With the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty, a new epoch in Arabian poetry began.
The Arab city, the old or round city of Bagdad, was founded by the caliph Mansur of the Abbasid dynasty on the west side of the Tigris just north of the Isa canal in A.D.
917," in Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, 1897; Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901).
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
The ruling dynasty of Julanda in their capital Suhar lasted on till the Abbasid period.
The growth of city life in the Abbasid capital led to the desire for a new form of story, differing from the old tales of desert life.
894), wrote on the Abbasid caliphs and was drawn on by Tabari.
It was in the early Abbasid period that the scientific works of Greece were translated into Arabic, 1 The chief Arabian geographical works have been edited by M.
Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.
Tigris (1900); Guy Le Strange, " Description of Mesopotamia," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1895), and Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); J.
A great religious difference divided the Fatimite caliph of Cairo, the head of the Shiite sect, from the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad, who was the head of the Sunnites.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate.
With the rise of the Turkish body-guard under Mamun's successor, Mo`tassim, began the downfall of the Abbasid dynasty, and with it of the Abbasid capital, Bagdad.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
When the seat of the Fatimite Empire was removed to Egypt, the Zirites, a house of the Sanhaja Berbers, ruled as their lieutenants at Mandia, and about 1050 Mo`izz the Zirite, in connexion with a religious movement against the Shiites, transferred his very nominal allegiance to the Abbasid caliphs.
BARMECIDES, more accurately Barmakids, a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs.
VIZIER, more correctly Vizir (Arabic Wazir), literally "burden-bearer" or "helper," originally the chief minister or representative of the Abbasid caliphs.
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
There were titular caliphs of Abbasid descent in Egypt from that date till 1517 when the last caliph was captured by Selim I.
The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.
It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.
His arms were successful both in Europe and Asia, and he was the first Ottoman sovereign to be styled "sultan," which title he induced the titular Abbasid caliph to confer on him.
Le Strange, Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905); V.
750) by Suleiman, the general who subjugated the country, and became the capital and the residence of the successive lieutenants of the Abbasid caliphs.
Like other provinces of the later Abbasid Caliphate its rulers were, during this period, able to establish quasi-independent dynasties, such being those of the Tulunids who ruled from 868 to 905, and the Ikshidis from 935969.
This dynasty lasted till 1171, when Egypt was again embodied in the Abbasid empire by Saladin, who, however, was himself the founder of a quasiindependent dynasty called the Ayyubites or Ayyubids, which lasted till 1252.
Him,self came to Egypt as a fugitive from the Abbasids, but found that the bulk of the Moslem population had already joined with his enemies, and was defeated and slain in the neighborhood of Giza in July of the same year, The Abbasid general, ~lili b.
The Abbasid period was marked at its commencement by the erection of a new capital to the north of Fostat, bearing the name Askar or camp. Apparently at this time the practice of farming the taxes began, which naturally led to even greater extortion than before; and a fresh rising of the Copts is recorded for the fourth year of Abbasid rule.
The Mahdis son succeeded in taking Alexandria, and advancing as far as the Favflm: but once more the Abbasid caliph sent a powerful army to assist his viceroy, and the invaders were driven out of the country and pursued as far as Barca; the Fatimite caliph, however, continued to maintain active propaganda in Egypt.
He is even said to have given orders to substitute the name of the Fatimite caliph for that of the Abbasid in public prayer, but to have been warned of the unwisdom of this course.
The F~4iinite caliph Moizz li-dIn allah was also in correspondence with other residents in Egypt, where the Alid party from the beginning of Abbasid times had always had many supporters; and the danger from the Carmathians rendered the presence of a strong government necessary.
Damascus was taken by the Carmathians, and the name of the Abbasid caliph substituted for that of Moizz in public worship. IJasan al-A~am advanced from Damascus through Palestine to Egypt, encountering little resistance on the way; and in the autumn of 971 Jauhar found himself besieged in his new city.
The Egyptian court, chiefly owing to the jealousy of the vizier, sent no efficient aid to Basgsiri, and after a year Bagdad was retaken by the SeljUk Toghrul Beg, and the Abbasid caliph restored to his rights.
The caliph and his family were reduced to destitution, and N~ir addaula began negotiations for restoring the name of the Abbasid caliph in public prayer; he was, however, assassinated before be could carry this out, and his assassin, also a Turk, appointed vizier.
Nureddin loyally aided his deputy in dealing with Frankish invasions of Egypt, but the anomaly by which he, being a Sunnite, was made in Egypt to recognize a Fa~timite caliph could not long continue, and he ordered Saladin to weaken the Fatimite by every available means, and then substitute the name of the Abbasid for his in public worship. Saladin and his ministers were at first afraid lest this step might give rise to disturbances among the people; but a stranger undertook to risk it on the 17th of September 1171, and the following Friday it was repeated by official order; the caliph himself died during the interval, and it is uncertain whether he ever heard of his deposition.
Aibek meanwhile immediately became involved in war with the Ayyubite Malik al-Ngsir, who was in possession of Syria, with whom the caliph induced him after some indecisive actions to make peace: he then successfully quelled a mutiny of Mamelukes, whom he compelled to take refuge with the last Abbasid caliph Mostasim in Bagdad and elsewhere.
Sultan Bibars, who proved to be one of the most competent of the Baliri Mamelukes, made Egypt the centre of the Moslem world by re-establishing in theory the Abbasid caliphate, which had lapsed through the taking of Bagdad by Hulagu, followed by the execution of the caliph.
Bibars recognized the claim of a certain Abul-Qasim Abmed to be the son of Zahir, the 35th Abbasid caliph, and installed him as Commander of the Faithful at Cairo with the title al-Mostansir billh.
This did not prevent Bibars from maintaining his policy of appointing an Abbasid for the~ purpose of conferring legitimacy on himself; but he encouraged no further attempts at re-establishing the Abbasids at Bagdad, and his principle, adopted by successive sultans, was that the caliph should not leave Cairo except when accompanying the sultan on an expedition.
This was the last time that the Ilkhans gave the Egyptian sultans serious trouble; and in the letter written in the sultans name to the Ilkhan announcing the victory, the former suggested that the caliphate of Bagdad should be restored to the titular Abbasid caliph who had accompanied the Egyptian expedition, a suggestion which does not appear to have led to any actual steps being taken.
On the 23rd of May 1412, after being defeated and shut up in Damascus, he was compelled by Sheik Mabrnudi to abdicate, and an Abbasid caliph, Mostain, was proclaimed sultan, only to be forced to abdicate on the 6th of November of the same year in Sheiks favor, who took the title Malik al-Muayyad, his colleague Newruz having been previously sent to Syria, where he was to be autocrat by the terms of their agreement.
The contentions between the Abbasid and Fatimite caliphs continued till 1072, when Palestine suffered its next invasion.
The official history of the Omayyads, as it has been handed down to us, is coloured by Abbasid feeling to such an extent that we can scarcely distinguish the true from the false.
Abbas, the vicegerent of Ali at Basra and ancestor of the future Abbasid dynasty, was in command.
Abu Moslim, the founder of the Abbasid dynasty, proclaimed himself his avenger, and on that occasion adopted the black garments, which remained the distinctive colour of the dynasty.
This adventurer now went into Media (Jabal), where a great number of maulas and Shiites, even members of the reigning dynasty and of the Abbasid family, such as the future caliph Mansur, rejoined him.
This Mahommed, the father of the two first Abbasid caliphs, was a man of unusual ability and great ambition.
This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples against recognizing Abul-Abbas as the successor of his brother Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mandi, whom he looked for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such.
Thus miserably perished the real founder of the Abbasid dynasty, the Sahib addaula, as he is commonly called, the Amin (trustee) of the House of the Prophet.
Ash`ath, the Abbasid general, entered Kairawan and regained possession of Africa in the name of the eastern caliph.
Thus poetry became more and more artificial, until in the Abbasid period poets arose who felt themselves strong enough to give up the worn-out forms and adopt others more suitable.
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.