as Henry III., who in 1252 granted among other liberties of the Cinque Ports that the barons of Faversham should plead only in Shepway Court, but ten years later transferred certain pleas to the abbot's court.
In this reign also the abbot appointed the mayor, but from the reign of Edward I.
A mysterious conversion had been effected in him by an austere Cistercian abbot.
About 940 the manor is said to have been given to the abbey of Ely by Oswy and Leoflede; the abbot held it in 1086; and it became attached to the see of Ely with the other possessions of the monastery.
There are several portraits of Lord Hood by Abbot in the Guildhall and in the National Portrait Gallery.
Returning to Normandy he was presented to the king by Jacques of Matignon; after he had abjured Protestantism, being again presented by Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron, as a young man without equal for knowledge and talent, he was appointed reader to the king.
At this time Eata was abbot there, and Boisel, who is mentioned as his instructor, prior, in which office Cuthbert succeeded him about 661, having previously spent some time at the monastery of Ripon with Eata.
He had two natural sons, known as the abbot of St Far and the abbot of St Albin.
The cross of Tuam, re-erected in modern times, bears inscriptions in memory of Turlogh O'Conor, king of Ireland, and O'Hoisin, successively (1128) abbot of St Jarlath's Abbey and archbishop (1152) of Tuam, when the see was raised.
This industry must have won some reputation, for in 758 the abbot of Jarrow appealed t3 the bishop of Mainz to send him a worker in glass.
It is recorded that in the 7th century the abbot of Wearmouth in England obtained artificers in glass from France; and there is a tradition that in the 11th century glass-workers migrated from Normandy and Brittany and set up works at Altare near Genoa.
In 675 Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, was obliged to obtain glass-workers from France, and in 758 Cuthbert, abbot of Jarrow, appealed to the bishop of Mainz to send him artisans to manufacture " windows and vessels of glass, because the English were ignorant and helpless."
He found favour at the Frankish court, was made abbot of Fleury and of Saint-Aignan, and in 781 became bishop of Orleans.
The portcullis gate and a tower are all that remain of it; of the abbey which was at one time the finest in Wales, there still exist the external walls, with parts of the chapel, vaulted chapter-house, refectory and abbot's house.
It existed as a town as early as the 11th century, and in 1259 it was sold by the abbot of Fulda to the bishop of Minden, afterwards passing under the protection of the dukes of Brunswick.
He soon gained recognition as a learned and successful teacher, and the younger Adalhard, St Anskar the apostle of Sweden, Odo bishop of Beauvais and Warinus abbot of Corvei in Saxony may be mentioned among the more distinguished of his pupils.
Between 842 and 846 he was chosen abbot, but as a disciplinarian he was more energetic than successful, and about 851 he resigned the office.
On the other side, the great men coveted the wide estates of bishop and abbot, and were ready without persuasion to annex portions of them to their own on the easy terms of this tenure, not always indeed observed by the holder, or able to be enforced by the Church.
A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.
He held a portion of a foreign sovereign, the emperor, and other portions of the duke of Burgundy, of two archbishops, of four bishops, and of the abbot of St Denis.
Educated at Meung and at Angers, he entered the Benedictine abbey of Bourgueil, and in 1079 became abbot of this place, but his time was devoted to literary pursuits rather than to his official duties.
He was educated at the monastery of Reichenau, near Constance, where he had for his teachers Tatto and Wettin, to whose visions he devotes one of his poems. Then he went on to Fulda, where he studied for some time under Hrabanus Maurus before returning to Reichenau, of which monastery he was made abbot in 838.
This last poem, like the two preceding ones written in hexameters, was composed at the command of "Father" Adalgisus, and based upon the prose narrative of Heto, abbot of .Reichenau from 806 to 822.
At the time he sent it to Grimald Walafrid had, as he himself tells us, hardly passed his eighteenth year, and he begs his correspondent to revise his verses, because, "as it is not lawful for a monk to hide anything from his abbot," he fears he may be beaten with deserved stripes.
Through the machinations of enemies he was again expelled from the royal presence; but shortly afterwards Edmund revoked the sentence and made him abbot of Glastonbury.
In 1530 he was elected abbot of the Augustinian monastery at Spoleto, and in 1533 prior of the convent of St Peter ad Aram at Naples.
He was a priest named KakuyU, but better known as the abbot of Toba, who lived in the 12th century.
Francois de Rochefort, abbot of St Mesmin, instructed Francis and his sister Marguerite in Latin and history; Louise herself taught them Italian and Spanish; and the library of the château at Amboise was well stocked with romances of the Round Table, which exalted the lad's imagination.
Through Jacques Colure (or Colin), abbot of St Ambrose in Bourges, he obtained a tutorship in the family of a secretary of state.
The latter were no doubt deliberately exaggerated, and yet a comparison between the head of Fox in Sayer's plate "Carlo Khan's triumphal entry into Leadenhall," and in Abbot's portrait, shows that the caricaturist did not depart from the original.
It was restored to use in 1882 by a French Benedictine community, the fine Perpendicular abbot's tower remaining, while other parts have been rebuilt on the original lines.
They tend in any case to prove that the Quicumque comes to us from the school of Lerins, of which Honoratus was the first abbot, and to which Caesarius also belonged.
Angilbert, abbot of St Riquier (c. 814), records that it was sung by his school in procession on rogation days.
In 1461 the abbot of Buckfastleigh obtained a Saturday market at Kingsbridge and a three-days' fair at the feast of St Margaret, both of which are still held.
The manor remained in possession of the abbot until the Dissolution, when it was granted to Sir William Petre.
This epoch was introduced in Italy in the 6th century, by Dionysius the Little, a Roman abbot, and began to be used in Gaul in the 8th, though it was not generally followed in that country till a century later.
Before long the school connected with the monastery became famous, and among its earlier scholars it numbered Sturm, abbot of Fulda, and Megingod, second bishop of Wiirzburg.
When Boniface found himself unable to continue the supervision of the society himself, he entrusted the office to Wigbert of Glastonbury, who thus became the first abbot of Fritzlar.
He became a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, where he made the acquaintance of Anselm, at that time visiting England as abbot of Bec. The intimacy was renewed when Anselm became archbishop of Canterbury in 1093; thenceforward Eadmer was not only his disciple and follower, but his friend and director, being formally appointed to this position by Pope Urban II.
Patrick Hamilton became titular abbot in 1517, and after his martyrdom the abbey was added to the bishopric of Ross.
Jansen ended by attaching himself strongly to the latter party, and presently made a momentous friendship with a like-minded fellow-student, Du Vergier de Hauranne, afterwards abbot of Saint Cyran.
In 1072 he had presided over the great Kentish suit between the primate and Bishop Odo, and about the same time over those between the abbot of Ely and his despoilers, and between the bishop of Worcester and the abbot of Ely, and there is some reason to think that he acted as a Domesday commissioner (1086), and was placed about the same time in charge of Northumberland.
Hugh the Abbot succeeded him in the countship of Anjou as in most of his other duties, and on his death (886) it passed to Odo, the eldest son of Robert the Strong, who, on his accession to the throne of France (888), probably handed it over to his brother Robert.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
Here it will suffice to say that the most distinctive features of the Cluny system were (1) a notable increase and prolongation of the church services, which came to take up the greater part of the working day; (2) a strongly centralized government, whereby the houses of the order in their hundreds were strictly subject to the abbot of Cluny.
In 1580, after ten years' successful defence of his position, Kenryo, the eleventh "abbot," was obliged to surrender; and in 1583 the victorious Hideyoshi made Osaka his capital.
Letronne inclines to identify him with Dicuil or Dichull, abbot of Pahlacht, born about 760.
Like the pax ecclesiae it found ardent champions in the regular clergy, especially in Odilo (962-1049), the fifth abbot of Cluny, and soon spread over all France.
In Rome he met again his former superior, the abbot of Pomposa, who seems to have repented of his conduct, and to have induced Guido to return to Pomposa; and here all authentic records of Guido's life cease.
He came of a free peasant stock, his father being amtmann of the village; his mother, Margaret Meili, was the sister of the abbot of Fischingen in Thurgau.
Owing to his intelligence and ability he was transferred, not later than 796, from Fulda to the palace of Charlemagne by abbot Baugulf; and he soon became very intimate with the king and his family, and undertook various important duties, one writer calling him domesticus palatii regalis.
His wife, who had been his constant helper, and whom he had not put away on becoming an abbot, died in 836, and after receiving a visit from the emperor, Einhard died on the 14th of March 840.
It was founded under the tolerant Archbishop George Abbot (1562-1633), and would have been content with toleration such as the French and Dutch churches in England enjoyed.
The manor, with a market and tolls, was among the possessions confirmed in 972 by King Edgar to the abbot of Peterborough, to whom it still belonged in 1086.
The abbot of Peterborough about the 13th century confirmed to his men of Oundle freedom from tallage, "saving to himself pleas of portmanmoot and all customs pertaining to the market," and they agreed to pay 8 marks, 12S.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he had a meeting with abbot Hugo of Cluny at Besancon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII.; arriving in pilgrim garb at Rome in the following February, he was received with much cordiality, and at his consecration assumed the name of Leo IX.
The first religious settlement in Surrey, a Benedictine abbey, was founded in 666 at Chertsey (Cerotesei, Certesey), the manor of which belonged to the abbot until 1539, since when it has been a possession of the crown.
The increase of copyhold under Abbot John de Rutherwyk led to discontent, the tenants in 1381 rising and burning the rolls.
Ferries over the Redewynd were subjects of royal grant in 1340 and 1399; the abbot built a new bridge over the Bourne in 1333, and wholly maintained the bridge over the Thames when it replaced the 14th century ferry.
After this period of formation his fame began to spread abroad, and the monks of a neighbouring monastery induced him to become their abbot; but their lives were irregular and dissolute, and on his trying to put down abuses they attempted to poison him.
The most remarkable chapters, in which St Benedict's wisdom stands out most conspicuously, are those on the abbot (2, 3, 2 7, 64) The abbot is to govern the monastery with full and unquestioned patriarchal authority; on important matters he must consult the whole community and hear what each one, even the youngest, thinks; on matters of less weight he should consult a few of the elder monks; but in either case the decision rests entirely with him, and all are to acquiesce.
A garrison and military governor subordinate to the abbot were also installed.
Entering the Cistercian cloister Bolbonne, and graduating doctor of theology at Paris, he became in 1311 abbot of Fontfroide, in 1317 bishop of Pamiers and in 1326 of Mirepoix.
After the Conquest the great ecclesiastical landholders claimed exemption from the jurisdiction of the shire, and in 1279 the abbot of Battle claimed to have his own coroner in the hundred of Wye.
The earliest biography was written by one of his successors, Cuminius, who became abbot of Iona in 657.
Much more important is the enlargement of that work by Adamnan, who became abbot of Iona in 679.
The Institutionum historiae ecclesiasticae libri appeared in 1726, and in the same year he was appointed by the duke of Brunswick abbot of Marienthal, to which dignity and emolument the abbacy of Michaelstein was added in the following year.
In 1257 a market was granted to the abbot of Crowland and in 1308 to John, earl of Brittany.
A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.
Near it is the goats' whey cure establishment of Heinrichsbad, and the two castles of Rosenberg and Rosenburg, ruined in 1403 when the land rose against its lord, the abbot of St Gall.
In 1607 he was made vicar of Stanford in Northamptonshire, and in 1608 he became chaplain to Bishop Neile, who in 1610 presented him to the living of Cuxton, when he resigned his fellowship. In 1611, in spite of the influence of Archbishop Abbot and Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, Laud was made president of St John's, and in 1614 obtained in addition the prebend of Buckden, in 1615 the archdeaconry of Huntingdon, and in 1616 the deanery of Gloucester.
Abbot Gilles li Muisis, for instance, records how, at the Jubilee of 1300, all the Papal Penitentiaries were in doubt about it, and appealed to the Pope.
The chief abbot has the rank of a bishop, and is a member of the Upper House of the Hungarian parliament, while in spiritual matters he is subordinate immediately to the Roman curia.
Matthew of Vendome, abbot of St Denis, an old servant of Louis IX., acted as Philip's counsellor, so the chroniclers state, throughout the reign; but he is only a shadowy figure, and it is difficult to reconcile the statement that "everything was done according to his will" with the known facts.
Through the invitation of Charles the Great, he became associated with the revival of learning which marks the reign of that monarch, by presiding over the School of the Palace (782-790), and by exercising a healthy influence as abbot of St Martin's at Tours (796-804).
One of the most prominent personages of the century was Gerbert of Aurillac, who, after teaching at Tours and Fleury, became abbot of Bobbio, archbishop of Reims, and ultimately pope under the name of Silvester II.
Learning flourished at Monte Cassino under the rule of the Abbot Desiderius (afterwards Pope Victor III.).
When used by St Benedict in the singular number it seems (according to the commentator Menard) to denote the abbot himself.
At a later date in the order of St Benedict the title was applied to the monk next in authority to the abbot, though this usage was not adopted technically until the r3th century.
The first prior acted as vicar in all matters in the absence of the abbot, and was generally charged with the details of the discipline of the monastery.
In the 1 1th century a similar task was undertaken by Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury (1069-1089); in the 12th century by Stephen Harding (1109), third abbot of Citeaux, and by Cardinal Nicolaus Maniacoria (1150), whose corrected Bible is preserved in the public library at Dijon.
Bengel, abbot of Alpirspach (a Lutheran community), published in 1734, at Tubingen, an edition of the New Testament which marks the beginning of a new era.
He was abbot of Inchcolm (in the Firth of Forth) from 1418, was one of the commissioners for the collection of the ransom of James I., king of Scots, in 1423 and 1424, and in 1433 one of the embassy to Paris on the business of the marriage of the king's daughter to the dauphin.
There is a tradition that on one occasion the abbot of Beverley, anxious to investigate the case for himself, visited Mother Shipton's cottage disguised, and that no sooner had he knocked than the old woman called out "Come in, Mr Abbot, for you are not so much disguised but the fox may be seen through the sheep's skin."
He then became abbot of Bardney, and, according to Eddius, recommended Wilfrid to Coenred on his return from Rome. !Ethelred died at Bardney in 716.
His assumed memoir was printed for English readers in 1597 by William Ponsonby under the title of a Historie of the Great Emperor Tamerlan, drawn from the ancient monuments by Messire Jean du Bec, Abbot of Mortimer; and another version of the same book is to be found in the Histoire du Grand Tamerlan, by De Sainctyon, published at Amsterdam in 1678.
A priory only differed from an abbey in that the superior bore the name of prior instead of abbot.
Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior of the monastery being termed prior.
They were subject to an abbot, and observed a common rule.
The outer school, with its headmaster's house against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside the convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house, that he might have a constant eye over them.
The buildings devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups, - one for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are placed to the right and left of the common entrance of the monastery, - the hospitium for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor on the south side next to the farm buildings.
The abbot's house formed a small courtyard at the west entrance, close to the inner gateway.
Considerable portions of this remain, including the abbot's parlour, celebrated as "the Jerusalem Chamber," his hall, now used for the Westminster King's Scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond.
Passage to abbot's house.
The abbot's residence (K), still partly standing, adjoined the entrance-gate.
Owing its real origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), A.D.
Immediately on the right of entrance was the abbot's house (G), in close proximity to the guest-house (F).
Detached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was the original abbot's house (N),with its dining-hall (P).
However important the abbot's occupations might be, he at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent.
After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to the care of the brother hospitaller, whose duty it was to provide for his wants and conduct the beast on which he numerary monks.
At H, also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest-house.
These have been identified either with the hospitium or with the abbot's house, but they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more usually found.
We may also call attention to the greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 1203-1211, and carried on by his successor, terminating, like Durham Cathedral, in an eastern transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220-1247, and to the tower (D), added not long before the dissolution by Abbot Huby, 1494-1526, in a very unusual position at the northern end of the north transept.
The abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of this class of buildings in the kingdom, stands south to the east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided by the kitchen court (K), surrounded by the ordinary domestic offices.
There were also three submanors, one given by the first Aubrey de Vere early in the 12th century to the Abbot of Abingdon, whence the present parish church is called St Mary Abbots; while in another, Knotting Barnes, the origin of the name Notting Hill is found.
Maildulphus, a Scottish or Irish monk, who came into England about 635, built a hermitage near the site of the modern Malmesbury (Maildulphi-urbs, Maldelmesburh, Malmesbiri) and gathered disciples round him, thus forming the nucleus of the later abbey of which Aldhelm his pupil became the first abbot.
At the age of fourteen he received the Benedictine habit in the monastery of Liessies in Hainaut, of which he became abbot in 1530.
The " coenobian " monasteries (Kow60ea), each under the rule of an abbot (iiyouµEvos), are subjected to severe discipline; the brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property.
The great monastery of Rossikon, which is said to number about 3000 inmates, has been under a Russian abbot since 1875; it is regarded as one of the principal centres of the Russian politico-religious propaganda in the Levant.
In 1800 he became a member of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, founded by Pius VII., to which he contributed a number of memoirs on theological and philosophical questions and in 1805 was made abbot of San Gregorio on the Caelian Hill.
A certain king, Alchfrith, is said to have given the site of the town to Eata, abbot of Melrose, to found a monastery, but before it was completed Eata was deposed for refusing to celebrate Easter according to the Roman usage, and St Wilfrid was appointed the first abbot.
It was under his conduct that Theodore of Tarsus came from Rome to Canterbury in 669, and in the same year Benedict was appointed abbot of St Peter's, Canterbury.
Thereupon he was given in charge to the abbot of Westminster, and, persisting in his refusal, was four days afterwards committed to the Tower.
Upon St Serf's, the largest, which commemorates the patron saint of Fifeshire, are the ruins of the Priory of Portmoak - so named from St Moak, the first abbot - the oldest Culdee establishment in Scotland.
On an isolated hill close by stand the extensive ruins of the castle of Starkenburg, built by the abbot, Ulrich von Lorsch, about 1064 and destroyed during the Seven Years' War, and another hill, the Landberg, was a place of assembly in the middle ages.
Besides editing the works of John Donne, he published several volumes of his own verse, The School of the Heart (1835), The Abbot of Muchelnaye (1841), and a number of hymns, the best-known of which are "Forward!
Gregory himself, in his last moments, seems to have felt that it was impossible to maintain them, for Didier, abbot of Monteregularly enthroned on the 24th of the same month.
More important was the appointment in 1907 of a commission, under the presidency of Abbot Gasquet, to attempt the restoration of the pure text of the Vulgate as St Jerome wrote it.
About the year 1337 this hesychasm, which is obviously related to certain well-known forms of Oriental mysticism, attracted the attention of the learned and versatile Barlaam, a Calabrian monk, who at that time held the office of abbot in the Basilian monastery of St Saviour's in Constantinople, and who had visited the fraternities of Mount Athos on a tour of inspection.
Building began in earnest about 1135, and was continued steadily until the middle of the 13th century, after which the only important erection was Abbot Huby's tower (c. 1 500).
Adalberon wrote a satirical poem in the form of a dialogue dedicated to Robert, king of France, in which he showed his dislike of Odilo, abbot of Cluny, and his followers, and his objection to persons of humble birth being made bishops.
In 1196 the abbot granted the vill of Ulverstone with the inhabitants to Gilbert Fitz-Reinfred, who granted it a charter by which he raised it to the rank of a free borough.
The second half of the 8th century seems to have been a time of very general decadence; but about the year Boo Theodore, destined to be the only other creative name in Greek monachism, became abbot of the monastery of the Studium in Constantinople.
Before it was known that the chronicle ascribed to Ingulf of Croyland is really a fiction of the 13th or 14th century, the knighting of Heward or Hereward by Brand, abbot of Burgh 1 Comparative Politics, p. 74.
The researches of Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884), abbot of the Augustinian monastery at Briinn, in connexion with peas and other plants, apparently indicate that there is a definite natural law at work in the production of hybrids.
He held office as abbot for twentyfive years, and then retired to his native town.
Here he represented the interests of his church till about 586, when he returned to Rome and was made abbot of St Andrew's monastery.
The abbot did his best to avoid the dignity, petitioned the emperor Maurice.
Both stood on land belonging to the abbot of Reichenau, who, with the count of Kyburg, founded the town, which is first mentioned in 1255.
The abbot retained all manorial rights till 1803, while the political powers of the Kyburgers (who were the "protectors" of Reichenau) passed to the Habsburgs in 1273, and were seized by the Swiss in 1460 with the rest of the Thurgau.
Trithemius, the abbot of Sponheim and afterwards of Wiirzburg, under whom he prosecuted chemical researches.
Hamilton, then a boy of ten, was made abbot, and the abbacy and monastery were erected into a temporal lordship ih his favour in 1587.
The chapel contains the tombs of abbot John Hamilton and of the children of the 1st lord Paisley, and the recumbent effigy of Marjory, daughter of Robert Bruce, who married Walter, the Steward, and was killed while hunting at Knock Hill between Renfrew and Paisley (1316).
To protect it from molestation Abbot Schaw (or Shaw) induced James IV., a frequent visitor, to erect it into a burgh of barony in 1488, a charter which gave it the right to return a member to the Scots parliament.
St Benedict introduced too into the monastic life the idea of law and order, of rule binding on the abbot no less than on the monks; thus he reduced almost to a vanishing point the element of arbitrariness, or mere dependence on the abbot's will and whim, found in the earlier rules.
There is reason to believe that in England a relatively good level was maintained throughout, thanks in great measure to the fact that the kings resolutely refused to allow the introduction of commendation - Wolsey was the first and last commendatory abbot in England.
In the German lands, the lowest level was touched, and the writings of the Augustinian canon Johann Busch, and of the Benedictine abbot Trithemius reveal a state of things in the first half of the 15th century that urgently called for reform.
At an early age his education was entrusted to his uncle, Robert Whitgift, abbot of the neighbouring monastery of Wellow, by whose advice he was afterwards sent to St Anthony's school, London.
The abbot of the head monastery was the superior-general of the whole institute; he nominated the superiors of the other monasteries; he was visitor and held periodical visitations at all of them; he exercised universal supervision, control and authority; and every year a general chapter was held at the head house.
A passing reference should be made to the Coptic abbot Shenout, who governed on similar lines the great " White Monastery," whereof the ruins still survive near Akhmim; the main interest of Shenout's institute lies in the fact that it continued purely Coptic, without any infiltration of Greek ideas or influence.
According to tradition an abbot of Aberbrothock (Arbroath) had ordered a bell - whence the name of the rock - to be fastened to the reef in such a way that it should respond to the movements of the waves, and thus always ring out a warning to mariners.
He had one long dispute with the monks of Worcester, another with the abbot of Westminster, and was vigilant in guarding his material interests.
Abbot Academy, opened in 1829, is said to be the oldest existing academy in the United States incorporated for the education of girls alone; an art gallery, given to the academy by Mrs John Byers, was opened in 1907.
Here he has also held the appointments of chief university preacher, councillor to the consistory (from 1881) and abbot of Bursfelde (1890).
He was the author of a Catechism (Kiev, 1645) and other minor works, but is principally celebrated for the Orthodox Confession, drawn up at his instance by the Abbot Kosslowski of Kiev, approved at a provincial synod in 1640, and accepted by the patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch in 1642-1643, and by the synod of Jerusalem in 1672.
Wilfrid's life was written shortly after his death by Eddius at the request of Acca, his successor at Hexham, and Tatbert, abbot of Ripon - both intimate friends of the great bishop. Other lives were written by Frithegode in the loth, by Folcard in the IIth, and by Eadmer early in the 12th century.
On the other hand it was arranged that these elections should take place in the presence of the emperor or his representative, and that he should invest the new prelate with the sceptre, thus signifying that the bishop, or abbot, held his temporal fiefs from him and not from the pope.
On his return he was driven by contrary winds to Britain, and so came to Iona, where he related his experiences to his host, the abbot Adamnan (679-704).
Of prose writers we have Geoffrey Malaterra, Alexander abbot of Telesia, Romuald archbishop of Salerno, Falco of Benevento, and above all Hugo Falcandus, one of the very foremost of medieval writers.
In 1360 its abbot was promoted to the dignity of a prince of the Empire by the emperor Charles IV.; the town and abbey passed to Bavaria in 1803.
The abbot, however, declined the papal crown, and the year 1085 passed without an election.
In August 1087 he held a synod at Benevento, which renewed the excommunication of Guibert; banned Archbishop Hugo of Lyons and Abbot Richard of Marseilles as schismatics; and confirmed the prohibition of lay investiture.
Victor III., while abbot of Monte Cassino contributed personally to the literary activity of the monastery.
The name - which Bede (730) wrote Mailros and Simeon of Durham (1130) Melros - is derived from the Celtic maol ros, " bare moor," and the town figures in Sir Walter Scott's Abbot and Monastery as "Kennaquhair."
It was colonized from Lindisfarne, Eata, a disciple of Aidan, being the first abbot (651), and Boisil and Cuthbert being priors here.
As a Puritan controversialist he was remarkably active; in 1580 the bishop of Ely appointed him to defend puritanism against the Roman Catholics, Thomas Watson, ex-bishop of Lincoln (1513-1584), and John Feckenham, formerly abbot of Westminster, and in 1581 he was one of the disputants with the Jesuit, Edmund Campion, while in 1582 he was among the clergy selected by the privy council to argue against any papist.
She took it upon herself, however, to supervise the bishoprics and monasteries, and came into conflict with Columban (Columbanus), abbot of Luxeuil.
But Malcolm is accused of putting his legitimate successor out of the way, and thus securing the succession of his own grandson, Duncan, a son of his daughter, Bethoc, and her husband Crinan, protector of the abbey (or lay abbot) of Dunkeld.
After an unhappy childhood, he studied at Heidelberg, and at the age of twenty entered the Benedictine monastery of Sponheim near Kreuznach, of which, in 1485, he became abbot.
In 1506 he resigned, and was appointed soon after abbot of the monastery of St Jakob at Wiirzburg; and in this city he died on the 13th of December 1516.
The abbot (iyovµevos) has the rank of a bishop, and is subject only to the patriarch of Constantinople.
This period, as is well known, was inaugurated, at the end of the 12th century, by the apocalyptic writings of the abbot Joachim of Floris.
From the Franciscans, influenced by Abbot Joachim, the lines of connexion are clearly traceable with Milic of Kremsier (Libellus de Antichristo) and Matthias of Janow.
Of a headstrong temperament, Saisset as abbot energetically sustained the struggle with the counts of Foix, begun two centuries before, for the lordship of the city of Pamiers, which had been shared between the counts and abbots by the feudal contract of pariage.
In 942 or 945 King Edmund had granted to the abbot and convent jurisdiction over the whole town, free from all secular services, and Canute in 1020 freed it from episcopal control.
Edward the Confessor made the abbot lord of the franchise.
The description of the gold and silver retable given to the high altar of Ely by Abbot Theodwin in the 11th century, shows it to have been a large and elaborate piece of work decorated with many reliefs and figures in the round.
From 1798 to 1803 Appenzell, with the other domains of the abbot of St Gall, was formed into the canton Santis of the Helvetic Republic, but in 1803, on the creation of the new canton of St Gall, shrank back within its former boundaries.
Though Aberdaron rectory does not belong to the isle, the farm "Cwrt" (Court), where the abbot held his court, still goes with Bardsey, which was granted to John Wynn of Bodvel, Carnarvonshire, after the battle and partial sack of Norwich by the Puritans in the Civil War; passing through Mary Bodvel to her husband, the earl of Radnor, who sold it to Dr Wilson of York.
In early life he entered St Albans Abbey and in 1420 he was chosen abbot of this house.
In 1440 he resigned his post, but in 1451, on the death of his successor, John Stoke, he became abbot for the second time.
Whethamstede was an energetic and successful abbot.
Whethamstede's Chronicle, or the Registrum abbatiae Johannis Whethamstede, is a register compiled soon after the abbot's death, which tells the events of his second abbacy.
Its most important building is the church dedicated to St Columban, who became first abbot of Bobbio in 595 or 612, and died there in 615.
The story that in 882 he was invited to Oxford by Alfred the Great, that he laboured there for many years, became abbot at Malmesbury, and was stabbed to death by his pupils with their "styles," is apparently without any satisfactory foundation, and doubtless refers to some other Johannes.
The town received the freedom of the Empire in 1308, and maintained its position in spite of the encroachments of Bavaria till 1607, when the interference of the Protestant inhabitants with the abbot of the Heilig-Kreuz called forth an imperial law authorizing the duke of Bavarip to inflict chastisement for the offence.
He continued the struggle against Lothair till October 1135, when he submitted, was pardoned, and recovered his estates; I owing this generous treatment, it is said, to the good offices of St Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux.
Wenceslaus, wishing to found a new bishopric in south-western Bohemia, determined to seize the revenues of the abbey of Kladrub as soon as the aged abbot Racek should die.
The archbishop opposed this plan, and by his orders his vicar-general, John of Pomuk - son of a German named WSlfel, a citizen of Pomuk - advised the monks to elect a new abbot immediately after Racek's death.
Here he wrote a defence of the doctrine of the Real Presence against the Calvinists in the form of an apology for Rupert, abbot of Deutz (Apologia pro Ruperto abbate Tuitensi, Paris, 1669).
Founded in 744 at the instigation of St Boniface by his pupil Sturm, who was the first abbot, it became the centre of a great missionary work.
About 968 the pope declared that its abbot was primate of all the abbots in Germany and Gaul, and later he became a prince of the Empire.
Among the teachers here were Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, who was abbot from 822 to 842, and Walaf rid Strabo.
Johann von Henneberg, who was abbot from 5529 to 1541, showed some sympathy with the teaching of the reformers, but the Counter-Reformation made great progress here under Abbot Balthasar von Dernbach.
In 1752 the abbot was raised to the rank of a bishop, and Fulda ranked as a princebishopric. This was secularized in 1802, and in quick succession it belonged to the prince of Orange, the king of France and the grand-duchy of Frankfort.
He was in high favour with that sovereign, but renounced the prospect of a bishopric to enter the Cistercian house of Rievaulx in Yorkshire, which was founded in 1131 by Walter Espec. Here Ã†lred remained for some time as master of the novices, but between the years 1142 and 1146 was elected abbot of Revesby in Lincolnshire and migrated thither.
In 1146 he became abbot of Rievaulx.
Jouffroy was appointed abbot of Luxeuil (1451?) bishop of Arras (1453), and papal legate (1459).
Each was an independent establishment controlled entirely by its own abbot and apparently divided into two sections, one priestly and the other lay and even marriedAt St Andrews about the year lioo there were thirteen Culdeesholding office by hereditary tenure and paying more regard tQ their own prosperity and aggrandizement than to the services of the church or the needs of the populace.
At Dunkeld, Crinan, the grandfather of Malcolm Canmore, was a lay abbot, and tradition says that even the clerical members were married, though like the priests of the Eastern Church, they lived apart from their wives during their term of sacerdotal service.
Yet we must remember that this bold intuition of the abbot Joachim indicated a monastic reaction against the tyrannies and corruptions of the church, rather than a fertile philosophical conception.
They were replanted by the abbot of Fulda in the 18th century.
This was inaugurated by Montalembert, but its literary advocates were chiefly Dom Gueranger, a learned Benedictine monk, abbot of Solesmes, and Louis Francois Veuillot (1813-1883) of the Univers; and it succeeded in suppressing them everywhere, the last diocese to surrender being Orleans in 1875.
Of the vast range of buildings for the accommodation of the monks hardly any part remains except the abbot's kitchen, noteworthy for its octagonal interior (the exterior plan being square, with the four corners filled in with fireplaces and chimneys), the porter's lodge and the abbey barn.
From the decadent state into which Glastonbury was brought by the Danish invasions it was recovered by Dunstan, who had been educated within its walls and was appointed its abbot about 946.
The church and other buildings of his erection remained till the installation, in 1082, of the first Norman abbot, who inaugurated the new epoch by commencing a new church.
On Savaric's death his successor gave up the joint bishopric and allowed the monks to elect their own abbot.
As early at least as the beginning of the Ilth century the tradition that Arthur was buried at Glastonbury appears to have taken shape; and in the reign of Henry II., according to Giraldus Cambrensis and others, the abbot Henry de Blois, causing search to be made, discovered at the depth of 16 ft.
In 1508 Warham and Goldston having examined the Canterbury shrine reported that it contained all the principal bones of the saint, but the abbot of Glastonbury in reply as stoutly maintained that this was impossible.
In 1539 the last and 60th abbot of Glastonbury, Robert Whyting, was lodged in the Tower on account of "divers and sundry treasons."
The cloth trade flourished for a century and was replaced by silk-weaving, stocking-knitting and glovemaking, all of which have died out., See Abbot Gasquet, Henry VIII.
Appointed by Odo ruler of several counties, including the county of Paris, and abbot in commendam of many abbeys, Robert also secured the office of duke of the Franks, a military dignity of high importance.
A proposal to make him principal of a theological college at Leiden was frustrated by Archbishop Abbot; and when later invited by the state of Friesland to a professoriate at Franeker, the opposition was renewed, but this time abortively.
The story is that the Abbot of St Augustine, Canterbury, diverted the funds by which the sea-wall protecting Earl Godwin's island was kept up, for the purpose of building Tenterden steeple, the consequence being that in 1099 an inundation took place and ."Tenterden steeple was the cause of the Goodwin Sands."
Alfred bequeathed Steyning to his nephew, but it evidently reverted to the Crown, as it was granted by Edward the Confessor to the abbot and convent of Fecamp, with whom it remained until the 15th century.
In the 14th century the abbot of Fecamp held weekly markets in the borough on Wednesdays and Saturdays, and fairs at the Nativity of the Virgin and the Feast of St Michael, by prescriptive right.
After receiving his education at Bologna, he removed to France, bearing a recommendation to Bernard of Clairvaux, who first placed him under Lotolf at Reims, and afterwards sent him to Paris with letters to Gilduin, the abbot of St Victor.
He is also wrongly described as a relative of Archbishop Abbot, from whom he acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his epistles dedicatory of A Hand of Fellowship to Helpe Keepe out Sinne and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that he had "received all" his "worldly maintenance," as well as "best earthly countenance" and "fatherly incouragements."
Very remarkable and effective was Abbot's ministry at Cranbrook, where his parishioners were as his own "sons and daughters" to him.
Robert Abbot's books are conspicuous amongst the productions of his time by their terseness and variety.
Its abbot was mitred.
Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop. As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot.
About 1150 he was a Premonstratensian canon at St Andrews, and some twenty years later abbot and bishop of Candida Casa (Whithorn) in Galloway.
He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire.
The dignity of abbot at Sakya became hereditary, the abbots breaking so far the Buddhist rule of celibacy that they remained married until they had begotten a son and heir.
Under these high officials of the Tibetan hierarchy there come the Chubil Khans, who fill the post of abbot to the lesser monasteries, and are also incarnations.
In 679 he was elected abbot of Hy or Iona, being ninth in succession from the founder, St Columba.
In December 1617, the archbishop of Prague and the abbot of Bfevnov (Braunau) ordered the suppression of the Protestant religious services in churches that had been built on their domains.
The abbot's tower, a stately relic, stands about 2 m.
Lake in Early Days of Monasticism on Mount Athos (1909) traces the development through three well-defined stages in the 9th and 10th centuries - (a) the hermit period, (b) the loose organization of hermits in lauras, (c) the stricter rule of the monastery, with definite buildings and fixed rules under an ii-youµevos or abbot.
The weekly market, now the property of the corporation, was granted to the abbot of St Edmunds as lord of the manor in 1227 together with a yearly fair on the vigil of the feast of St Philip and St James.
He spent two years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in restoring the monastic system, and was abbot of Romsey.
After his return to France he was made abbot of Fleury on the Loire (988).
His tastes were literary, and the earliest fact which he records of his career is that he assisted Abbot Godfrey (1081-1105) in collecting a library for the use of the community.
This work, like the Gesta regum, contains five books; the fifth relates the life and miracles of St Aldhelm of Malmesbury, and is based upon the biography by Abbot Faricius; it is less useful than books i.-iv., which are of the greatest value to the ecclesiastical historian.
Chapter seals may bear the patron saint, or a representation, more or less conventional, of the cathedral; monastic seals may have figures of the Virgin Mary, or other patron saint, or of the founder, or of abbot or abbess; or the conventual building.
It is to be remarked that the standing figure of the bishop in episcopal seals, of the abbot in monastic seals and of the lady in ladies' seals, which was so persistent from the 12th century onwards, proved to be the happy cause of the maintenance of the elegant oval shape in examples of these classes, wherein some of the best balanced designs are to be found.
The abbot was a prince of the Empire, and Corvey was made a bishopric in 1783.
In 930 its lord Gothard abbot of Hersfeld surrounded it with walls.
We get a higher idea of the man from the accounts which his disciples have given us of Ingulphus, abbot of Crowland, who wrote in the reign of William the Conqueror, the bishoprics in England had been, for many years prior to the Norman Conquest, royal donatives conferred by delivery of the ring and of the pastoral staff.
It was during this reign that the archbishopric of Lichfield was abolished, probably before 803, as the Hygeberht who signed as an abbot at the council of Cloveshoe in that year was presumably the former archbishop. Coenwulf appears from the charters to have quarrelled with Wulfred of Canterbury, who was consecrated in 806, and the dispute continued for several years.
When Hilduin was disgraced in 830 for having joined the party of Lothair, Hincmar accompanied him into exile at Corvey in Saxony, but returned with him to St Denis when the abbot was reconciled with the emperor, and remained faithful to the emperor during his struggle with his sons.
To Carloman, on his accession in 882, Hincmar addressed his De ordine palatii, partly based on a treatise (now lost) by Adalard, abbot of Corbie (c. 814), in which he set forth his system of government and his opinion of the duties of a sovereign, a subject he had already touched in his De regis persona et regio rninisterio, dedicated to Charles the Bald at an unknown date, and in his Instructio ad Ludovicum regem, addressed to Louis the Stammerer on his accession in 877.
Quasi jocando, he cited Bede to prove that Dionysius the Areopagite had been bishop of Corinth, while they relied upon the statement of the abbot Hilduin that he had been bishop of Athens.
When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of Corinth.
A church was built, probably in the iith century, and from 1301 to 1.535 the advowson, tithes, &c., belonged to the abbot of Halesowen.
In Abbot Islip's chapel there is a series of effigies in wax, representing monarchs and others.
The monastery was dissolved in 1539, and Westminster was then erected into a bishopric, but only one prelate, Thomas Thurleby, held the office - of bishop. In 1553 Mary again appointed an abbot, but Elizabeth reinstated the dean, with twelve pre- other bendaries.
Abbot at Mount Wilson, with instruments and methods in which Langley's experience is embodied, has reduced it greatly, having proved that one of Langley's corrections was erroneously applied.
Shortly afterwards he was made abbot of Lindores, and in 1565 bishop of Ross, the election to the see being confirmed in the following year.
In 1764 he was elected prince-abbot of St Blasien, and proved himself a model ruler both as abbot and prince.
As a prince of the Empire Gerbert was devoted to the interests of the house of Austria; as a Benedictine abbot he was opposed to Joseph II.'s church policy.
A striking example is that known as Lydden Spout, under Abbot's Cliff, near Dover.
We need mention only the chief of them - the Collectio Anselmo dedicata, by an unknown author of the end of the 9th century; the Libri duo de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis, 3 compiled about 906 by Regino, abbot of Pram, and dedicated to Hatto of Mainz, relatively a very original treatise; the enormous compilation surchard.
The name "abbot," though general in the West, was never universal.
In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined.
Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well.
Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had Soo monks under him, a number exceeded in other cases.
By the rule of St Benedict, which, until the reform of Cluny, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
The rule, as was inevitable, was subject to frequent violations; but it was not until the foundation of the Cluniac Order that the idea of a supreme abbot, exercising jurisdiction over all the houses of an order, was definitely recognized.
New styles were devised to express this new relation; thus the abbot of Monte Cassino was called abbas abbatum, while the chiefs of other orders had the titles abbas generalis, or magister or minister generalis.
Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot any exception.
For the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church (Novellae, 133, c. ii.).
The change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century, and partially so up to the 11th.
The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins, at the council of Arles, A.D.
Of these the precedence was originally yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in A.D.
When a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the confirmation of the election and the benediction of the new abbot.
In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses of the new abbot's journey to Rome.
In some exceptional cases an abbot was allowed to name his own successor.
Cassian speaks of an abbot in Egypt doing this; and in later times we have another example in the case of St Bruno.
The election was for life, unless the abbot was canonically deprived by the chiefs of his order, or when he was directly subject to them, by the pope or the bishop.
The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine abbot in medieval times is thus prescribed by the consuetudinary of Abingdon.
The newly elected abbot was to put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in a procession.
The monks, then kneeling, gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, and rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of office.
The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, limited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until the general establishment of exemptions, by episcopal control.
An abbot also had the power of excommunicating refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess.
The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence by the brethren of his house.
When the abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his chaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if necessary, assisting them.
At St Alban's the abbot took the lord's seat, in the centre of the high table, and was served on silver plate, and sumptuously entertained noblemen, ambassadors and strangers of quality.
The ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be the same as that of the monks.
Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with their men carrying bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs and huntsmen; and special mention is made of an abbot of Leicester, c. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the nobility in harehunting.
For instance, we read of Whiting, the last abbot of Glastonbury, judicially murdered by Henry VIII., that his house was a kind of well-ordered court, where as many as 300 sons of noblemen and gentlemen, who had been sent to him for virtuous education, had been brought up, besides others of a meaner rank, whom he fitted for the universities.
In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system, as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king, Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas Castrensis.
The lay abbot took his recognized rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of his fief as in the case of any other.
Sometimes the monks were directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a substitute to perform the spiritual functions, known usually as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimus, monasticus, regularis).
When the great reform of the i i th century had put an end to the direct jurisdiction of the lay abbots, the honorary title of abbot continued to be held by certain of the great feudal families, as late as the 13th century and later, the actual head of the community retaining that of dean.
In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied the place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior.
In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Abt) is sometimes bestowed, like abbe, as an honorary distinction, and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations.
The abbot of Lokkum, who still carries a pastoral staff, takes precedence of all the clergy of Hanover, and is ex officio a member of the consistory of the kingdom.
The governing body of the abbey consists of abbot, prior and the "convent" of canons (Stiftsherren).
He was successively prior at Lay, abbot at Nancy and of Senones in Lorraine.
According to Domesday, Streatham included several manors, two of which, Tooting and Balham (to follow the modern nomenclature), belonged to the abbot of St Mary de Bec in Normandy.
Among the monastic orders, whose crowded common life seems to have been particularly favorable to the spread of the plague, there were cases where a whole community, from the abbot down to the novices, perished.
This seminary is one of the oldest and most famous theological institutions in the United States; it grew out of the theological teaching previously given in Phillips Academy, and was founded by the widow of Lt.-Governor Samuel Phillips, her son John Phillips and Samuel Abbot (1732-1812).
As lay abbot of the abbeys of St Martin at Tours and of St Denis he was interested in clerical reform, was fond of participating in religious ceremonies, and had many friends among the clergy.
A monastery was subsequently added, and around it the present town of St Albans gradually grew up. Pope Adrian IV., who was born in the neighbourhood, conferred on the abbot of St Alban's the right of precedence over his fellow abbots, a right hitherto attached to the abbey of Glastonbury.
The abbot's palace has a fine Renaissance portico, and contains an interesting museum of local antiquities.
The abbot's power throughout the lordship was almost absolute; he had a market and fair at Dalton, was free from service to the county and wapentake, and held a sheriff's tourn.
The abbot was one of the twenty Cistercian abbots summoned to the parliament of 1264, but was not cited after 1330, as he did not hold of the king in capite per baroniam.
In 1535 the royal commissioners visited the abbey and reported four of its inmates, including the abbot, for incontinence.
In 1536 the abbot was charged with complicity in the Pilgrimage of Grace, and on the 7th of April 1537, under compulsion, surrendered the abbey to the king.
A few monks were granted pensions, and the abbot was endowed with the profits of the rectory of Dalton, valued at £33, 6s.
The portion of Newton Abbot in the parish of Highweek was formerly a separate town, known as Newton Bushel.
Probably both Newton Abbot and Newton Bushel were originally included under the name of Newton.
Newton Abbot was given to the abbot of Tor by William Lord Brewer, founder of the monastery (1196).
When the saga had been fixed by a generation or two of oral reciters, it was written down; and this stereotyped the form, so that afterwards when literary works were composed by learned men (such as Abbot Karl's Swerri's Saga and Sturla's Islendinga) the same style was adopted.
The Lives of King Valdemar and his Son, written c. 1185, by a contemporary of Abbot Karl's, are the last of this series.
The complex work now known as Orkneyinga is made up of the Earls' Saga, lives of the first great earls, Turf-Einar, Thorfinn, &c.; the Life of St Magnus, founded partly on Abbot Robert's Latin life of him (c. 1150) an Orkney work, partly on Norse or Icelandic biographies; a Mirade-book of the same saint; the Lives of Earl Rognwald and Sveyn, the last of the vikings, and a few episodes such as the Burning of Bishop Adam.