The population is about 6000, comprising descendants of some Georgians introduced by Shah Abbas I.
In Constantinople, early in 1603, there was, moreover, a serious rising of the spahis; and, finally, in September Shah Abbas of Persia took advantage of what is known in Turkish history as " the year of insurrections " to declare war and reconquer Tabriz.
After Arabi's exile had lasted for nearly twenty years, however, the khedive Abbas II.
He was surrounded by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary as his great-uncle Abbas I.
Abbas I of Persia >>
Laristan remained an independent state under a Turkish ruler until 1602, when Shah Ibrahim Khan was deposed and put to death by Shah `Abbas the Great.
was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 1623.
Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in the administration of his kingdom.
All this part of the mosque (shrine) was built by Shah Abbas.
The quadrangle is larger than that of Shah Abbas; and at the eastern side is an immense blue dome, out of which quantities of grass were growing, the place being too sacred to be disturbed.
The place was without importance until 1612, when Shah Abbas began building and laying out the palaces and gardens in the neighbourhood now collectively known as Bagh i Shah (the garden of the shah).
Morland, and a new emir, Abbas, a brother of Alieu, installed.
Benedictus Abbas >>
The great mosque at Isfahan, built by Shah Abbas the Great (1585-1629), has one great court (225 ft.
The most important are the law courts, exchange, Ottoman bank, English church and the Abbas Hilmi theatre.
The chief, whose title is nawab, is a Mahommedan of the Daudputra family from Sind, and claims descent from Abbas, uncle of the Prophet.
The war lasted for twelve years, during which Tiflis, Shirvan and Daghestan were taken; finally Shah Abbas established himself on the Persian throne and in 1590 made peace with Turkey, who retained her conquests in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Shirvan.
the Magnificent and retaken by Shah Abbas the Great, in 1620.
IElfric no doubt gained some reputation as a scholar at Winchester, for when, in 987, the abbey of Cernel (Cerne Abbas, Dorsetshire) was finished, he was sent by Bishop iElfheah (Alphege), thelwold's successor, at the request of the chief benefactor of the abbey, the ealdorman IEthelmar, to teach the Benedictine monks there.
These probably date from the 17th century, for Chardin tells us that the windows of the tomb of Shah Abbas II.
Thence four marches, generally over a stony plateau dominated by bare, sterile mountains, brought them to Sana, where they received a cordial welcome from the imam, el Mandi Abbas.
The Hejaz coast and some of the Yemen ports were still held by Mehemet Ali, as viceroy of Egypt, but on his final withdrawal from Arabia in 1845, Hejaz came under direct Turkish rule, and the conquest of Yemen in 1872 placed the whole Red Sea littoral (with the exception of the Midian coast, ceded by Egypt on the accession of Abbas Hilmi Pasha)under Ottoman administration.
Adjoining the tomb also are numerous marble mausoleums, the sepulchres of princes of the house of Timur; and especially deserving of notice is a royal building tastefully decorated by an Italian artist named Geraldi, who was in the service of Shah Abbas the Great.
Other mosques of some note are those of Ibn Yusef, El Mansur and El Mo`izz; the chapel of Sidi Bel Abbas, in the extreme north of the city, possesses property of great value, and serves as an almshouse and asylum.
His son `Abbas Efendi (also called `Abdu'l-Baha, " the servant of Baha ") was generally recognized as his successor, but another of his four sons, Muhammad `Ali, put forward a rival claim.
This caused a fresh and bitter schism, but `Abbas Efendi steadily gained ground, and there could be little doubt as to his eventual triumph.
Several Persian missionaries, including the aged and learned Mirza Abu'l-Fazl of Gulpayagan, were thereupon despatched to America by `Abbas Efendi, who was generally accepted by the American Baha'is as " the Master."
Of the works composed in English for the American converts the most important are :- Bahci'u'lldh (The Glory of God), by Ibrahim Khayru'llah, assisted by Howard MacNutt (Chicago, 1900); The Three Questions (n.d.) and Facts for Bandists (1901), by the same; Life and Teachings of `Abbas Efendi, by Myron H.
`Abbas Efendi] (London, 1908).
in the possession of the Moguls till 1625, when it was taken by Shah Abbas.
There are a grammar-school (founded in 1521 at Milton Abbas, transferred to Blandford in 1 775), a Blue Coat school (1729), and other educational charities.
of Cairo and on the edge of the desert is the suburb of Abbasia (named after the viceroy Abbas), connected with the city by a continuous line of houses.
Abbasia is now largely a military colony, the cavalry barracks being the old palace of Abbas Pasha.
Railway construction dates from 1852, when the line from Alexandria to Cairo was begun, by order of Abbas I.
Westward from Alexandria a railway, begun in 1904 by the khedive, Abbas II., runs parallel with the coast, and is intended to be continued to Tripoli.
Four years later (April 1154) the caliph was murdered by his vizier AbbAs, according to Usgmah, because the caliph had suggested to his favorite, the viziers son, to murder his father; and this was followed by a massacre of the brothers of Zgfir, followed by the raising of his infant son Abul-Qasim Isa to the throne.
The new caliph, who was not five years old, received the title al-Faiz bina~r allah, and was at first in the power of Abbas.
iii.) Abbas I., Tusun, 1813, d.
Abbas II., Mehemet Ali.
of the succession of Abbas differed, however, from the text of former firmans, the intention being, apparently, to exclude Egypt from the administration of the Sinai peninsula.
In 189f Darfur and Kordofan were again disturbed, and Sultan Abbas succeeded in turning the dervishes out of the Jebel Marra district.
Abbas Mirza >>
part of the Gulf, the port for the Shiraz district of southern Persia, and Bandar `Abbas, at the entrance of the Gulf, being the chief centres of population.
In 1865 an earthquake levelled the villages of Darveh Asul near Muga'rn; in 1880 an earthquake caused 120 deaths in Basra; in 1883 severe shocks were felt from Bushire to Tahiri; in 1884 an earthquake caused 132 deaths on Qishm I., which was in consequence deserted; in 1897 an earthquake destroyed Qishm town and caused over I,000 deaths; further shocks were experienced at Qishm and Bandar `Abbas in 1902 and 1905.
Hanjam is connected by cable with Bandar `Abbas.
On board the fleet which in 1626 conveyed Sir Dodmore Cotton, a British ambassador, with his staff, from Surat to Bandar `Abbas, there were more than 300 slaves bought of Persians in India, and the only remark which this circumstance suggested to Sir T.
But it was during the reign of Shah Abbas I.
Abbas, the vicegerent of Ali at Basra and ancestor of the future Abbasid dynasty, was in command.
Hasan and Ibn Abbas opened, each for himself, negotiations with Moawiya.
Abbas the names of the chiefs of the Shia in Irak and Khorasan, and disclosed his way of corresponding with them.
Abbas, who resided at Ilomaima in the south-east of Syria, obtained the secrets of the party and took the lead (A.H.
He asserted that the Abbasids were the real heirs of the Prophet, as the descendants of his oldest uncle Abbas.
The name of Hashimiya, which the reigning family still retained, was henceforward derived not from Abu Hashim, but from Hashim, the grandfather of Abbas, the great-grandfather of the Prophet.
Having sent before him his son Abbas to make Tyana a strong fortress, he set out for Asia Minor to put himself at the head of the army, but died of a fever brought on by bathing in the chill river, Pedendon, 40 m.
His accession, however, met at first with active opposition in the army, where a powerful party demanded that Abbas should take the place of his father.
Abbas, however, publicly renounced all pretension to the Caliphate, and the whole army accepted Motasim, who immediately had the fortifications of Tyana demolished and hastened back to Bagdad, where he made his public entry on the 20th of September 833.
When the latter died in the year 891, his son Abu 1.-`Abbas, al-Mo`tadid (" he who seeks his support in God"), was put in his place.
The population returned to the original site after the destruction of the medieval city by Shah Abbas, and the city prospered again until its bloody siege by Nadir Shah.
Running south from Khedive Avenue at the spot where the Gordon statue stands, is Victoria Avenue, leading to Abbas Square, in the centre of which is the great mosque with two minarets.
the conquests of Abbas and Nadir kept up these boundaries more or less on the east, but failed to secure them on the west, and were limited to the Caucasus and Oxus on the north.
Abbas, held possession of Khorasan; on the west the sultans troops again entered Azerbaijan and took Tabriz.
On the news of his death reaching Khorasan, Murshid Kuli Khan, leader of the Ustujulu Kizil-bash, who had made good in fight his claims to the guardianship of Abbas, at once conducted the young prince from that province to Kazvin, and occupied the royal city.
Abbas, who had been proclaimed king by the nobles at Nishapur some two or three years before this occurrence, may be said to have now undertaken in earnest the cares of sovereignty.
Shah Abbas the Great commenced his long and glorious reign (1586) by retracing his steps towards Khorasan, which bad been reinvaded by the Uzbegs almost immeAbbas the diately after his departure thence with the Kizil-bash Great.
Abbas advanced to Meshed, but owing to internal troubles he was compelled to return to Kazvin without going farther east.
The whole kingdom was perplexed, and Abbas had much work to restore confidence and tranquillity.
In 1597 Abbas renewed operations against the Uzbegs, and succeeded in recovering from them Herat and Khorasan.
In 1601 the war with the Ottoman Empire, which had been partially renewed prior to the death of Sultan Murad in 1595, with little success on the Turkish side, was now entered upon by Abbas with more vigour.
At the age of seventy, after a reign of forty-two years, Abbas died at his favorite palace of Farahabad, on the coast of Mazandaran, on the night of the 27th of January 1628.
His son, Abbas II., succeeded him.
Beyond regaining Kandahar, an operation which he is said to have directed in Abbas ~ person when barely sixteen, there is not much to mark his life to the outer world.
Abbas was succeeded by his son, Shah Sufi II., crowned a second time under the name of Shah Suleiman.
There was, however, a second candidate for power in the person of a half-brother, Abbas.
Indeed Suleiman himself is reported to have told the grandees around him, in his last days, that if they were for a martial king that would always keep his foot in the stirrup they ought to choose Mirza Abbas, but that if they wished for a peaceable reign and a pacific king they ought to fix their eyes upon Jiosain.
For a short time the wily usurper placed Tahmasps son on the throne, a little child, with the title of Abbas III., while he contented himself with the office of regent.
Poor little Abbas died at a very convenient time, in the year 1736, and Nadir then thiew off the mask.
Ismail, Tahmasp and Abbas, whatever their faults and failings, were Persian and peculiar to Persians.
Regarded in a sober English spirit, the reign of the great Abbas is rendered mythical by crime.
Among the more notable occurrences which followed were a three days battle, fought near Echmiadzin, between the crown prince, Abbas Mirza, and General Zizianov, in which the Persians suffered much from the enemys artillery, but would not admit they were defeated; unsuccessful attempts on the part of the Russian commander to get possession of Erivan; and a surprise, in camp, of the shahs forces, which caused them to disperse, and necessitated the kings own presence with reinforcements.
In the following year Abbas Mirza advanced upon Shishah, the chief of which place and of the Karabagh had declared for Russia; much fighting ensued, and Erivan was formally taken possession of in the name of the shah.
This made Abbas Mirza at once seize upon the fortified places of Toprak Kalah and Ak Sarai within the limits of the Ottoman Empire, and, overcoming the insufficient force sent against him, he was further enabled to extend his inroads to Mush, Bitlis, and other known localities.
In the north the progress of Abbas Mirza was stopped at Bayazici by a like deadly visitation; and a suspension of hostilities was agreed upon for the winter season.
Profiting from this victory, Abbas Mirza repeated an offer of peace before made without avail to the pasha of Erzerum; and, in order to conciliate him more effectually, he retired within the old limits of the dominions of the shah, his father.
The expedition, led by Abbas Mirza, involved some hard fighting and much loss of life; several forts and places were captured, among them Kuchan and Serrakhs; and it may be concluded that the objects contemplated were more or less attained.
Some eight or nine years afterwards Abbas Mirza, when at the head of his army in Meshed, invited Var Mahommed Khan of Herat to discuss a settlement of differences between the two governments.
Again the Persian troops advanced to Herat itself under the command of Mahomnied Mirza, son of Abbas; but the news of his fathers death caused the commander to break up his camp and return to Meshed.
Agreeably to the Persian custom, asserted by his predecessors, of nominating the heir-apparent from the sons of the sovereign without restriction to seniority, he had passed over the eldest, Mahommed Ali, in favor of a junior, Abbas; but, as the nominee died in the lifetime of his father, the old king had proclaimed Mahommed Mirza, the son of Abbas, and his own grandson, to be his successor.
The kings choice, however, fell on Hajji Mirza Aghasi, a native of Erivan, who in former years, as tutor to the Sons of Abbas Mirza, had gained a certain reputation for learning and a smattering of the occult sciences, but whose qualifications for statesmanship were craftiness and suspicion.
The chiefs, Bzt,edltion reduced to temporary submission by Abbas Mirza, had ~aj~t again revolted; and Shah Kamran, supported by his ~
This chief soon entered upon a series of intrigues in the Persian interests, and, among other acts offensive to Great Britain, suffered one Abbas Kuli, who had, under guise of friendship, betrayed the cause of the salar at Meshed, to occupy the citadel of Herat, and again place a detachment of the shahs troops in Ghurian.
Colonel Sheil remonstrated, and obtained a new engagement of noninterference with Herat from the Persian government, as well as the recall of Abbas Kuli.
1521; 927 A.H.) with his Timurnama; the stormy epoch of the first Safawid rulers, who succeeded at last in reuniting for some time the various provinces of the old Persian realm into one great monarchy, furnished T~Iasimi (died after 1560; 967 A.H.) with the materials of his Shahnma, a poetical history of Shah IsmaIl and Shah Tahmasp. Another Sha/inama, celebrating Shah Abbas the Great, was written by Kamali of Sabzevar; and even the cruelties of Nadir Shah were duly chronicled in a pompous epic style in Ishratis SM/mama-i- Ndir (i~49; 1162 A.H.).
form of abbas, abbot), the female superior of an abbey or convent of nuns.
The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Ali - who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness, - Abbas succeeded to the pashalik.
Abbas II >>
In 1892, on the accession of the khedive Abbas II., Turkey resumed possession of Akaba, the Egyptian pilgrims having deserted the land route to Mecca in favour of a sea passage.
The Portuguese obtained possession of the islands in 1507, but were driven from their settlements in that quarter by Shah Abbas in 5622.
Thorpe Mandeville, Helion Bumstead, Higham Ferrers, Swaffham Bulbeck, Stoke Gifford, Shepton Mallet; similarly names like Lyme Regis, King's Sutton, Monks' Kirby, Zeal Monachorum, Milton Abbas, Bishop's Waltham, Prior's Dean, Huish Episcopi date from feudal times.
T.) ABU-L-Qasim [Khalaf ibn `Abbas uz-Zahrawi], Arabian physician and surgeon, generally known in Europe as Abulcasis, flourished in the tenth century at Cordova as physician to the caliph `Abdur-Rahman III.
In the February following he again became prime minister under Abbas II., being selected as comparatively acceptable both to the khedivial and British parties.
presented by Shah Abbas I.
ABBAS MIRZA (c. 1783-1833), prince of Persia, was a younger son of the shah, Feth Ali, but on account of his mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed him.
Preferring the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance, and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous peace.
When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the task died at Meshed in 1833.
Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.
Owing to the almost impenetrable character of the country there are scarcely any roads accessible to wheeled carriages, and, the great causeway of Shah Abbas along the coast has in many places even disappeared under the jungle.
New styles were devised to express this new relation; thus the abbot of Monte Cassino was called abbas abbatum, while the chiefs of other orders had the titles abbas generalis, or magister or minister generalis.
In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system, as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king, Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas Castrensis.
Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa was called Abbas Populi.
Du Cange, in his glossary, also gives us Abbas Campanilis, Clocherii, Palatii, Scholaris, &c.
Sometimes the monks were directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a substitute to perform the spiritual functions, known usually as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimus, monasticus, regularis).
The chronicler Benedictus Abbas calls David rex, and Rhuddlan castle was probably the centre of his vague authority.
(1524-1576) made Kazvin his capital, and it remained so till Shah Abbas I.
Abu 1-`Abbas as-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid caliphate, made it his capital, and such it remained until the founding of Bagdad in 762.
Meanwhile Arabs of the Beni Omayya tribe, under pressure from the Beni Abbas, had begun to cross the Red Sea as early as the 8th century and to settle in the district around Sennar on the Blue Nile, a region which probab]y marked the southern limits of the kingdom of Aloa.
Armenia was invaded by the Persians in 1575, and again in 1604, when Shah Abbas transplanted many thousand Armenians from Julfa to his new capital Isfahan.
The work so far has centered around Milton Abbas and the surrounding parishes, with the overall aim to get people more active.
In Cerne Abbas, for example, the new workhouse's first Christmas dinner in 1837 included plum pudding and strong beer.
pp. 173-211 of the Traveller's Narrative, written to illustrate the Episode of the Bdb, a Persian work composed by Baba's son, `Abbas Efendi, edited, translated and annotated by E.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D.
this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas, who, supported by the province of Khorasan, achieved considerable successes, but was captured (A.D.
'BALADHURI (ABU-L- ` ABBAS AHMAD IBN YAHYA IBN JABIR AL-BALADHURI), Arabian historian, was a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Mas`udi refers to one of his works in which he refuted the Shu`ubites '(see ABU ` UBAIDA).
Bander Abbasi was called Gombrun (Gombroon, Gamaroon; Cambarao, Comorao of Portuguese writers) until 1622, when it received its present name (the "port of Abbas") in honour of the reigning Shah, Abbas I., who had expelled the Portuguese in 1614, and destroyed the fort built by them in 1612.
1271), commonly called (cardinalis) Hostiensis, whose Summa Hostiensis or Summa aurea is a work of the very highest order; Wilhelmus Durantis or Durandus, Joannes Andreae, Nicolas de Tudeschis (abbas siculus), &c. The 15th century produced few original treatises; but after the council of Trent the Corpus juris was again commented on by distinguished canonists, e.g.
BENEDICTUS ABBAS (d.
Ibn Abbas, the future Muslim scholar of religion, was no better than a thief.
Abbas Hilmi Pasha, I.
On the right of the Imam's tomb is that of Abbas Mirza, grandfather of the reigning Shah.
It attained a certain dignity and unity under Abbas Shah (1585-1628), but in later times was distracted and disorganized by Afghan invasions.
The emir Abbas worked loyally with the British and proved himself a ruler of remarkable ability and intelligence.
Abbas I of Egypt >>
Little Luristan was governed by a race of independent princes of the Khurshidi dynasty, and called atabegs, from 1155 to the beginning of the 17th century when the last atabeg, Shah Verdi Khan, was removed by Shah Abbas I.
The principal event of his reign was the defeat he inflicted on Shah Abbas of Persia in the neighbourhood of Balkh.
Abbas, King of Persia, which Godwin offered him in the next year.
In the reign of Abbas, who succeeded Mehemet Ali, the Egyptian troops were driven from Nejd, and the Wahhabi state recovered its independence.
On Ibrahims death in November 1848 the government of Egypt fell to his nephew Abbas I.
Abbas~d Abbas put an end to the system of commercial monoPasha.
Opposed to European ways, Abbas lived in great seclusion, and after a reign of less than six years he was murdered (July 1854) by two of his slaves.
In January 1892 the khedive Tewfik, who had always maintained cordial relations with Sir Evelyn Baring, died suddenly, and was succeeded by his son, Abbas Hilmi, a young b man without political experience, who failed at first to understand the peculiar situation in which a khedive ruling under British protection is necessarily placed.
For some time Abbas Hilmi clung to his idea of liberating himself from all control, and secretly encouraged a nationalist and antiBritish agitation in the native press; but he gradually came to perceive the folly, as well as the danger to himself, of such a course, and accordingly refrained from giving any overt occasion for complaint or protest.
The origin of Th ~ b the dispute dated back, however, to 1892, when Abbas, n~f,de~,ta Hilmi became khedive.
Meanwhile news of the loss of the Abbas and of the murder of Colonel J.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.