A-r Sentence Examples

a-r
  • As she watched, the horses plunged down a dune, sending a spray of white sand into the dry air.

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  • The surface of the water ruptured, spewing a colorful fish into the air.

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  • A hawk made a wide swing across the grassland and then suddenly dived, jerking up at the last second, its great wings straining as it pumped back into the air with added weight.

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  • But there's a chill in the air and they'll be going indoors.

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  • While Martha was on the phone trying to get our air conditioning system checked, I had a few moments alone with my wife.

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  • While she sounded relieved, there was a chill in the air like opening the door, expecting warm sunshine and forgetting it's December.

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  • The vamp whose neck he held had a look of horror on its face, and the air around them buzzed with magic.

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  • Jule's eyes glinted with the magic in his body, and the air around him shimmered in a different power than that of her father.

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  • She felt like she stood at the door of a plane fifteen thousand feet in the air getting ready to skydive, only she didn't remember packing a parachute.

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  • He snatched Jake as a knife sliced through the air where the newbie appeared.

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  • A breeze made her curtains flutter, and she closed it, certain Claire's cries of ecstasy would soon fill the air around the mansion.

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  • The power swirling in the air around her grew as she neared Damian's door, and she was reminded of the tension in the air before a thunderstorm.

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  • The mine tunnel narrowed and the pair was forced to hunch down under the low ceiling that closed in the fetid air around them like a soaked and musty blanket.

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  • The day was magnificent and the cool morning air as sharp as a knife.

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  • If the air is just let out of your tires, do you think a bicycle pump might be enough to get you running?

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  • Everyone smiled and chatted with a level of exhilaration as sharp as the mountain air.

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  • It was on these byways that Dean opted to travel, rolling along the river with the down of cottonwoods filling the air like a winter snowstorm, past the occasional farm house, fields, and ever-present vista of mountains wrapping around him.

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  • There was a chill in the early day air as Dean drove the topless Jeep north through town as Ouray was waking up.

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  • She drew a circle in the air.

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  • She had removed the sides of the shelter a few weeks ago for the summer so they would have fresh air and a breeze as well.

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  • Alex pulled the horse to a sliding stop and fired twice into the air.

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  • She called forth a portal, and what looked like a cave opened in the air before them.

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  • A breeze swept over the tops of the trees to make them sway but didn't reach the still air of the forest floor.

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  • The air felt a little heavier around her as he spoke, compelling her attention to him.

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  • The hallway smelled medicinal and clean, like the antiseptic-laced air of a hospital mixed with pine cleaner.

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  • With the living shadow staring at her, the winter wind sucking the air from her lungs, and the prescriptions clenched in her hand, she'd never felt less a part of her world.

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  • The air was cool and clear, as crisp as a fall day.

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  • Her air supply cut off, she tore at the hand holding her until the skin on his arm fell away to reveal smooth, black skin more akin to a reptile's than a human's.

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  • Without a thought as to who might be watching, he ducked into an alley and flung himself into the air.

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  • He floated on the updraft of air off the water and then drifted to the beach below, changing into his human form as he landed with a gentle thud on rocky sand.

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  • The wooden door and whitewashed walls --along with the open window above the bed allowing in balmy air --soon brought to mind a more tropical place.

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  • The air was chilled, still and damp, like she imagined a castle dungeon would feel.

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  • His long wings beat the air as he rose, and it took him a short two minutes to soar over the castle.

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  • His gaze was roving, and his air distracted even as he bent to give Hannah a kiss on the cheek.

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  • The Council meeting was a bust, and there was more tension in the air than he could understand.

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  • A massive creature with black fur and fangs paused in front of the open door, sniffing the air.

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  • There was a gentle air around the woman, and her large brown eyes lacked the rigid stoniness of her husband's.

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  • The dual moons seemed to hover somewhere in the middle of the air of a massive chasm, just like the dozen or so hulking spaceships, whose dark grey skins reflected like skins of massive grey whales in the moonlight.

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  • The air was dry and hot, as if she were in a sauna.

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  • Beyond a nearby mountain range, lights and explosions lit up both the sky and the air between earth and sky.

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  • She turned slowly, propelled by a tender breeze from the cold night air that filled the room with a chill of death.

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  • A real tree is the only way to go but they sure are a mess, especially out here in the dry air.

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  • The flakes drifted directly down, undisturbed in their descent by any hint of a breeze in the still night air.

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  • They glided past snow-covered fields and occasional farmhouses, drifting smoke from their chimneys skyward and adding a hint of wood smoke to the crisp winter air.

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  • Fred took on the air of a learned professor as he explained.

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  • There was a lingering smell of wood smoke in the night air and all earlier efforts at shoveling the walkway and stairs were lost in the smooth swirls of new fallen whiteness.

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  • He took a deep breath of the clear evening air.

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  • But Monday, the dance master played a different tune—a beautiful Viennese waltz of warm air and sunshine that teased of spring, still months in the future.

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  • She turned slowly, propelled by a tender breeze from the cold night air that filled the room.

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  • He was very much in the mood for a fun, air headed bimbo after all the drama today, but that would be near impossible.

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  • He waved a listless hand in the air.

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  • She swept a hand through the air.

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  • The dairy door swung open with a blast of cold air and Alex paused in the doorway.

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  • Wild phlox filled the air with a heavenly scent that rivaled lilacs.

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  • She stepped back, trying to take the electricity out of the air with a little humor.

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  • She hit the ground like a sack of grain and scrambled away from him, gasping for air and rubbing her neck.

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  • He jerked a rifle from its scabbard and swung it around with one arm, firing it into the air.

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  • She brought her elbow around into his ribs and the air escaped his lungs in a startled groan of protest.

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  • Elise, I need a team to go down and test the air.

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  • He was like a statue, only she felt the warmth of his body and the tingle of magic in the air.

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  • Frowning, Rhyn pulled a dagger from the wall and tucked it into his belt.  He'd never tried tracking anyone through the Immortal underworld before; if Gabriel didn't want to be found, Rhyn wasn't going to find him in the death-dealer's backyard.  Sweat dripped down his face in the still air of the cottage.

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  • Rhyn left the cell block to Toby's protests and walked with Gabe through the antechamber and into the hallway on the other side.  Gabe's gaze was dark, his air brooding.  Rhyn opened a portal, and they crossed through to Gabe's cabin in the underworld.

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  • Kris looked up in time to see Kiki crash through the canopy and plummet towards the ground.  Kris gasped and sprung forward.  A streak of black crossed his vision as a flying demon snatched Kiki out of the air.

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  • Rhyn stopped and knelt, placing his hands to the ground.  Kris crossed his arms.  A blast of energized air swept over him.  Rhyn sat back.

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  • The man took a deep breath of the hot and salty night air and firmly closed the door marked Room 22.

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  • Wednesday morning dawned with air so crisp Dean was awake before the alarm, awake to a knock down gorgeous day, "one of the ten best" prattled a cheery voice on the kitchen table radio.

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  • There was no humidity, an ideal temperature and enough of a breeze to perfume the air with the zillion flowers recently wakened after a tough winter or per­haps just planted to welcome the approaching summer season.

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  • They stepped outside for a breath of fresh air to wait.

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  • All this and air so fresh each breath was a new exhilaration.

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  • They were both quiet for a few moments, breathing in the cool night air before Dean spoke.

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  • When the road straightened once more, he heard a noise behind him and a dozen daredevils in the tuck posi­tion sped on by him with a wave and a rush of air.

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  • She said in a rush of air.

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  • Down the hill, across the creek and across the field to the buffalo shed? the crisp air traced their progress with a wisp of steam.

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  • His face split into a large smile, and he waved the sword in the air.

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  • Darian flipped a knife in the air then sat down on a chair in the corner.

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  • His was a body that had been honed until all that stood between muscle and air was a thin coat of skin.

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  • His magic filled the air around him, flinging the living room furniture against windows and walls in a fit of fury.

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  • The Other raised a hand, and Jenn dived to the ground as lightning ripped through the air towards her.

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  • The hum in the air became a whine almost too loud to bear.

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  • Jonny's dark eyes had taken on a new spark of intelligence, his air settled where it had been agitated before.

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  • Darian took it, and they Traveled to a locker cold enough for his expelled breath to hang in the air.

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  • A few minutes later, Dusty sat up suddenly, sucking in air and gazing around him wildly.

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  • She admired his newfound air of command but couldn't help resenting him for having a second chance she'd never get.

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  • Alex glanced at Carmen and then focused on Rob, his voice calm as the air before a tornado.

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  • With the air cleared of all the secrets, and both of them making a concentrated effort to get along, even the children appeared to be happier.

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  • The copper tray hit the bottom of the can with a loud clatter, spewing ashes into the stale office air.

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  • He heaved a sigh and threw his hands into the air in defeat.

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  • She froze for a second with the whip in the air.

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  • Like an angry golfer, she sent a huge divot into the air.

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  • Although a thick layer of clouds hid the sun, the air wasn't any cooler.

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  • She took a deep breath - as much to convince herself it was still possible as for need of air.

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  • As Keaton pulled her close, the air was filled with a deep steady roll of thunder that equaled the sound of a locomotive.

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  • A window air conditioning unit hummed, and when he opened the door to the apartment, a surge of cool air invited them in.

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  • A hushed silence fell over the verandah and the strains of an old song filtered soft music through the air.

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  • She released a deep breath then sucked in the humid air.

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  • The lights nearest him dimmed while the air around him shimmered, as if he was a mirage.

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  • The air around him was strangely still, the heat of a body unlike any she'd ever seen before reminding her she hadn't dated in four years.

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  • Nothing happened after a few seconds, except it felt like the mall shut off the air conditioner.

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  • He was accompanied by his brother, the Grey God, Darian, whose unusual power bent the air around him in a mix of light and shadows.

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  • A gust of cold, night air swept past her, and she hurried out.

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  • She smelled the ocean on the air and was surprised to see the strange stone cottage perched in the middle of a field hedged by a stone wall.

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  • Hugging herself, she sensed the magic in the air and moved back a few steps, not wanting to be caught up in the purple crossfire.

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  • The air bent around him as his power unfurled in a red haze.

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  • The air was filled with electricity and the battlefield a mix of red fog and purple lightening.

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  • But some phenomena are difficult to reconcile with pressed into less than one five-hundredth of a cubic foot, or, if allowed to expand, the air originally occupying the cubic foot can be made to fill, apparently uniformly, a space of a million cubic feet or more.

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  • The hexammine salts are formed by the oxidizing action of air on dilute ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, especially in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride.

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  • On Mountains Much Seems To Depend On Whether There Are Rising Or Falling Air Currents, And Results From A Single Season May Not Be Fairly Representative.

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  • A charged body in air loses its charge in more than one way.

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  • The volume of air from which the ions have been extracted being known, a measure is obtained of the total charge on the ions, whether positive or negative.

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  • This will be composed of a conduction and a convection current, the latter due to rising or falling air currents carrying ions.

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  • Wilson supposes that by the fall to the ground of a preponderance of negatively charged rain the air above the shower has a higher positive potential than elsewhere at the same level, thus leading to large conduction currents laterally in the highly conducting upper layers.

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  • All are built in the Doric style, of the local porous stone, which is of a warm red brown colour, full of fossil shells and easily corroded when exposed to the air.

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  • For reasons of health it may be assumed that no system of heating is advisable which does not provide for a constant renewal of the air in the locality warmed.

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  • An open fire acts by radiation; it warms the air in a room by first warming the walls, floor, ceiling and articles in the room, and these in turn warm the air.

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  • Therefore in a room with an open fire the air is, as a rule, less heated than the walls.

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  • To prevent the atmosphere from becoming unduly dry a pan of water is fitted to the stove; this serves to moisten the air before it passes into the distributing flues.

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  • If each distributing flue is connected by means of a mixing valve with a cold-air flue, the warmth of the incoming air can be regulated nicely.

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  • To obtain a larger heating surface than a pipe affords, radiators are connected with the pipes where desired, and the water passing through them warms the surrounding air.

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  • The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.

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  • The dark product obtained is washed with water, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and finally calcined again with the oxide or with borax, being protected from air during the operation by a layer of charcoal.

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  • Boron nitride BN is formed when boron is burned either in air or in nitrogen, but can be obtained more readily by heating to redness in a platinum crucible a mixture of one part of anhydrous borax with two parts of dry ammonium chloride.

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  • The ilex, also known as the "holm oak" from its resemblance to the holly, abounds in all the Mediterranean countries, showing a partiality for the sea air.

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  • The town, built of grey granite, presents a handsome appearance, and being delightfully situated in the midst of the most beautiful pine and birch woods in Scotland, with pure air and a bracing climate, is an attractive resort.

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  • Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of io m.

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  • In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, as on a high mountain, or with an exceptionally low barometer for example, an allowance must be made.

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  • Mayer, a physician at Heilbronn, published an attempt to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the heat produced when air is compressed.

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  • A metal vessel was placed in a calorimeter and air forced into it, the amount of energy expended in compressing the air being measured.

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  • Assuming that the whole of the energy was converted into heat, when the air was subjected to a pressure of 21.5 atmospheres Joule obtained for the mechanical equivalent of heat about 824.8 foot-pounds, and when a pressure of only 10 .

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  • In the next experiment the air was compressed as before, and then allowed to escape through a long lead tube immersed in the water of a calorimeter, and finally collected in a bell jar.

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  • In allowing the air to expand from a pressure of 21 atmospheres to that of i atmosphere the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat obtained was 821.89 foot-pounds.

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  • One contained air at a pressure of 22 atmospheres, while the other was exhausted.

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  • In the receiver there is a strong electromagnet, excited by a local current, which has in its circuit two annular air gaps, across which the magnetic field is practically uniform and constant.

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  • Thus, in the case of one station and one moving railway carriage, there is a circuit consisting partly of the earth, partly of the ordinary telegraph wires at the side of the track, and partly of the circuits of the telephone receiver at one place and the secondary of the induction coil at the other, two air gaps existing in this circuit.

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  • First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.

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  • The whole process is exactly analogous to the operation by which a violin string or organ pipe creates an air or sound wave.

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  • Elihu Thomson blows on the spark balls with a powerful jet of air.

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  • The condenser method of making oscillations is analogous to the production of air vibrations by twanging a harp string at short intervals.

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  • The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.

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  • For this reason the altar, as representative of the universe, is built in five layers, representing earth, air and heaven, and the intermediate regions; and in the centre of the altar-site, below the first layer, on a circular gold plate (the sun), a small golden man (purusha) is laid down with his face looking upwards.

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  • This idea of the air as the original principle and source of life and intelligence is much more clearly expressed by a later writer, Diogenes of Apollonia.

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  • Diogenes made this conception of a vital and intelligent air the ground of a teleological view of climatic and atmospheric phenomena.

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  • The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate.

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  • It is a brown powder which on heating in air loses sulphur and leaves a residue of the disulphide.

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  • In a general way this greater complexity may be said to consist (I) in the restriction of regular absorption of water to those parts of the plant-body embedded in the soil, (2) in the evaporation of water from the parts exposed to the air (transpiration).

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  • As a secondary function we may recognize, in certain cases, the power of closing wounds, which results from the rapid coagulation of exuded latex in contact with the air.

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  • In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.

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  • It must receive a large constituent of what ultimately becomes its food from the air which surrounds it, and it must also take in from the same source the oxygen of its respiratory processes.

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  • The amount of watery vapour in the air passing through a stoma has no effect upon it, as the surfaces of the guard cells abutting on the air chamber are strongly cuticularized, and therefore impermeable.

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  • Indeed, the tendency to absorb heat in this way, either from the air or directly from the sunlight, has already been pointed out as a danger which needs to be averted by transpiration.

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  • The cells of the staminal hairs of Tradescantia air ginica contain a large sap-cavity across which run, in.

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  • This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.

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  • When exposed in the moist condition to the air it gradually acquires a red colour.

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  • The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.

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  • They believed that there were in the beginning no heavenly bodies, air or earth, only water everywhere, over which at first hovered a formless Supreme Being called Pha.

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  • The chamber has a safety value at the top of its vault, which is so balanced that the least surplus pressure from within sends it up. The first puff of sulphur vapour which enters the chamber takes fire and converts the air of the chamber into a mixture of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.

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  • When sulphur is burned in air or oxygen, sulphur dioxide is produced, which is a powerful disinfectant, used to fumigate rooms which have been occupied by persons suffering from some infectious disease.

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  • They are flattened oval in form, circling with gliding motion over the surface film of the water, and occasionally diving, when they carry down with them a bubble of air.

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  • When Hydrophilus dives it carries a supply of air between the elytra and the dorsal surface of the abdomen, while air is FIG.

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  • That of Hydrophilus is attached to a floating leaf, and is provided with a hollow, tapering process, which projects above the surface and presumably conveys air to the enclosed eggs.

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  • After eating the contents of the egg, the larva moults and becomes a fleshy grub with short legs and with paired spiracles close to the dorsal region, so that, as it floats in and devours the honey, it obtains a supply of air.

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  • The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.

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  • The difference of pressure between the outside air and the smoke-box gases may be measured by the difference of the water levels in the limbs of a U tube, one limb being in communication with the smokebox, the other with the atmosphere.

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  • This arrangement was expected to ensure a sufficient change in air to keep such railways properly ventilated, but experience has proved it to be ineffective for the purpose.

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  • In the winter similar consequences ensue, in a negative direction, from the prolonged loss of heat by radiation in the long and clear nights - an effect which is intensified wherever the surface is covered with snow, or the air little charged with vapour.

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  • The heated body of air carried from the Indian Ocean over southern Asia by the south-west monsoon comes up highly charged with watery vapour, and hence in a condition to release a large body of water as rain upon the land, whenever it is brought into circumstances which reduce its temperature in a notable degree.

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  • Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.

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  • The climate of Bellary is characterized by extreme dryness, due to the passing of the air over a great extent of heated plains, and it has a smaller rainfall than any other district in south India.

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  • Quitting Rathlin, he had made a short stay in Arran, and before Edward's death had failed to take Ayr and Turnberry, although he defeated Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, at Loudoun Hill in May 1306.

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  • The enthusiasm of the nation he had saved forgot his tardy adhesion to the popular cause, and at the parliament of Ayr on the 25th of April 1315 the succession was settled by a unanimous voice on him, and, failing males of his body, on his brother Edward and his heirs male, or failing them on his daughter Marjorie and her heirs, if she married with his consent.

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  • The subsequent expansion of the body causes fresh air to enter the tracheal system, and if the spiracles be then closed and the body again contracted, this air is driven to the finest branches of the air-tubes, where a direct oxygenation of the tissues takes place.

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  • A gnat pupa swims through the water by powerful strokes of its abdomen, while the caddis-fly pupa, in preparation for its final ecdysis, bites its way out of its subaqueous protective case and rises through the water, so that the fly may emerge into the air.

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  • Chladni's experiment of strewing a vibrating bell with flour, investigated the nature of sound and the function of the air in respiration and combustion, and originated the idea of using the pendulum as a measure of gravity.

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  • But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.

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  • In the Malay Peninsula the blood of a murdered man must be put in a bottle and prayers said over; after seven days of this worship a sound is heard and the operator puts his finger into the bottle for the polong, as the demon is called, to suck; it will fly through the air in the shape of an exceedingly diminutive female figure, and is always preceded by its pet, the pelesit, in the shape of a grasshopper.

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  • As the tide rises the spiders take refuge in crevices and spin over their retreat a sheet of silk, impervious to water, beneath which they oie in safety with a supply of air until the ebb exposes the site again to the sun.

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  • He then ascends to the surface, carries down a bubble of air and releases it inside the mouth of the silk-thimble, thus replacing a certain amount of water.

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  • The freshness, the air of leisure, the enthusiasm of discovery that mark the work of these old writers have lessons for the modern professional zoologist, who at times feels burdened with the accumulated knowledge of a century and a half.

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  • Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.

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  • He concluded that it was not common air, but the substance, "in much greater perfection," that rendered common air respirable and a supporter of combustion.

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  • Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.

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  • He was said to be the inventor of a kind of flying-machine, a wooden pigeon balanced by a weight suspended from a pulley, and set in motion by compressed air escaping from a valve.'

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  • When a current is passed through the wire, continuous or alternating, it creates heat, which expands the air in the bulb and forces the liquid up one side of the U-tube to a certain position in which the rate of loss of heat by the air is equal to the rate at which it is gaining heat.

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  • A high class soap, which after framing contains about 30% of water, is brought down to a water content of 11-14% by drying in chambers through which warm air is circulated.

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  • The so-called " floating soaps " are soaps made lighter than water either by inserting cork or a metallic plate so as to form an air space within the tablet.

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  • The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.

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  • Thus the operator had to remove from ordinary mercury, earth or an earthy principle or quality, and water or a liquid principle, and to fix it by taking away air or a volatile principle.

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  • Potassium ruthenate, K2Ru04 H20, obtained by fusion of the metal with caustic potash and nitre, crystallizes in prisms which become covered with a black deposit on exposure to moist air.

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  • At this time Ignatius was again suffering from his former imprudent austerities; and he was urged to return for a while to his native air.

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  • On the one hand, it had been held that when a substance was burned or calcined, it combined with an " air "; on the other hand, the operation was supposed to be attended by the destruc tion or loss of the igneous principle.

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  • He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.

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  • He also showed that on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary air; moreover, the weight of the " air " set free from a given weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern carbon dioxide, was formed.

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  • After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.

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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.

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  • It is obvious that the area of a group of mountains projected on a horizontal plane, such as is presented by a map, must differ widely from the area of the superficies or physical surface of those mountains exposed to the air.

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  • A pupil of Nessus, or, as some accounts prefer, of Democritus himself, he was a complete sceptic. He accepted the Democritean theory of atoms and void and the plurality of worlds, but held a theory of his own that the stars are formed from day to day by the moisture in the air under the heat of the sun.

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  • While elevating the temperature they bring more moisture into the air and produce a change not entirely desirable.

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  • A romantic air has been thrown over these burial chapels by the notion that they were the places of worship used by the Christians in times of FIG.

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  • Rutherford, who showed that on removing oxygen from air a gas remained, which was incapable of supporting combustion or respiration.

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  • This may be effected by burning phosphorus in a confined volume of air, by the action of an alkaline solution of pyrogallol on air, by passing air over heated copper, or by the action of copper on air in the presence of ammoniacal solutions.

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  • Lovejoy at Niagara Falls, who passed atmospheric air, or air enriched with oxygen, about a high tension arc made as long as possible; but the company (the Atmospheric Products Company) was a failure.

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  • In 1862 Fleck passed a mixture of steam, nitrogen and carbon monoxide over red-hot lime, whilst in 1904 Woltereck induced combination by passing steam and air over red-hot iron oxide (peat is used in practice).

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  • It forms a mass of deep blue crystals at the temperature of liquid air.

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  • The fact of the inclusion of his statue in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; the hole cut in the temple roof so that he might be worshipped in the open air as being, like Jupiter, a god of 1 Agathocles was a native of Thermae.

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  • This iron seems, however, in several respects to be unlike the celebrated large nodules of iron found by Nordenskiold at Ovifak, but appears to resemble much more closely the softer kind of iron nodules found by Steenstrup in the basalt;' it stands exposure to the air equally well, and has similar Widmannstaten figures very sharp, as is to be expected in such a large mass.

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  • He was singularly unfortunate even when he gave in, delaying his acquiescence until it had the air of a surrender.

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  • When exposed to air the latex gradually undergoes putrefactive changes accompanied by coagulation of the caoutchouc. The addition of a small quantity of ammonia or of formalin to some latices usually has the effect of preserving them for a considerable time.

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  • The coagulated rubber separated from the watery fluid is cut up into small pieces and passed through the grooved rollers of the washing machine, from which it issues in sheets, long crinkled ribbons or " crepe," which are then dried in hot air chambers or in a vacuum dryer, by which means the water is dissipated at a lower temperature.

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  • Rubber slowly absorbs oxygen when exposed to air and light, the absorption of oxygen being accompanied by a gradual change in the characteristic properties of rubber, and ultimately to the production of a hard, inelastic, brittle substance containing oxygen.

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  • Before it is put in, the article is roughly put together, and the expansion of the included air forces the rubber into contact with the internal surface of the mould, or a little carbonate of ammonia is enclosed.

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  • This phenomenon he explained as a "repulsion from radiation," and he expressed his discovery in the statement that in a vessel exhausted of air a body tends to move away from another body hotter than itself.

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  • In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.

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  • On issuing from the Lake of Zurich the Linth alters its name to that of "Limmat," it does not appear wherefore, and, keeping the north-westerly direction it had taken from the Walensee, joins the Aar a little way below Brugg, and just below the junction of the Reuss with the Aar.

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  • The dressed ore is introduced through a "hopper" at the top, and exposed to a moderate oxidizing flame until a certain proportion of ore is oxidized, openings at the side enabling the workmen to stir up the ore so as to constantly renew the surface exposed to the air.

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  • To remove tin, arsenic and antimony, the lead has to be brought up to a bright-red heat, when the air has a strongly oxidizing effect.

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  • In small works the cupellation is finished in one furnace, and the resulting low-grade silver fined in a plumbago crucible, either by overheating in the presence of air, or by the addition of silver sulphate to the melted silver, when air or sulphur trioxide and oxygen oxidize the impurities.

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  • A furnace is served by three men, working in eight-hour shifts, and requires about 2 tons of coal, which corresponds to about 110 gallons reduced oil, air being used as atomizer.

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  • In the reverberatory furnace, similar to the one used in softening, the lead is brought to a brightred heat and air allowed to have free access.

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  • In the kettle covered with a hood the zinc is oxidized by means of dry steam, and incidentally some lead by the air which cannot be completely excluded.

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  • When kept fused in the presence of air lead readily takes up oxygen, with the formation at first of a dark-coloured scum, and then of monoxide PbO, the rate of oxidation increasing with the temperature.

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  • It forms colourless transparent crystals, soluble in one and a half parts of cold water and in eight parts of alcohol, which on exposure to ordinary air become opaque through absorption of carbonic acid, which forms a crust of basic carbonate.

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  • Literature - modern as well as ancient - occupied his attention; one of his works was a translation of four parts of Clarissa; and translations of some of the then current English paraphrases on biblical books manifested his sympathy with a school which, if not very learned, attracted him by its freer air.

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  • Since i +47-K' can never be negative, the apparent susceptibility will be positive or negative according as is greater or less than Thus, for example, a tube containing a weak solution of an iron salt will appear to be diamagnetic if it is immersed in a stronger solution of iron, though in air it is paramagnetic.4 Circular Magnetization.

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  • If a long magnetized rod is divided transversely and the cut ends placed nearly in contact, the magnetic force inside the narrow air gap will be B = H +47rI.

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  • The whole was wrapped in several coverings of asbestos and placed in a glass vessel from which the air was partially exhausted, additional precautions being taken to guard against oxidation of the iron.

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  • The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.

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  • The first immersion into liquid air generally produced a permanent decrease of magnetic moment, and there was sometimes a further decrease when the metal was warmed up again; but after a few alternations of temperature the changes of moment.

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  • It is suggested that a permanent magnet might conveniently be " aged " (or brought into a constant condition) by dipping it several times into liquid air.

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  • Steinmetz's formula applies only for very weak inductions when the alloys are at the ordinary temperature, but at the temperature of liquid air it becomes applicable through a wide range of inductions.

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  • Guillaume' the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility of nickel-steel is recovered is lowered by the presence of chromium; a certain alloy containing chromium was not rendered magnetic even by immersion in liquid air.

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  • Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.

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  • It is pointed out that this formula may be used as a temperature correction in magnetic determinations carried out in air.

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  • In the second series, to which greater importance is attached, measurements were made of the force exerted in a divergent field upon small balls of copper, silver and other substances, first when the balls were in air and afterwards when they were immersed in liquid oxygen.

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  • If V is the volume of a ball, H the strength of the field at its centre, and re its apparent susceptibility, the force in the direction x is f= K'VH X dH/dx; and if K',, and are the apparent susceptibilities of the same ball in air and in liquid oxygen, K' Q -K'o is equal to the difference between the susceptibilities of the two media.

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  • A is the condition of insinking of the sternal surface and consequent enclosure of the lamelligerous surface of the appendage in a chamber with narrow orifice - the pulmonary air - holding chamber.

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  • By considering only the particles of air found in a right line, he reduced the problem of the propagation of sound to the solution of the same partial differential equations that include the motions of vibrating strings, and demonstrated the insufficiency of the methods employed by both his great contemporaries in dealing with the latter subject.

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  • In order to obtain alum from alunite, it is calcined and then exposed to the action of air for a considerable time.

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  • He was thus a deity of the realms of air and light, and, by transfer to the moral realm, the god of truth and loyalty.

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  • In winter the plateau is less heated, and cold currents of air from the west and south-west cause precipitation over a part if not all of this region.

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  • On the 28th of July Peterwardein, after a valiant resistance, was blown into the air.

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  • By the introduction of a method of classification which was due to the superficial Pliny - depending, not on structure, but on the medium inhabited by an animal, whether earth, air or waterWotton is led to associate Fishes and Whales as aquatic animals.

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  • Supposing a number of some species of arthropod or fish to be swept into a cavern or to be carried from less to greater depths in the sea, those individuals with perfect eyes would follow the glimmer of light and eventually escape to the outer air or the shallower depths, leaving behind those with imperfect eyes to breed in the dark place.

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  • The,ideal surface of resolution may be there regarded as a flexible lamina; and we know that, if by forces locally applied every element of the lamina be made to move normally to itself exactly as the air at that place does, the external aerial motion is fully determined.

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  • P. Langley has proposed to obviate such ill-effects by stirring the air included within a telescope tube.

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  • Bellerophon,mounted on Pegasus(q.v.),kept up in the air out of the way of the Chimaera, but yet near enough to kill it with his spear, or, as he is at other times represented,with his sword or with a bow.

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  • Exposed to air this mixture is oxidized to the pigment uranium red, U6(NH4)2S09, which is a fine blood-coloured amorphous powder.

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  • The furnace consists of a shaft, circular (or more rarely rectangular) in plan, into which alternate layers of fuel and ore are charged, an air blast being generally injected near to the bottom of the furnace through one or more tuyeres.

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  • Flores stanni is a finely divided mixture of the metal and oxide obtained by fusing the metal in the presence of air for some time.

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  • A solution of the pure salt yields fine prisms of the composition Na2Sn03+10H20, which effloresce in the air.

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  • Chronos begat fire, air and water, and from these three sprang numerous other gods; Smoke and darkness appear in a later tradition.

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  • But of late years the beauties of the Rhine have become sadly marred; the banks in places, especially between Coblenz and Bonn, disfigured by quarrying, the air made dense with the smoke of cement factories and steam-tugs, commanding spots falling a prey to the speculative builder and villages growing into towns.

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  • The capacity of the tank depends on the power required and the distance to be traversed by a single charge of air.

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  • Y g g The air passes through a reducing valve from the main to an auxiliary tank, in which the pressure is, say, 125 lb, and thence to the driving cylinders.

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  • The air of a mine is vitiated by the presence of large numbers of men and animals and of numerous lights, each of which may consume as much air as a number of men.

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  • In mining operations explosives are used on a large scale and the powder gases contain large quantities of the very poisonous gas, carbon monoxide, a small percentage of which may cause death, and even a minute percentage of which in the air will seriously affect the health.

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  • In metal mines, however, artificial ventilation is rarely attempted, and natural ventilation often fails to furnish a sufficient quantity of air.

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  • If the two openings to the mine are at different levels the difference in weight of the inside and outside air due to difference in temperature causes a current, and in the winter months large volumes of air will be circulated through the mine from this cause alone.

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  • In a mine with shafts opening at the same level, natural ventilation once established will be effective during cold weather, as the downcast will have the temperature of the outside air, while the upcast will be filled with the warm air of the mine.

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  • In a mine with two shafts a ventilating current may result from other conditions creating a difference in the temperature of the air in either shaft - for example, the cooling effect of dropping water or the heating effect of steam pipes.

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  • Ventilation may be produced by heating the air of the mine, as for example, by constructing a ventilating furnace at the bottom of an air shaft.

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  • The typical mine fan consists of a shaft upon which are mounted a number of vanes enclosed in a casing; the air entering a central side inlet is caught up by the revolving vanes and thrown out at the periphery by the centrifugal force thus generated.

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  • Occasionally, at very gassy and dangerous collieries, two fans and driving engines are erected at the same air shaft, and in case of accident to the fan in operation the other can be started within a few minutes.

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  • A certain pressure of air is required to maintain circulation against the resistance, and for a given volume per minute the smaller and more irregular the mine openings the greater must be the pressure.

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  • The power required to circulate the air through a mine increases as the cube of the velocity of the air current.

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  • To decrease the velocity, when large volumes of air are required, the air passages are made larger, and the mine is divided into sections and the air current subdivided into a corresponding number of independent circuits.

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  • Fire-damp and dust explosions are caused by the presence of marsh-gas in sufficient quantity to form an explosive mixture, or by a mixture of small percentages of marsh-gas and coal-dust, and in some cases by the presence of coal-dust alone in the air of the mine.

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  • It is seen that the action is intermittent, liquid only being discharged during a down stroke, but since the driving force is that which is supplied to the piston rod, the lift is only con ditioned by the power available and by the strength of the pump. A continuous supply can be obtained by leading the delivery pipe into the base of an air chamber H, which is fitted with a discharge pipe J of such a diameter that the liquid cannot escape from it as fast as it is pumped in during a down stroke.

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  • The air inside is compressed in consequence and during an upstroke of the piston this air tends to regain its original volume and so expels the water, thus bringing about a continuous supply.

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  • This type of pump is, however, not very efficient, for there is not only leakage about the valves and between the piston and cylinder, but at a certain degree of exhaust the air within the vessel is insufficient to raise the inlet valve; this last defect has been met in some measure by using an extension of the piston to open and close the valve.

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  • The air is then driven out of A by FIG.

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  • It can be considerably shortened, the two vessels A and B brought more closely together, and the somewhat objectionable india-rubber tube be dispensed with, if we connect the air-space in B with an ordinary air pump, and by means of it do the greater part of the sucking and the whole of the lifting work.

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  • Every drop of mercury, as it enters from the funnel, entirely closes the narrow tube like a piston, and in going past the place where the side tube enters entraps a portion of air and carries it down to the trough, where it can be collected.

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  • A mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller like dough; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and impression of a mould; and can be almost indefinitely extended as solid rod or as hollow tube.

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  • The furnaces are driven to a white heat in order to fuse the mixture and expel bubbles of gas and air.

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  • In the " sandblast " process the surface of the glass is exposed to a stream of sharp sand driven by compressed air.

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  • The blower places the glass in the mould, closes the mould by pressing a lever with his foot, and either blows down the blowing iron or attaches it to a tube connected with a supply of compressed air.

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  • A bottle-making machine combines the process of pressing with a plunger with that of blowing by compressed air.

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  • As soon as a blowing iron is in connexion with an air jet, the sections of the mould close upon the molten glass, and the compressed air forces the glass to take the form of the mould.

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  • In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.

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  • It is a pungent-smelling liquid, which fumes strongly on exposure to air.

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  • A group (B), comprising copper, is, substantially, attacked only in the presence of oxygen or air.

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  • A fluid, as the name implies, is a substance which flows, or is capable of flowing; water and air are the two fluids distributed most universally over the surface of the earth.

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  • Fluids again are divided into two classes, termed a liquid and a gas, of which water and air are the chief examples.

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  • The pressure of the air is a convenient unit to employ in practical work, where it is called an " atmosphere "; it is made the equivalent of a pressure of one kg/cm'; and one ton/inch 2, employed as the unit with high pressure as in artillery, may be taken as 150 atmospheres.

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  • So also a balloon begins to rise when the weight of air displaced is greater than the weight of the balloon, and it is in equilibrium when the weights are equal.

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  • It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').

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  • An oblate flattened body, like a disk or plate, has c 2 -c 1 negative, so that the medium steers the body axially; this may be verified by a plate dropped in water, and a leaf or disk or rocket-stick or piece of paper falling in air.

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  • A card will show the influence of the couple N if projected with a spin in its plane, when it will be found to change its aspect in the air.

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  • If p denotes the density of the air or medium W' = sird 3 xp, (23) W' I p __ W I -1 3 k12 I k22 x2 ±i a 2= 101-1 3 '111 2= 2 tan g S = Q (l - a) x 2+ I (26) in which a/p may be replaced by 800 times the S.G.

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  • I +W a W a), ' (k) 4 (I I) I+ w- R For a shot in air the ratio W'/W is so small that the square may be neglected, and formula (II) can be replaced for practical purpose in artillery by tan26= n2 = W i (0 - a) (k ð)7()4, (12) if then we can calculate /3, a, or (3-a for the external shape of the shot, this equation will give the value of 6 and n required for stability of flight in the air.

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  • From the centrifugal the sugar is either turned out without washing as raw sugar, only fit for the refinery, or else it is well washed with a spray of water and air until white and dry, and it is then offered in the market as refined sugar, although it has never passed through animal charcoal (bone-black).

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  • The whole operation of thus changing a filter occupies about ten minutes, and there is no need for anyone to enter the hot cistern to detach the bags, which are removed in the open air above the mud tank.

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  • A small pipe entering below the false bottom allows the air in the cistern to escape as it is displaced by the water or syrup. In some refineries this pipe, which is carried up to a higher level than the top of the cistern, is fitted with a whistle which sounds as long as the air escapes.

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  • It is a matter of common observation that stones of monuments, walls or buildings which are exposed to the air sooner or later become eaten away or broken up into small fragments under the influence of the weather.

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  • The oxygen of the air may also bring about chemical changes which result in the production of soluble substances removable by rain, the insoluble parts being left in a loosened state.

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  • A perfect soil would be such a blend of sand, clay, chalk and humus as would contain sufficient clay and humus to prevent drought, enough sand to render it pervious to fresh air and prevent waterlogging, chalk enough to correct the tendency to acidity of the humus present, and would have within it various substances which would serve as food-materials to the crops.

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  • During the life of a plant there is a continuous stream of water passing through it which enters by the root-hairs in the soil and after passing along the stem is given off from the 'stomata of the leaves into the open air above ground.

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  • Under such conditions each particle of soil is surrounded by a thin film of water and in the pore-space air can freely circulate.

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  • This substance absorbs and combines with water very greedily, at the same time becoming very hot, and falling into a fine dry powder,' calcium hydroxide or slaked lime, which when left in the open slowly combines with the carbon dioxide of the air and becomes calcium carbonate, from which we began.

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  • It should therefore be kept a year or more in heaps in some waste corner and turned over once or twice so that the air can gain access to it and oxidize the poisonous ingredients in it.

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  • As burning proceeds more turf is added to the outside of the heaps in such a manner as to allow little access of air.

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  • The chief disadvantage is the loss of nitrogen which it entails, this element being given off into the air in a free gaseous state.

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  • The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.

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  • For warmth, for dryness, for absence of fog, and for facility of walking after rain, just when the air is at its purest and its best, there is nothing equal to gravel; but when gravel has been rendered foul by infiltration with organic matters it may easily become a very hotbed of disease.

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  • The tobacco is hung in a barn in which there is a free circulation of air during dry weather.

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  • The roasting is most simply effected by spreading it on heated slabs, on which it is constantly turned, or a roasting machine is used, consisting of a revolving drum in which the tobacco is rotated, gradually passing from one end to the other, and all the time under the influence of a current of heated air.

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  • If zinc be heated to near its boiling-point, it catches fire and burns with a brilliant light into its powdery white oxide, which forms a reek in the air (lana philosophica, " philosopher's wool").

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  • On this theory he prepared artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land which he obtained from thr town of Giessen in 1845.

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  • The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.

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  • The kingdom of Hira (Hira) was established in the boundary land between the Euphrates and the Arabian desert, a district renowned for its good air and extr a ordinary fertility.

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  • The larvae of species belonging to the Culicinae have a prominent breathing tube, or respiratory siphon, on the penultimate (eighth) abdominal segment, and when taking in air hang head downwards (often nearly vertically) from the surface film.

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  • Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.

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  • As an auxiliary to air cooling the stack may be cooled by a slow stream of water trickling down the outside of the pipes, or, in certain cases, cold water may be injected into the condenser in the form of a spray, w here it meets the ascending vapours.

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  • The finer meteors on entering the air only weigh a few hundred or, at most, a few thousand pounds, while the smallest shooting stars visible to the eye may probably be equal in size to coarse grains of sand, and still be large enough to evolve all the light presented by them.

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  • In this way was formed a broad disk of earth, floating on the circumambient air.

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  • In 1848, when the political air was charged with stimulating elements, he founded the Positive Society, with the expectation that it might grow into a reunion as powerful over the new revolution as the Jacobin Club had been in the revolution of 1789.

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  • He was unusually tall, and possessed in advanced years a strange and rather terrifying air of sombre majesty.

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  • The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."

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  • Massive, towering roofs, which impart an air of stateliness even to a wooden building and yet, by their graceful curves, avoid any suggestion of ponderosity, were still confined to Buddhist edifices.

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  • These sculptures, which are in rough limestone, most likely belong to the earlier building, as their surface is in a better state of preservation than could be possible if they had been long exposed to the air.

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  • If we consider a length l of the cylinder, the charge Q on the inner cylinder is Q=27rR l ly, where v is the surface density, and by Coulomb's law v = E i /47r, where E 1 = A/R 1 is the force at the surface of the inner Ai cylinder.

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  • He constructed two equal condensers, each consisting of a metal ball enclosed in a hollow metal sphere, and he provided also certain hemispherical shells of shellac, sulphur, glass, resin, &c., which he could so place in one condenser between the ball and enclosing sphere that it formed a condenser with solid dielectric. He then determined the ratio of the capacities of the two condensers, one with air and the other with the solid dielectric. This gave the dielectric constant K of the material.

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  • Nothing is known of the history of Ayr till the close of the 12th century, when it was made a royal residence, and soon afterwards a royal burgh, by William the Lion.

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  • The common alloy, Shi-ya-ku-Do, contains 70% of copper and 30% of gold; when exposed to air it becomes coated with a fine black patina, and is much used in Japan for sword ornaments.

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  • Treated with sodammonium it yields a bluish-black mass, BiNa 3, which takes fire in the air and decomposes water.

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  • When the rays of the sun or a candle, or dark radiation from a warm body, are incident on the vanes, the dark side of each vane is repelled more than the bright side, and thus the vanes are set into rotation with accelerated speed, which becomes uniform when the forces produced by the radiation are balanced by the friction of the pivot and of the residual air in the globe.

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  • The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.

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  • In air of considerable density the mean free path of a molecule, between its collisions with other molecules, is exceedingly small, and any such increase of gaseous pressure in front of the black surface would be immediately neutralized by flow of the gas from places of high to places of low pressure.

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  • Let u represent the volume of air in the cup before the body was inserted, v the volume of the body, a the area of the horizontal FIG.

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  • It consists in determining the air expelled from a vessel by the vapour of a given quantity of the substance.

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  • To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.

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  • To complete the experiment, the graduated tube containing the expelled air is brought to a constant and determinate temperature and pressure, and this volume is the volume which the given weight of the substance would occupy if it were a gas under the same temperature and pressure.

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  • The substance is now placed on the support already mentioned, and the apparatus closed to the air by inserting the cork at D and turning the cock C. By turning or withdrawing the support the substance enters the bulb; and during its vaporization the free limb of the manometer is raised so as to maintain the mercury at a.

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  • Any air bubbles are removed from the surface of the body by brushing with a camel-hair brush; if the solid be of a porous nature it is desirable to boil it for some time in water, thus expelling the air from its interstices.

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