Abbé sentence example

abbé
  • The abbe Migne carried his Latin patrology down to the time of Innocent III.
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  • Indeed, at one time it was believed that the best way for them to communicate was through systematized gestures, the sign language invented by the Abbe de l'Epee.
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  • These were to some extent made use of by Prosper Leveque in his Memoires pour servir (1753), as well as by the Abbe Boisot in the Tresor de Granvella.
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  • Even the Roman Catholic Church produced the Abbe Loisy (though he undertakes to play off church certainties against historical uncertainties).
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  • His works were published in 1693 by the Abbe Gallois, in the Recueil of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences.
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  • The head of the college, the abbe Antoine Faure, who was from the same part of the country as himself, befriended the lad, and continued to do so for many years after he had finished his course, finding him pupils and ultimately obtaining for him the post of tutor to the young duke of Chartres, afterwards the regent duke of Orleans.
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  • His financial affairs he had entrusted to the care of the abbe Picot, and as his literary and scientific representative he adopted Mersenne.
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  • The Abbe Migne published a very useful edition of the Summa Theologiae, in four 8vo vols., as an appendix to his Patrologiae Cursus Cornpletus; English editions, J.
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  • Her elder son resigned his title and estates, and became a Jesuit under the name of the Abbe d'Orleans, while the younger, after leading a debauched life, was killed leading the attack in the passage of the Rhine in 1673.
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  • The collected works of Suarez have been printed at Mainz and Lyons (1630), at Venice (1740-1751), at Besancon (1856-1862) and in the collection of the Abbe Migne.
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  • He was educated for the Church, and at the Sorbonne, to which he was admitted in 1749 (being then styled abbe de Brucourt), he delivered two remarkable Latin dissertations, On the Benefits which the Christian Religion has conferred on Mankind, and On the Historical Progress of the Human Mind.
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  • The first sign we have of his interest in economics is a letter (1749) on paper money, written to his fellow student the abbe de Cice, refuting the abbe Terrasson's defence of Law's system.
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  • It was during this period that he met the leaders of the "physiocratic" school, Quesnay and Gournay, and with them Dupont de Nemours, the abbe Morellet and other economists.
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  • Between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet.
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  • It was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray.
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  • Condorcet's statement that Turgot corresponded with Smith is disproved by a letter of Smith to the duc de la Rochefoucauld, published in the Economic Journal (March 1896), p. 165, in which he says, "But tho' I had the happiness of his acquaintance: Turgot owed his appointment to the ministry to Maurepas, the" Mentor "of Louis XVI., to whom he was warmly recommended by the abbe Very, a mutual friend.
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  • Turgot was hated by those who had been interested in the speculations in corn under the regime of the abbe Terray - among whom were included some of the princes of the blood.
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  • On the resignation of Malesherbes (April 1776), whom Turgot wished to replace by the abbe Very, Maurepas proposed to the king as his successor a nonentity named Amelot.
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  • 1257; see also Abbe Berthaud, Gilbert de la Porree (Poitiers, 1892); B.
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  • that of Abbe Sicard, 1810).
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  • The president was Condorcet, and amongst the members were the duc de la Rochefoucault, the Abbe Gregoire, Brissot, Claviere, Petion and La Fayette; Mirabeau was an active sympathizer.
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  • When the news of this reached Paris, it created a strong feeling against the planters; and on the motion of the Abbe Gregoire it was resolved by the assembly on the 15th of May 1791 " that the people of colour resident in the French colonies, born of free parents, were entitled to, as of right, and should be allowed, the enjoyment of all the privileges of French citizens, and among others those of being eligible to seats both in the parochial and colonial assemblies."
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  • In 1904 Dr Carton and the abbe Leynaud discovered huge Christian catacombs with several miles of subterranean galleries to which access is obtained by a small vaulted chamber.
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  • These efforts were inspired by a series of scientific studies and criticisms, chief among which were Vauban's Dime royale, and the Taille tarifee of the Abbe de St.
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  • published his encyclical Providentissimus Deus, which indeed directly condemned not Abbe Loisy's but Mgr d'Hulst's position, yet rendered the continued publication of consistently critical work so difficult that Loisy himself suppressed his Enseignement at the end of 1893.
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  • 7, a text which, in the wake of a line of scholars from Erasmus downwards, Abbe Paulin Martin had, in 1887, exhaustively shown to be no older than the end of the 4th century A.D.
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  • The abbe again declared "it is impossible for me honestly and sincerely to make the act of absolute retractation and submission exacted by the sovereign pontiff."
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  • Any frank recognition of the abbe's even general principles involves the abandonment of the identification of theology with scholasticism or even with specifically ancient thought in general.
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  • The abbe's central position, that our Lord himself held the proximateness of His second coming, involves the loss by churchmen of the prestige of directly divine power, since Church and Sacraments, though still the true fruits and vehicles of his life, death and spirit, cannot thus be immediately founded by the earthly Jesus himself.
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  • A full account of his literary activity and ecclesiastical troubles will be found in Abbe Albert Houtin's La Question biblique au XIX e siècle (Paris, 2nd ed., 1902) and La Question biblique au XX e siècle (Paris, 1906), but the latter especially is largely unfair to the conservatives and sadly lacking in religious feeling.
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  • June I, 1904), the Abbe J.
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  • Briggs, "The Case of the Abbe Loisy," Expositor (London, April 1905), and C. A.
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  • Cardinal Siffrein, who is known as the Abbe Maury (1746-1817), resumed all the known artifices of sermon-style in a volume which has a permanent historical value, the well-known Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire (1810); he was himself rather a fiery politician than a persuasive divine.
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  • There was some revival of the art of the sermon at Versailles a century later, where the Abbe Maury, whose critical work has been mentioned above, preached with vivid eloquence between 1770 and 1785; the Pere Elisee (1726-1783), whom Diderot and Mme Roland greatly admired, held a similar place, at the same time, in Paris.
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  • Among the best authorities on the history of the sermon are Abbe Maury: Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire (2 vols., Paris, 1810); Rothe, Geschichte der Predigt (Bremen, 1881).
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  • de Berulle et les Carmelites; Le Pre de Berulle et l'oratoire de Jesus; Le Cardinal de Berulle et Richelieu (3 vols., 1872-1876), by the Abbe M.
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  • C. Clairault, d'Alembert, Condorcet and the Abbe Marie.
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  • His diligent attendance at the Royal Library attracted the attention of the keeper of the manuscripts, the Abbe Sallier, whose influence procured for him a small salary as student of the oriental languages.
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  • The Abbe Barthelemy procured for him a pension, with the appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal Library.
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  • Francois Hedelin, abbe d'Aubignac >>
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  • Abbe published a somewhat more complete investigation, also founded upon the phenomena presented by gratings.
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  • Lord Rayleigh has recorded that he was himself convinced by Fraunhofer's reasoning at a date antecedent to the writings of Helmholtz and Abbe.
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  • The denominator sin a is the quantity well known (after Abbe) as the " numerical aperture."
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  • A different treatment is then necessary, and for some of the problems which arise under this head the method of Abbe is convenient.
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  • His theological position is clearly defined in a homily on the three doctors - Diodore, Theodore and Nestorius - published by the Abbe Martin in the Journal asiatique for July 1900.
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  • He visited Paris from time to time and established intimate relations with the abbe de Saint Pierre, the abbe Vertot and the mathematician Pierre Varignon.
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  • See also Villemain, Tableau de la littrature francaise au XVIII e siecle; the abbe Trublet, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la vie et des ouvrages de M.
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  • He became abbe of St Vincent on the Volturno "in the time of Desiderius, king of the Lombards."
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  • was not admitted till the following year, when he succeeded the Abbe Alexis de Rochon.
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  • On the other hand, with the efforts towards a rapprochement with the Church of Rome, to which the visit of the French Abbe Portal in 1894 gave some stimulus, the archbishop would have nothing to do.
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  • She pretty certainly was the chief cause of his early introduction to good society, the abbe de Chateauneuf (his sponsor in more ways than one) having been her friend.
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  • The abbe de Chateauneuf instructed him early in belleslettres and deism, and he showed when a child the unsurpassed faculty for facile verse-making which always distinguished him.
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  • The abbe de Chateauneuf died before his godson left school, but he had already introduced him to the famous and dissipated coterie of the Temple, of which the grand prior Vendome was the head, and the poets Chaulieu and La Fare the chief literary stars.
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  • It does not appear that Voltaire got into any great scrapes; but his father tried to break him off from such society by sending him first to Caen and then, in the suite of the marquis de Chateauneuf, the abbe's brother, to the Hague.
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  • The chief and most galling of his critics at this time was the Abbe Desfontaines, and the chief of Desfontaines's attacks was entitled La Voltairomanie, in reply to a libel of Voltaire's called Le Preservatif.
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  • On the 30th of May the priests were once more sent for - to wit, his nephew, the abbe Mignot, the abbe Gaultier, who had officiated on the former occasion, and the parish priest, the cure of St Sulpice.
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  • Metternich especially ascribed this mainly to the "weakness" of the ministry, and when in 1819 the political elections still further illustrated this trend, notably by the election of the celebrated Abbe Gregoire, it began to be debated whether the time had not come to put in force the terms of the secret treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
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  • The next and most important forward step in the progress of optical glass manufacture was initiated by Ernst Abbe and carried out jointly by him and 0.
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  • On the other hand, while in the older crown and flint glasses the relation between refraction and dispersion had been practically fixed, dispersion and refraction increasing regularly with the density of the glass, in some of the new glasses introduced by Abbe and Schott this relation is altered and a relatively low refractive index is accompanied by a relatively high dispersion, while in others a high refractive index is associated with low dispersive power.
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  • Following in the steps of the Abbe Charles Bossut (Nouvelles Experiences sur la resistance des fluides, 1777), he published, in 1786, a revised edition of his Principes d'hydraulique, which contains a satisfactory theory of the motion of fluids, founded solely upon experiments.
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  • Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.
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  • Later magazines were L'Echo du cabinet du lecture paroissial (Montreal, 18 59), 15 vols.; Le Foyer canadien (Quebec, 1863-1866), one of the most interesting French-Canadian reviews; La Revue canadienne, which was started at Montreal in 1864, and contained the best writings of contemporary French-Canadian litterateurs; La Revue de Montreal (1877-1881), edited by the abbe T.
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  • Colbert, seeing the public utility of such a periodical, ordered the abbe Gallois, a contributor of De Sallo's, to re-establish it, an event which took place on the 4th of January 1666.
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  • It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was replaced in 1675 by the abbe de la Roque, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin, in 1686.
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  • It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768-1775) by the abbe Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778), and as Journal de litterature, des sciences, et des arts (1779-1782) by the abbe Grosier.
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  • Religious periodicals date from 1680, and the Journal ecclesiastique of the abbe de la Roque, to whom is also due the first medical journal (1683).
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  • Among the contributors of Freron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbe de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrere, founded Observations sur la litterature moderne (1749-1752) and L'Observateur litteraire (1758-1761).
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  • See Francisque Michel, Histoire des races maudites de France et d'Espagne (Paris, 1846); Abbe Venuti, Recherches sur les Cahets de Bordeaux (1754); Bulletins de la societe anthropologique (1861, 1867, 1868, 1871); Annales medico-psychologiques (Jan.
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  • He entered holy orders and ultimately attained the rank of abbe; but his tastes all lay in the direction of experimental research, especially on the subject of electricity.
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  • To the Abbe Rochon (Jour.
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  • She was brought up under a simple and austere regime and educated with a view to the French marriage arranged by Maria Theresa, the abbe Vermond being appointed as her tutor in 1769.
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  • When a proposal was set on foot to bring about a reconciliation between the Roman Church and the Christian Churches of the East, the Abbe Duchesne endeavoured to show that the union of those churches was possible under the Roman supremacy, because unity did not necessarily entail uniformity.
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  • de Rossi and the abbe Louis Duchesne; in 1902, the Propylaeum ad Ada Sanctorum Novembris, comprising the Synaxarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae.
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  • In addition to these, there is a volume of tables, edited by the abbe Rigollot.
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  • Only some such position as Abbe Loisy's critical summing up (1903) brings out its specific greatness.
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  • Among the few critically satisfactory French books, Abbe Loisy's Le Quatrieme evangile (1903) stands pre-eminent for delicate psychological analysis and continuous sense of the book's closely knit unity; whilst Pere Th.
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  • In the 18th century the abbe Banier, in his Mythologie et la fable pliquees par l'histoire, was frankly Euhemeristic; other leading Euhemerists were Clavier, Sainte-Croix, Raoul Rochette, Em.
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  • His college course, begun at Amiens under the abbe Jacques Delille, was finished in Paris, where he took a scholarship at the college of Plessis.
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  • His first published writings consist of articles forming part of the Traite de mecanique (1774) of the Abbe Marie, who was his professor; Legendre's name, however, is not mentioned.
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  • He presents himself to us much more like a transplanted French abbe than a Pole.
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  • Albert's works (published in twenty-one folios by the Dominican Pierre Jammy in 1651, and reproduced by the Abbe Borgnet, Paris, 1890, 36 vols.) sufficiently attest his great activity.
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  • A greater originality in the method of teaching the ancient languages was exemplified by Fenelon, whose views were partially reflected by the Abbe Fleury, who also desired the simplification of grammar, the diminution of composition, and even the suppression of Latin verse.
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  • 29 a New Testament, connected with the name of the Abbe de Barneville, a priest of the Oratory at Paris.
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  • 3 He was also attacked by Arch, The duke undertook a translation of the Theory of Moral Sentiments, but the Abbe Blavet's version appeared (1774) before his was completed and he then relinquished the design.
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  • These deities are not easily ' One of the most important sources for the ancient Mexican traditions and myths is the so-called " Codex Chimalpopoca," a manuscript in the Mexican language discovered by the Abbe analysed, but on the other hand Tonatiuh and Metztli, the sun and moon, stand out distinctly as nature gods, and the traveller still sees in the huge adobe pyramids of Teotihuacan, with their sides oriented to the four quarters, an evidence of the importance of their worship. The war-god Huitzilopochtli was the real head of the Aztec pantheon; his idol remains in Mexico, a huge block of basalt on which is sculptured on the one side his hideous personage, adorned with the humming-bird feathers on the left hand which signify his name, while the not less frightful war-goddess Teoyaomiqui, or " divine wardeath," occupies the other side.
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  • The best modern edition is that of the Abbe Blampignon (Paris, 1865-1868, 4 vols.; new ed.
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  • See Abbe Blampignon, Massillon, d'apres des documents inedits (Paris, 1879); and L'Episcopat de Massillon d'apres des documents inedits, suivi de sa correspondance (Paris, 1884); F.
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  • He was badly brought up by a feeble father, a mother who combined immorality with religion, and a libertine abbe.
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  • The Abbe Ferland Was An Enthusiastic Editor And Historian, And Etienne Parent Should.
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  • The Abbe Casgrain' Devoted A Life Time To Making The French Canadians Appear As The Chosen People Of New World History; But, Though An Able' Advocate, He Spoilt A Really Good Case By Trying To Prove Too Much.
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  • There is a selection of Gratry's writings and appreciation of his style by the Abbe Pichot, in Pages choisies des Grands Ecrivains series, published by Armand-Colin (1897).
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  • Chauvin, L' Abbe Gratry (1901); Le Pere Gratry (1900), and Les Derniers Jours du Pere Gratry et son testament spirituel, (1872), by Cardinal Adolphe Perraud, Gratry's friend and disciple.
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  • They then came to his second son, Francois du Fresne, who sold the collection, the greater part of the manuscripts being purchased by the abbe du Champs.
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  • The abbe handed them over to a bookseller named Mariette, who resold part of them to Baron Hohendorf.
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  • Sorby and, later, Abbe, designed instruments on the same principle to be used in connexion with the microscope.
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  • Though a Catholic priest and professor of history at the Catholic university of Lyons, the Abbe (afterwards Canon) Chevalier knew how to maintain an independent critical attitude even in religious questions.
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  • 121 (C. Abbe); Astr.
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  • See, for information specially relating to the whole subject, the Abbe Desgodin's Mission du Thibet de 1855 a 1870 (Verdun, 1872); and "Account of the Pundit's Journey in Great Tibet," in the Royal Geographical Society's Journal for 1877.
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  • The exiled abbe Vincenzo Gioberti championed an Italian confederacy under the presidency of the pope; hand in hand with the unity of the nation should go the unity of the faith.
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  • His chief successes were attained by portraits, and those of Charles Nodier and the Abbe Lamennais became widely popular.
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  • But the Abbe Huc states that William Moorcroft, an Englishman who made a journey into Tibet in the neighbourhood of Lake Manasarowar in 1812, and another into Kashgar in 1824, lived in Lhasa for twelve years disguised as a Mussulman.
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  • In 1866 the Abbe Desgodins travelled through portions of eastern Tibet and reached Chiamdo (in Kham), but was prevented from approaching any closer to Lhasa.
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  • (1714); Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1907), i., § i i; Abbe Marin, Les Moines de Constantinople (1897); Karl Holl, Enthusiasmus and Bussgewalt beim griechischen Monchtum (1898); Otto Zockler, Askese and Monchtum, pp. 28 5-3 0 9 (1897).
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  • The work of the Abbe Hely contains a life of Grotius.
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  • The Memoires of Marshal Berwick, revised, annotated and continued by the Abbe Hooke, were published by the marshal's grandson in 1778.
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  • Rabbe, L' Abbe Simon Foucher (1867); C. Jourdain in Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques (1875), pp. 557-559.
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  • The young prince was educated at his father's miniature court in Rome, with James Murray, Jacobite earl of Dunbar, for his governor, and under various tutors, amongst whom were the learned Chevalier Ramsay, Sir Thomas Sheridan and the abbe Legoux.
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  • It was translated into French by Mauvillon (1753) and by the Abbe le Blanc (1754).
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  • 19; Abbe Lezat, De la predication sous Henri IV.
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  • Valentiner in Physische Zeitung (1905); Abbe in Medical Record (October 1907).
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  • To this, which seems authentic, is usually added the tradition (due to the abbe Boileau) that afterwards he used at times to see an imaginary precipice by his bedside, or at the foot of the chair on which he was sitting.
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  • (Fn3) The Cathar rites, which remain to us in a manual of the sect, "recall," says the Abbe Guiraud, no too favourable a witness, "those of the primitive church with a truth and precision the more striking the nearer we go back to the apostolic age."
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  • Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.
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  • "Is it not curious," says the Abbe Guiraud, "to remark that the essential rite of the consolamentum is in effect nothing but the most ancient form of Christian ordination?"
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  • (Fn3) The Abbe Guiraud remarks that in refusing to take oaths the Cathars "contraried the social principles on which the constitutions of all states repose," and congratulates himself that society is not yet so thoroughly "laicized" as to have given up oaths in the most important acts of social life.
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  • Prof. Cleveland Abbe (20) has given a full historical account of the subject to which reference may be made for further details.
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  • The Abbe Raynal wrote for the Mercure de France, and compiled a series of popular but superficial works, which he published and sold himself.
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  • The other chief collaborators were Pechmeja, Holbach, Paulze, the farmergeneral of taxes, the Abbe Martin, and Alexandre Deleyre.
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  • offered him the Polish crown, and by means of bribes the abbe de Polignac secured his election.
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  • The Abbe Emmanuel H.
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  • Marignan questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the tapestry, as the Abbe de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before; but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M.
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  • See also the Bibliographie de Paris avant 1789, by the Abbe Valentin Dufour (1882).
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  • said of his sermon: "If the abbe had only said a few words on religion he would have discussed every possible subject."
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  • iv.); Mgr Ricard, L' Abbe Maury (1746-1791), L' Abbe Maury avant 1789, L' Abbe Maury et Mirabeau (1887); G.
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  • Young Gay-Lussac received his early education at home under the direction of the abbe Bourdieux and other masters, and in 1794 was sent to Paris to prepare for the Ecole Polytechnique, into which he was admitted at the:end of 1797 after a brilliant examination.
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  • In 1804 the Abbe Buee (Phil.
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  • This was condemned by certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the name of "Abbe Valentin" in Le Miroir sans tache (Paris, 1680).
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  • Lobo's own narrative was translated from a MS. copy into French in 1728 by the Abbe Joachim le Grand, under the title of Voyage historique d'Abissinie.
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  • He attended the meetings of the Saint-Simonists, lent an ear to the romantic mysticism of Pere Enfantin and later to the teaching of Abbe Lamennais.
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  • From 1869 onwards Abbe Liszt divided his time between Rome and Weimar, where during the summer months he received pupils - gratis as formerly - and, from 1876 up to his death at Bayreuth on the 31st of July 1886, he also taught for several months every year at the Hungarian Conservatoire of Budapest.
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  • Church history was allowed to be represented by such men as the Abbe Darras; and many French Catholics were ready to accept without question what the Bollandist Pere de Smedt has not hesitated to call the historical errors and lies of Charles Bartelemy.
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  • The most compendious of all works of reference on the subject, though partly antiquated, is the Encyclopedia theologique of the Abbe Migne (1844-66), Ser.
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  • Priestley, and Canton continued the investigation, but it was reserved for the Abbe flatly to throw a clear light on this curious branch of the science (Traite de mineralogie, 1801).
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  • conclusions are set aside by the abbe E.
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  • His numerous works include the musical comedy, Pierre le Grand (1790), for Gretry's music, and the opera, Les Deux Journees (1800), music by Cherubini; also L' Abbe de l'epee (1800), and some other plays; and Causeries d'un vieillard (1807), Contes a ma fille (1809), and Les Adieux du vieux conteur (1835).
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  • According to the Abbe Soulavie, the duke of Richelieu's advice was to reflect on Voltaire's "last utterances" on the subject.
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  • d'Estrades, abbe of Moissac, and Mattioli was promptly lodged in the fortress of Pignerol.
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  • as an intermediary with the Catholic Church and with the object of making him his own private confessor; he returned from Rome at the beginning of 1669, and is then identified by Monsignor Barnes with a certain Abbe Pregnani, an "astrologer" sent by Louis in February 1669 to influence Charles II.
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  • His intimate friend, the Abbe Bremond, gave him the last absolution and remained with him until his death on the 15th of July 1909.
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  • See Abbe Poiret, Voyage en Barbarie .
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  • One of the earliest native histories of Chile was that of Abbe J.
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  • Amunatequi, Descubri miento y conquista de Chile (Santiago, 1885), a valuable detailed account of the Spanish conquest; by same author, Los Precursores de la independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1870), a clear useful description of the evils of the Spanish colonial system; Horacio Lara, Cronica de la Araucania (Santiago, 1889), a history of the Araucanian Indians right up to recent dates; Abbe Eyzaguirre, Histoire du Chili (Lille, 1855), mainly dealing with the position of the Church during the colonial period.
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  • Math., 1858, and Ernst Abbe') showed that the properties of these reproductions, i.e.
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  • the relative position and magnitude of the images, are not special properties of optical systems, but necessary consequences of the supposition (in Abbe) of the reproduction of all points of a space in image points (Maxwell assumes a less general hypothesis), and are independent of the manner in which the reproduction is effected.
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  • This hole is termed the " stop " or " diaphragm "; Abbe used the term " aperture stop " for both the hole and the limiting margin of the 1 The investigations of E.
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  • Abbe on geometrical optics, originally published only in his university lectures, were first compiled by S.
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  • This ray, named by Abbe a " principal ray " (not to be confused with the " principal rays " of the Gaussian theory), passes through the centre of the entrance pupil before the first refraction, and the centre of the exit pupil after the last refraction.
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  • von Rohr, Die Bilderzeugung in optischen Instrumenten, pp. 3 1 7-3 2 3) have represented Kerber's method, and have deduced the Seidel formulae from geometrical considerations based on the Abbe method, and have interpreted the analytical results geometrically (pp. 212-316).
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  • Abbe and 0.
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  • Abbe and O.
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  • Abbe succeeded in computing microscope objectives free from error of the axis point and satisfying the sine condition for several colours, which therefore, according to his definition, were " aplanatic for several colours "; such systems he termed " apochromatic."
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  • The ideas of Abbe were first dealt with in S.
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  • Czapski, Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe, published separately at Breslau in 1893, and as vol.
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  • Eppenstein, was published at Leipzig in 1903 with the title, Grundziige der Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe, and in vol.
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  • Le Calvaire (1887), a chapter of which on the defeat of 1870 aroused much discussion, was followed by L' Abbe Jules (1888), the story of a mad priest; by Sebastien Roch (1890), a bitter picture of the Jesuit school in which his own early years were spent; Le Jardin des supplices (1899), a Chinese story; Les Memoires d'une femme de chambre (1901); and Les Vingt-et-un jours d'un neurasthenique (1902).
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  • The boy was brought up at Lyons and was strongly influenced by one of his masters, the Abbe Noirot.
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  • According to the abbe Chatelain (quoted in Diderot's Encyclopedie, s.v.
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  • 238-303; article " Cierges et lampes," in the Abbe J.
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  • - The best complete edition of Fenelon was brought out by the abbe Gosselin of Saint Sulpice (Io vols., Paris, 1851).
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  • The fact that a pair of plates which repel one another at a certain distance may attract one another at a smaller distance was deduced by Laplace from theory, and verified by the observations of the abbe Haiiy.
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  • Thereupon, in defiance of the archbishop, the abbe Baradere gave him the viaticum, while the rite of extreme unction was administered by the abbe Guillon, an opponent of the civil constitution, without consulting the archbishop or the parish cure.
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  • On the day after his death Gregoire's funeral was celebrated at the church of the Abbaye-aux-Bois; the clergy of the church had absented themselves in obedience to the archbishop's orders, but mass was sung by the abbe Grieu assisted by two clergy, the catafalque being decorated with the episcopal insignia.
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  • Debidour, L' Abbe Gregoire (1881); A.
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  • The sermon for the success of the arms of Portugal against Holland was considered by the Abbe Raynal to be "perhaps the most extraordinary discourse ever heard from a Christian pulpit."
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  • - a valuable study; Joao Francisco Lisboa, Vida (5th ed., Rio, 1891) - he is unjust to Vieira, but may be consulted to check the next writer; Abbe E.
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  • There he imbibed the theories of his uncle the Abbe Cornelius de Pauw (1739-1799), philosopher, geographer and diplomatist at the court of Frederick the Great.
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  • After this he was known as "the orator of the human race," by which title he called himself, dropping that of baron, and substituting for his baptismal names the pseudonym of Anacharsis, from the famous philosophical romance of the Abbe Jean Jacques Barthelemy.
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  • SAINT - PIERRE, CHARLES IRENEE [[Castel, (Abbe De]] (1658-1743), French writer, was born at the château de SaintPierre-l'Eglise near Cherbourg on the 18th of February 1658.
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  • His Projet de paix perpetuelle, which was destined to exercise considerable influence on the development of the various schemes for securing universal peace which culminated in the Holy Alliance, was published in 1713 at Utrecht, where he was acting as secretary to the French plenipotentiary, the Abbe de Polignac, and his Polysynodie contained severe strictures on the government of Louis XIV., with projects for the administration of France by a system of councils for each department of government.
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  • That she was the daughter of Audibert de Noves and the wife of Hugh de Sade rests partly on tradition and partly on documents which the abbe de Sade professed to have copied from originals in the, 8th century.
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  • Nothing is now extant to prove that, if this lady really existed, she was the Laura of the Canzoniere, while there are reasons for suspecting that the abbe was either the fabricator of a romance flattering to his own family, or the dupe, of some previous impostor.
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  • Originally destined for the church, Eugene was known at court as the petit abbe, but his own predilection was strongly for the army.
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  • For Hincmar's political and ecclesiastical theories see preface to Maurice Prou's edition of the De ordine palatii (Paris, 1885), and the abbe Lesne, La Hierarchie episcopale en Gaule et en Germanie (Paris, 1905).
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  • Of the exceedingly numerous writings relative to Corneille we may mention the Recueil de dissertations'sur plusieurs tragedies de Corneille et de Racine of the abbe Granet (Paris, 1740), the criticisms already alluded to of Voltaire, La Harpe and Palissot, the well-known work of Guizot, first published as Vie de Corneille in 1813 and revised as Corneille et son temps in 1852, and the essays, repeated in his Portraits litte'raires, in Port-Royal, and in the Nouveaux Lundis of Sainte-Beuve.
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  • ii (3rd ed., 1857; French translation by the abbe Crouzet); Vering, 3rd ed.
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  • abbe), the head and chief governor of a community of monks, called also in the East hegumenos or archimandrite.
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  • The title abbe (Ital.
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  • The connexion many of them had with the church was of the slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting the name of abbe, after a remarkably moderate course of theological study, practising celibacy and wearing a distinctive dress - a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar.
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  • Nearly every great family had its abbe.
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  • The class did not survive the Revolution; but the courtesy title of abbe, having long lost all connexion in people's minds with any special ecclesiastical function, remained as a convenient general term applicable to any clergyman.
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  • In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Abt) is sometimes bestowed, like abbe, as an honorary distinction, and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations.
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  • Glover, Life and Letters in the Fourth Century (1901); Abbe Gimazane, Ammianus Marcellinus, sa vie et son oeuvre (Toulouse, 1889), a work containing a number of very doubtful theories.
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  • He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers, and sent it to the princess for her own private use; but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbe Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person.
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  • The abbe, however, lent his copy to M Freret, an antiquary at Paris, who translated it, and endeavoured to refute it.
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  • In these remarks Sir Isaac charged the abbe with a breach of promise, and gave a triumphant answer to the objections which Freret had urged against his system.
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  • For it was in 1716 that Leibnitz, in a letter to the Abbe Conti, proposed a problem for solution " for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts."
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  • In the following year Dr Pusey published a translation of the Abbe J.
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  • Pusey, Advice, F&c., being the Abbe Gaume's Manual for Confessors, &c. (Oxford, 1878); Carter, The Doctrine of Confession in the Church of England (London, 1885); H.
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  • The abbe Banier published a mythological compilation in which he systematically resolved all the Greek myths into ordinary history.
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  • An example of these is found in the work called Anecdotes sur l'etat de religion dans la Chine (Paris, 1733-35), the author of which (Abbe Villers) speaks of the T'ien-chu shih-i in this fashion: "The Jesuit was also so ill versed in the particulars of the faith that, as the holy bishop of Conon, Monsgr.
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  • In the Huetiana (1722) of the abbe d'Olivet will be found material for arriving at an idea of his prodigious labours, exact memory and wide scholarship. Another posthumous work was his Traite philosophique de la faiblesse de l'esprit humain (Amsterdam, 1723).
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  • Its earliest ascertained appearance is in the Abbe Irailh's Querelles litteraires (vol.
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  • Only one of its latter-day disciples, however, rose to real eminence; this was the Abbe Henri Gregoire, who played a considerable part in the French Revolution.
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  • The function n sin u = A, for the microscope, has been called by Abbe the numerical aperture.
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  • Abbe applied the Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena to the explanation of the representation in the microscope of uniformly illuminated objects.
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  • If a grating is placed as object before the microscope objective, Abbe showed that in the image there is intermittent clear and dark banding only, if at least two consecutive diffraction spectra enter into the objective and contribute towards the image.
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  • (From Abbe, Theorie der Bilderzeugung Mikroskop.) of direct lighting, so that a banding of double the fineness can be perceived, by inclining the illuminating pencil to the axis; this is controlled by moving the diaphragm laterally.
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  • Abbe showed that for the production of an image the diffraction maxima must lie within the exit pupil of the objective.
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  • Still more strikingly is this phenomenon shown by Abbe's diffraction plate (fig.
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  • If 0.55 µ is assumed for daylight observation, then according to Abbe (Journ.
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  • The representation, free from aberration, of a small surface-element, is only possible, as Abbe has shown, if the objective simultaneously fulfils the " sine-condition," i.e.
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  • According to Abbe, a system can only be regarded as aplanatic if it is spherically corrected for not only one axial point, but when it also fulfils the sine-condition and thus magnifies equally in all zones a surface-element situated vertically on the axis at this point.
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  • By experiment Abbe proved that old, good microscope objectives, which by mere testing had become so corrected that they produced usable images, were not only free from spherical aberrations, but also fulfilled the sine-condition, and were therefore really aplanatic systems.
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  • Abbe called such systems " apochromats."
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  • Abbe in 1878 in the Zeiss workshops at the instigation of J.
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  • Abbe in 1886 in the so-called apochromatic objective.
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  • Abbe overcame this defect by using the so-called compensation ocular, made with Jena glasses.
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  • The Abbe apparatus consists of a condenser, movable iris diaphragm, and mirror (fig.
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  • - Abbe Illuminating Apparatus with Ordinary Condenser (Zeiss).
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  • The Abbe apparatus makes this easy.
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  • If an Abbe lighting apparatus is used a dark field diaphragm (fig.
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  • A microscope for two eyes can also be obtained by employing the Abbe stereoscopic eyepiece.
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  • Abbe, through the so-called delicate ray transmission, suggested a way by which the quality of the images of objectives can be observed.
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  • Abbe's test plate consists of an object carrier on which six cover glasses of exactly determined thickness (between 0.09 mm.
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  • - Abbe's Apertometer (Zeiss).
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  • He was ordained in 1651, and embarked on the ambitious and worldly career of a court abbe in the days of Louis XIV.
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  • Serrant, L' Abbe de Rance et Bossuet (1903).
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  • Abbe, after the founding of -the glassworks at Jena, who effected, independently of his predecessors,.
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  • Abbe and A.
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  • Of special importance is the work of Abbe; although, as he himself has stated, his methods accidentally led to the Wenham system, he certainly was far above his predecessors in his theoretical treatment of the problem, and in the perspicuity and clearness of his explanation.
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  • Abbe and C. Pulfrich), constructed the first stereoscopic range-finder suitable for practical use.
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  • apochromatic objectives can come in plan forms. aplanatic - a better corrected condenser than the commonest Abbe design.
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  • PERE DAVID'S DEER, the mi-lou of the Chinese, an aberrant and strangely mule-like deer (q.v.), the first evidence of whose existence was made known in Europe by the Abbe (then Pere) David, who in 1865 obtained the skin of a specimen from the herd kept at that time in the imperial park at Pekin.
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  • An interesting estimate of John as an ecclesiastic and author was given by the Abbe Duchesne in a memoir read before the five French Academies on the 25th of October 1892.
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  • The Abbe Pierre Batifol, in his Etudes d'histoire et de theologie positive, 2 me serie (Elaboration de la notion de conversion, and Conversion et transubstantiation) treats it from the point of view of development (V.
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  • Lauras, Bourdaloue, sa vie et ses oeuvres (2 vols., Paris, 1881); Abbe Blampignon, Etude sur Bourdaloue (Paris, 1886); Henri Cherot, Bourdaloue inconnu (Paris, 1898), and Bourdaloue, sa correspondance et ses correspondans (Paris, 1898-1904); L.
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  • This he followed up by an encyclical on the unity of the Church (Sails cognitum, 29th June 1896); and the question of the validity of Anglican ordinations from the Roman Catholic point of view having been raised in Rome by Viscount Halifax, with whom the abbe Louis Duchesne and one or two other French priests were in sympathy, a commission was appointed to consider the subject, and on the 15th of September 1896 a condemnation of the Anglican form as theologically insufficient was issued, and was directed to be taken as final.
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  • Here he was influenced, as to biblical languages and textual criticism, by the learned and loyal-minded Abbe Paulin Martin, and as to a vivid consciousness of the true nature, gravity and urgency of the biblical problems and an Attic sense of form by the historical intuition and the mordant irony of Abbe Louis Duchesne.
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  • A full account of his literary activity and ecclesiastical troubles will be found in Abbe Albert Houtin's La Question biblique au XIX e siècle (Paris, 2nd ed., 1902) and La Question biblique au XX e siècle (Paris, 1906), but the latter especially is largely unfair to the conservatives and sadly lacking in religious feeling.
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  • 16, 1904) discuss the relations between faith and the affirmation of phenomenal happenings; Paul Sabatier, "Les Derniers Ouvrages de l'Abbe Loisy," in the Revue chretienne (Dole, 1904) and Paul Desjardins' Catholicisme et critique (Paris, 1905), a Broad Church Protestant's and a moralist agnostic's delicate appreciations; a revue of Les Evangiles synoptiques by the Abbe Mangenot, in Revue du Clerge francais (Feb.
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  • Great attention has been given lately to the important experiments upon the results of hybridizing certain cultivated varieties of plants which were published so long ago as 1865, by the Abbe Mendel, but failed to attract notice until thirty-five years later, sixteen years after his death (see Mendelism).
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  • The initiative of Abbe and Schott, which was greatly aided by the resources for scientific investigation available at the Physikalische Reichsanstalt (Imperial Physical Laboratory), led to such important developments that similar work was undertaken in France by the firm of Mantois, the successors of Feil, and somewhat later by Chance in England.
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  • Marivaux brought out a Spectateur Francais (1722), which was coldly received; it was followed by fourteen or fifteen others, under the titles of La Spectatrice (1728-1730), Le Radoteur (1775), Le Babillard (1778-1779), &c. Of a similar character was Le Pour et le contre (1723-1740) of the abbe Prevost, which contained anecdotes and criticism, with special reference to Great Britain.
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  • Under the electoral law of 1817 the Abbe Gregoire, who was popularly supposed to have voted for the death of Louis XVI.
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  • The elections were the cause of a flood of pamphlets, of which one, Offrande a la patrie, was by Marat, and, though now forgotten, dwelt on much the same points as the famous brochure of the Abbe Sieyes: Qu'estce que le tiers Nat?
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  • In Alsace-Lorraine German-speaking immigrants are gradually displacing, under 1 Schemes of thinkers, like William Penn's European Parliament (1693); the Abbe St Pierre's elaboration (c. 1700) of Henry IV.'s " grand design " (see supra); Jeremy Bentham's International Tribunal (1786-1789); Kant's Permanent Congress of Nations and Perpetual Peace (1796); John Stuart Mill's Federal Supreme Court; Seeley's, Bluntschli's, David Dudley Field's, Professor Leone Levi's, Sir Edmund Hornby's co-operative schemes for promoting law and order among nations, have all contributed to popularizing in different countries the idea of a federation of mankind for the preservation of peace.
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  • The component S 1 of the system, situated between the aperture stop and the object 0, projects an image of the diaphragm, termed by Abbe the " entrance pupil "; the " exit pupil " is the image formed by the component S2 j which is placed behind the aperture stop. All rays which issue from 0 and pass through the aperture stop also pass through the entrance and exit pupils, since these are images of the aperture stop. Since the maximum aperture of the pencils issuing from 0 is the angle u subtended by the entrance pupil at this point, the magnitude of the aberration will be determined by the position and diameter of the entrance pupil.
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  • These aberrations are avoided if, according to Abbe, the " sine condition," sin u'1/sin u, = sin u' 2 /sin u 2, holds for all rays reproducing the point O.
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  • ==Analytic Treatment of Aberrations== The preceding review of the several errors of reproduction belongs to the " Abbe theory of aberrations," in which definite aberrations are discussed separately; it is well suited to practical needs, for in the construction of an optical instrument certain errors are sought to be eliminated, the selection of which is justified by experience.
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  • In practice it is more advantageous (after Abbe) to determine the chromatic aberration (for instance, that of the distance of intersection) for a fixed position of the object, and express it by a sum in which each component contains the amount due to each refracting surface (see Czapski-Eppenstein, op. cit.
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  • SAINT - PIERRE, CHARLES IRENEE [[Castel, (Abbe De]] (1658-1743), French writer, was born at the château de SaintPierre-l'Eglise near Cherbourg on the 18th of February 1658.
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  • (Brunswick, 1888); Abbe Albe, Autour de Jean XXII.
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  • This defect can be avoided (after Abbe) if a small central portion of the back surface of the front lens be ground away and blackened; this portion should exactly catch the direct cone of rays, whilst the edges of the lens let the deflected cone of rays pass through (fig.
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  • The difference of chromatic magnification cannot even be overcome in apochromats, and to cancel this aberration Abbe devised the compensating ocular (fig.
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  • Abbe constructed a simple instrument for the determination of the aperture, termed the apertometer (fig.
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  • And also the Abbe Morio.
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  • The Abbe Morio and many others had also come.
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  • Anna Pavlovna in dismay detained him with the words: Do you know the Abbe Morio?
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  • With his head bent, and his big feet spread apart, he began explaining his reasons for thinking the abbe's plan chimerical.
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  • One, chiefly masculine, had formed round the abbe.
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  • Pierre had managed to start a conversation with the abbe about the balance of power, and the latter, evidently interested by the young man's simple-minded eagerness, was explaining his pet theory.
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  • "The means are... the balance of power in Europe and the rights of the people," the abbe was saying.
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  • Not letting the abbe and Pierre escape, Anna Pavlovna, the more conveniently to keep them under observation, brought them into the larger circle.
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  • When he returned to Moscow his father dismissed the abbe and said to the young man, Now go to Petersburg, look round, and choose your profession.
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  • On his right sat the Italian abbe whom Pierre had met at Anna Pavlovna's two years before.
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  • After that a long-frocked abbe was brought to her.
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  • But the abbe, though he evidently enjoyed the beauty of his companion, was absorbed in his mastery of the matter.
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  • Washington, DC: ABBE Publishers Association of Washington, DC, 2003.
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  • Washington, DC: ABBE Publishers Association of Washington, DC, 2001.
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