Abbasid sentence example
With the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty, a new epoch in Arabian poetry began.
The Arab city, the old or round city of Bagdad, was founded by the caliph Mansur of the Abbasid dynasty on the west side of the Tigris just north of the Isa canal in A.D.
The ruling dynasty of Julanda in their capital Suhar lasted on till the Abbasid period.
The growth of city life in the Abbasid capital led to the desire for a new form of story, differing from the old tales of desert life.
When the seat of the Fatimite Empire was removed to Egypt, the Zirites, a house of the Sanhaja Berbers, ruled as their lieutenants at Mandia, and about 1050 Mo`izz the Zirite, in connexion with a religious movement against the Shiites, transferred his very nominal allegiance to the Abbasid caliphs.Advertisement
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
There were titular caliphs of Abbasid descent in Egypt from that date till 1517 when the last caliph was captured by Selim I.
The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.
It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.
His arms were successful both in Europe and Asia, and he was the first Ottoman sovereign to be styled "sultan," which title he induced the titular Abbasid caliph to confer on him.Advertisement
Like other provinces of the later Abbasid Caliphate its rulers were, during this period, able to establish quasi-independent dynasties, such being those of the Tulunids who ruled from 868 to 905, and the Ikshidis from 935969.
This dynasty lasted till 1171, when Egypt was again embodied in the Abbasid empire by Saladin, who, however, was himself the founder of a quasiindependent dynasty called the Ayyubites or Ayyubids, which lasted till 1252.
The Abbasid period was marked at its commencement by the erection of a new capital to the north of Fostat, bearing the name Askar or camp. Apparently at this time the practice of farming the taxes began, which naturally led to even greater extortion than before; and a fresh rising of the Copts is recorded for the fourth year of Abbasid rule.
He is even said to have given orders to substitute the name of the Fatimite caliph for that of the Abbasid in public prayer, but to have been warned of the unwisdom of this course.
The Egyptian court, chiefly owing to the jealousy of the vizier, sent no efficient aid to Basgsiri, and after a year Bagdad was retaken by the SeljUk Toghrul Beg, and the Abbasid caliph restored to his rights.Advertisement
Sultan Bibars, who proved to be one of the most competent of the Baliri Mamelukes, made Egypt the centre of the Moslem world by re-establishing in theory the Abbasid caliphate, which had lapsed through the taking of Bagdad by Hulagu, followed by the execution of the caliph.
Bibars recognized the claim of a certain Abul-Qasim Abmed to be the son of Zahir, the 35th Abbasid caliph, and installed him as Commander of the Faithful at Cairo with the title al-Mostansir billh.
This was the last time that the Ilkhans gave the Egyptian sultans serious trouble; and in the letter written in the sultans name to the Ilkhan announcing the victory, the former suggested that the caliphate of Bagdad should be restored to the titular Abbasid caliph who had accompanied the Egyptian expedition, a suggestion which does not appear to have led to any actual steps being taken.
On the 23rd of May 1412, after being defeated and shut up in Damascus, he was compelled by Sheik Mabrnudi to abdicate, and an Abbasid caliph, Mostain, was proclaimed sultan, only to be forced to abdicate on the 6th of November of the same year in Sheiks favor, who took the title Malik al-Muayyad, his colleague Newruz having been previously sent to Syria, where he was to be autocrat by the terms of their agreement.
The contentions between the Abbasid and Fatimite caliphs continued till 1072, when Palestine suffered its next invasion.Advertisement
The official history of the Omayyads, as it has been handed down to us, is coloured by Abbasid feeling to such an extent that we can scarcely distinguish the true from the false.
Abbas, the vicegerent of Ali at Basra and ancestor of the future Abbasid dynasty, was in command.
Abu Moslim, the founder of the Abbasid dynasty, proclaimed himself his avenger, and on that occasion adopted the black garments, which remained the distinctive colour of the dynasty.
This adventurer now went into Media (Jabal), where a great number of maulas and Shiites, even members of the reigning dynasty and of the Abbasid family, such as the future caliph Mansur, rejoined him.
This Mahommed, the father of the two first Abbasid caliphs, was a man of unusual ability and great ambition.Advertisement
This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples against recognizing Abul-Abbas as the successor of his brother Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mandi, whom he looked for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such.
Thus miserably perished the real founder of the Abbasid dynasty, the Sahib addaula, as he is commonly called, the Amin (trustee) of the House of the Prophet.
Ash`ath, the Abbasid general, entered Kairawan and regained possession of Africa in the name of the eastern caliph.
From that time forward the Abbasid caliphs became the maintainers of orthodox Islam, just as the Omayyads had been.
He was an ardent champion of the orthodox faith, repudiating all the extravagant doctrine preached by the Abbasid missionaries and formerly professed by his father.
While the Abbasid dynasty was thus dying out in shame and degradation, the Fatimites, in the person of Mo'izz li-din-allah (or Mo`izz Abu Tamin Ma'add) ("he who makes God's religion victorious"), were reaching the highest degree of power and glory in spite of the opposition of the Carmathians, who left their old allegiance and entered into negotiations with the court of Bagdad, offering to drive back the Fatimites, on condition of being assisted with money and troops, and of being rewarded with the government of Syria and Egypt.
Baths, the Zeirid ruler of the Maghrib, made himself independent, and substituted in prayer the name of the Abbasid caliph for that of Mostansir.
Another scion of the Abbasid family, Mahommed, a greatgrandson of the caliph Mostansir, found at a later period a refuge in India, where the sultan of Delhi received him with the greatest respect, named him Makhdumzadeh, "the Master's son," and treated him as a prince.
Mohtadi, the fourteenth Abbasid caliph, endeavoured vainly to replace them by Persians (the Abna).
With the rise of the Ghaznevids and later uhaznevtds the Seljuks, the Abbasid caliphate ceased to count as an independent power.
The Abbasid caliphs, who still enjoyed a precarious and shadowy authority at the pleasure of Turkish viziers, gladly surrendered themselves to the protection of the Mahommedan Seljuks, who paid them all outward respect.
During the whole of this period the Abbasid caliphs had been nominally reigning throughout the Mahommedan world with their capital at Bagdad.
The thirty-eighth and last Abbasid caliph, Mostasim, was brutally murdered, and thus the Mahommedan caliphate ceased to exist even as an emasculated pontificate.
With the decay of the power of the Abbasid caliphate its importance declined.
Secular philosophy found its first entrance amongst the Saracens in the days of the early caliphs of the Abbasid dynasty, whose ways and thoughts had been moulded by their residence in Persia amid the influences of an older C creed, and of ideas which had in the last resort sprung from the Greeks.
Abu 1-`Abbas as-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid caliphate, made it his capital, and such it remained until the founding of Bagdad in 762.
It continued to be a place of much importance throughout the Abbasid period.
The conflict for the caliphate (q.v.) between Omayyad and Abbasid removed all shadew of control by the head of the Mahommedan world, and Spain was given up to mere anarchy.
Syria and Egypt next fell before him; he became master of the holy cities of Islam; and, most important of all, he induced the last Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty formally to surrender the title of caliph (q.v.), as well as its outward emblems, viz.
The attempt was futile, Bagdad was besieged and taken, and from that time until their final downfall the Abbasid caliphs were mere puppets, while the real rulers were successively the Turkish guard, the Buyids and the Seljuks.
Many have to be recovered from grammars, dictionaries, &c., where single lines or groups of lines are quoted to illustrate the proper use of words, phrases or idioms. Moreover, many a reciter was not content to declaim the genuine verses of ancient poets, but interpolated some of his own composition, and the change of religion introduced by Islam led to the mutilation of many verses to suit the doctrines of the new creed.1 The language of the poems, as of all the best Arabian literature, was that of the desert Arabs of central Arabia; and to use it aright was the ambition of poets and scholars even in the Abbasid period.
The office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs to the Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other Oriental peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs (see Mahommedan Institutions, and Caliphate, C § I) and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides.
At this time the power of Qaim, the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad (see Caliphate, section C, § 26), was reduced to a mere shadow, as the Shiite dynasty of the Buyids and afterwards his more formidable Fatimite rivals had left him almost wholly destitute of authority.
Damascus, Kuf a and Basra will attract the flower of all the Moslem provinces, and thus that great intellectual, literary and scientific movement, which reached its apogee under the first Abbasid Caliphs at Bagdad, steadily becomes more marked.
Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.
A great religious difference divided the Fatimite caliph of Cairo, the head of the Shiite sect, from the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad, who was the head of the Sunnites.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate.
With the rise of the Turkish body-guard under Mamun's successor, Mo`tassim, began the downfall of the Abbasid dynasty, and with it of the Abbasid capital, Bagdad.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Thus poetry became more and more artificial, until in the Abbasid period poets arose who felt themselves strong enough to give up the worn-out forms and adopt others more suitable.