Anaxagoras was threatened with a law against atheists, and felt compelled to leave Athens.
The union was childless, and consequently in 1902 a law regulating the succession was passed.
You're a law officer.
The doctor says I can talk, but I think he is trying to avoid a law suit.
I'm a law man.
Thank goodness for Colorado hospitality—the friendly room clerk was more than willing to oblige a law enforcement agent.
936, when Hywel Dda, prince of South Wales, enacted a law for their protection.
A consolidation was effected in 1793, but the lavish issue of assignats destroyed whatever advantage might have accrued, and the debt was again dealt with by a law of the pth of Vendmiaire year VI: (27th of September 1797), the annual interest paid yearly to creditors then amounting to 40,216000 francs (~i,6oo,ooo).
There were also a great many schools in the control of various religious congregations, but a law of 1904 required that they should all be suppressed within ten years from the date of its enactment.
The first step taken in this direction was in 1900 when a law was passed which laid down that the colonies were to provide for their own civil expenditure.
Saxe-Meiningen is a limited monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1829, subsequently modified.
There were no banks in the state until 1806, when a state bank (controlled by the state) was established which was finally closed up in 1845, although as early as 1812 a law was passed to close it.
No one save the king had the right of jurisdiction over him, while by a law of Canute we learn that he paid a larger heriot than an ordinary thegn.
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
It is a mental " impotence " that makes us believe in such a law as Cause and Effect.
What the Three Sermons sought to find written small within - a law of inflexible justice or righteousness - part i.
His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.
Then, in 399, a law of Honorius (Cod.
In France a law of the Revolution (September 1790) purported to suppress all ecclesiastical jurisdictions.
QUINTUS SERVILIUS CAEPIO, Roman general, consul 106 B.C. During his year of office, he brought forward a law by which the jurymen were again to be chosen from the senators instead of the equites (Tacitus, Ann.
It may be replied that there are such facts, and though they are but few as yet, they suffice to suggest an hypothesis that may eventually prove to be a law.
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
"The law of things is a law of Reason Universal (Xo yos), but most men live as though they had a wisdom of their own."
no alteration may be made in credits necessary for carrying out a law.
In 1896 the powers of the minister were extended at the expense of those of the under-secretary, who remained only at the head of the corps of gendarmes; but by a law of the 24th of September 1904 this was again reversed, and the under-secretary was again placed at the head of all the police with the title of undersecretary for the administration of the police.
To avert the danger of a man of this type succeeding to the throne Peter made a law by which the reigning sovereign might choose his successor according to his own judgment, and two years later he caused his second wife, Catherine Catherine, the daughter of a Lithuanian peasant, to 1, be crowned with all due solemnity, " in recognition of the courageous services rendered by her to the Russian Empire."
2 A law passed in 1887, requiring all voters to take an oath against polygamy, with the object of disfranchising Mormons, was declared unconstitutional by the State Supreme Court.
As this vast mass cooled it must by the laws of heat have contracted towards the centre, and as it contracted it must, according to a law of dynamics, rotate more rapidly.
According to a law published in 1899, Turkish merchandise became subjected to the same rates as that of foreign nations.
Antonius in 44 B.C. carried a law abolishing the dictatorship as a part of the constitution.
An institute for the deaf and dumb and blind was opened at Raleigh in 1845, and another for the deaf and dumb at Morganton in 1894; by a law of 1907 every deaf child.
The insurrection of dissenters (1708-1711), which was headed by Thomas Carey, who was deputy-governor while the trouble was brewing, was in opposition to the establishment of the Church of England; it was ultimately unsuccessful, the Church was established in 1711, a law was passed which deprived Quakers of the privilege of serving on juries or holding public office, and the establishment was continued until the War of Independence.
He was thus led to conclude that chemistry is a branch of applied mathematics and to endeavour to trace a law according to which the quantities of different bases required to saturate a given acid formed an arithmetical, and the quantities of acids saturating a given base a geometrical, progression.
The one, a law of blood and death, opening out each day new modes of destruction, forces nations to be always ready for the battle.
The other, a law of peace, work and health, whose only aim is to deliver man from the calamities which beset him.
It is therefore extraordinarily difficult at present to know what happens, or rather what would happen if it were not prevented, when a country reaches " the stage of diminishing returns "; what precisely it is which comes into operation, for obviously the diminishing returns are the results, not the cause; or how commodities " obey " a law which is always " suspended."
GAIUS MANILIUS, Roman tribune of the people in 66 B.C. At the beginning of his year of office (Dec. 67) he succeeded in getting a law passed (de libertinorum suffragiis), which gave freedmen the privilege of voting together with those who had manumitted them, that is, in the same tribe as their patroni; this law, however, was almost immediately declared null and void by the senate.
In 1392 a law put an end to riding in the Merceria, on account of the crowd, and all horses and mules were obliged to carry bells to warn foot-passengers.
Among prominent public buildings are the State Capitol (completed 1889), containing a law library of about 65,000 volumes and a collection of portraits of famous Georgians, the north-west front of the Capitol grounds containing an equestrian statue (unveiled in 1907) of John Brown Gordon (1832-1904), a distinguished Confederate general in the American Civil War and governor of Georgia in 1887-1890; the court house; the Carnegie library, in which the young men's library, organized in 1867, was merged in 1902; the post office building; and the Federal prison (about 4 m.
Hitherto no explanation has been given of these exceptions to what appears to be a law of almost universal application, viz.
In 1711 a law was passed in Pennsylvania prohibiting the importation of slaves, but it was rejected by the Council in England.
They and their descendants were retained, in the words of a law of Theodosius, " quodam aeternitatis jure," and by no process could be relieved from their obligations.
By a law of Anastasius, at the end of the 5th century, a colonus who had voluntarily come into an estate was by a tenure of thirty years for ever attached to it.
By a law of Valentinian I.
The traffic in slaves has been repeatedly declared by the Ottoman Porte to be illegal throughout its dominions, and a law for its suppression was published in 1889, but it cannot be said to be extinct, owing to the laxity and too often the complicity of the government officials.
As usual, the excessive self-introspection was not checked by a rational criticism; the individual was guided by his own reason, the limitations of which he did not realize; and in becoming a law unto himself he ignored the accumulated experiences of civilized humanity.'
Within five days after the passage of any bill by the General Assembly he may veto this measure, which then becomes a law only if passed by a two-thirds vote of all members elected to each house of the General Assembly.
The prefects of the department were created by a law of the 28th Pluviose in the year VIII.
Gradual abolition of slavery was declared by a law of the 13th of February 1880; definitive abolition in 1886; and in 1893 the equal civil status of blacks and whites in all respects was proclaimed by General Calleja.
In 1896 he became private secretary to Postmaster-General Wilson, but the following year opened a law office in his native town.
The "persecution" had meanwhile produced its natural result: the use of the forbidden vestments rapidly spread; and since there was no central authority left competent to command obedience, every incumbent - intrenched in his freehold as a "corporation sole" - became a law unto himself.
Bennet, Select Biographical Sketches from Note-books of a Law Reporter (1867); E.
By a law passed in 1868 attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years.
Finally, there is a law of absorption expressed by a+ab = a.
If B 1 = E(3e, there is a law of addition expressed by A1+B1 = (a, +ï¿½ei =B1+Ai; this law of addition is associative as well as commutative.
The definition of a fine vertical line, and consequently the resolving power for contiguous vertical lines, is thus independent of the vertical aperture of the instrument, a law of great importance in the theory of the spectroscope.
We will now apply (18) to the investigation of a law of secondary disturbance, when a primary wave = sin (nt - kx) (19) is supposed to be broken up in passing the plane x = o.
1 Derived from the Anglo-Saxon laece, a physician, and dom, a law.
Geneva had a law expressly forbidding theatrical performances in any circumstances whatever.
After the code was firmly established, the Locrians introduced a regulation that, if a citizen interpreted a law differently from the cosmopolis (the chief magistrate), each had to appear before the council of One Thousand with a rope round his neck, and the one against whom the council decided was immediately strangled.
Other buildings of note are the town hall, dating from about 1550; and the old castle of Hradschin, now used as a law court.
On the 9th of February 1792, he succeeded in having a law passed sequestrating the possessions of the émigrés, and demanded, though in vain, the deportation of refractory priests to French Guiana.
Salvestro de' Medici, who had always opposed the parte, having been elected gonfaloniere in spite of its intrigues, proposed a law for the abolition of the admonitions, which was eventually passed (June 18, 1378), but the people had been aroused, and desired to break the power of the parte for good.
From that time until his death the city was free from party strife under a de facto despotism, but after the Rinuccini conspiracy of that year the Council of Seventy passed a law declaring attempts on Lorenzo's life to be high treason.
The system of forced loans was abolished and a 1 o% tax on real property introduced in its stead, and a law of amnesty for political offenders enacted.
The president has no veto power, but has the right to return a law to Congress with comments within a period of ten days.
In the Theological and Metaphysical state men seek a cause or an essence; in the Positive they are content with a law.
Hence the beliefs he preached were never to him mere speculative ideas, but rather the ultimate realities of being and thought, the final truths as to the character and ways of God interpreted into a law for the government of conscience and the regulation of life.
At the close of the 7th century the emperor Mommu is said to have enacted a law that wealthy persons living near the highways must supply rice to travellers, and in 745 an empress (Koken) directed that a stock of medical necessaries must be kept at the postal stations.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1852, modified in 1874.
The matter was settled by a law of 1905, on the lines mentioned in the earlier section of this article.
In January 1825, owing to official pressure, only three Liberals were returned to the chamber; a law was: passed making the budget presentable only every three years, and the constitution ceased to have any active existence.
In the same year (6th of September) a law was passed to compel all candidates for the priesthood to pass the government examinations.
He remarks that ” the law according to which the motive power of heat varies at different points of the thermometric scale is intimately connected with that of the variations of the specific heats of gases at different temperatures - a law which experiment has not yet made known to us with sufficient exactness."
Sacrilege was made a crime punishable by death, and the ministry were preparing a law to alter the law of equal inheritance, and thus create anew the great estates.
It contains the government college, named after Mr Ravenshaw, a former commissioner; a high school, a training school, a survey school, a medical school and a law school.
She succeeded to the throne on her father's death, which took place on the 23rd of November 1890, but until her eighteenth year, when she was "inaugurated" at Amsterdam on the 6th of September 1898, the business of the state was carried on under the regency of the queen-mother, in accordance with a law made on the 2nd of August 1884.
In the history of human religions can we trace, as it were, a law of transition from sacred stock and stone up to picture and image?
It was perhaps the facility with which a pillar of stone or wood can be turned into an image by painting or sculpturing on it eyes, ears, mouth, marks of sex and so on, which led anthropologists of an earlier generation to postulate such a law of development; but facts do not bear it out.
Important innovations in the constitution of 1897 are the office of lieutenantgovernor, and the veto power of the governor which may extend to parts and clauses of appropriation bills, but a bill may be passed over his veto by a three-fifths vote of each house of the legislature, and a bill becomes a law if not returned to the legislature withil l ten days after its reception by the governor, unless the session of the legislature shall have expired in the meantime.
In 1905, by a law approved on the 10th of March, it was finally abolished.
The whipping-post was in 1908 still maintained in Delaware, and whipping continued to be prescribed as a punishment for a variety of offences, although in 1889 a law was passed which prescribed that " hereafter no female convicted of any crime in this state shall be whipped or made to stand in the pillory," and a law passed in 1883 prescribed that " in case of conviction of larceny, when the prisoner is of tender years, or is charged for the first time (being shown to have before had a good character), the court may in its discretion omit from the sentence the infliction of lashes."
Centralization was again secured, in 1888, by the passage of a law reorganizing and increasing the powers of the state board of education.
State-wide prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors was voted down in 1887 and a local option law went into effect; in 1907, when there was no licence in 145 (out of 243) counties and licence only in parts of 51 other counties, a law was passed giving local option to parts of cities and towns.
By a law of 1907 cities with a population of 25,000 or more may adopt a commission form of government, with a mayor and four councilmen elected at large on a non-partisan ticket.
But attempts to execute this were so unsuccessful that it has been succeeded by a law imposing what is known as the "mulct tax," which requires the payment of $600 in quarterly instalments for a licence to sell such liquors and places a lien for the whole amount on the real property in use for the business.
In 1907 the General Assembly passed a law under which the indeterminate sentence was established in the state, and the governor appoints a Board of Parole of three members, of whom one must be an attorney and not more than two are to belong to the same political party.
As the assemblies, said he, could not make permanent laws without the king's consent, " neither could he make a law for them without theirs."
In 1871 the Danish parliament (Riksdag) passed a law defining the political position of Iceland in the Danish monarchy, which, though never recognized as valid by the Icelanders, became de facto the base of the political relations of Iceland and Denmark.
Almost all state employees are under civil service rules; the same is true of the city of Boston; and of the clerical, stenographic, prison, police, civil engineering, fire, labourforeman, inspection and bridge tender services of all cities; and under a law (1894) by which cities and towns may on petition enlarge the application of their civil service rules.
It retained the Areopagitic council in the Draconian laws by the supposition that Solon, while leaving untouched the Draconian laws concerned with the cases of homicide which came before the Ephetae, substituted a law of his own regarding wilful murder, which fell within the jurisdiction of the Areopagites.
A few years later he drifted westward with twenty-five dollars in his pocket, and the autumn of 1855 found him in a law office in the city of Buffalo.
Congress had passed a law in 1878 requiring the treasury department to purchase a certain amount of silver bullion each month and coin it into silver dollars to be full legal tender.
A tariff bill introduced in the House by William Lyne Wilson (1843-1900), of West Virginia, chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means, was so amended in the Senate, through the instrumentality of Senator Arthur Pue Gorman and a coterie of anti-administration democratic senators, that when the bill eventually came before him, although unwilling to veto it, the president signified his dissatisfaction with its too high rates by allowing it to become a law without his signature.
In consequence the census of 1870 was taken with the outgrown machinery established twenty years earlier, a law characterized by Francis A.
The eleventh census was taken under a law almost identical with that of the tenth, and extended through twenty-five large volumes, presenting a work almost as encyclopaedic, but much more distinctively statistical.
A bill or item of an appropriation bill that has been vetoed by the governor can become a law only with the approval of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature.
So long as the legislature is in session the governor is allowed ten days, besides Sundays, to consider a bill, and if he does not veto it within that time it becomes a law, but no bill becomes a law after the final adjournment of the legislature unless it is actually approved by the governor within thirty days after the adjournment.
To decrease the evil of lobbying a law was enacted in 1906 which requires that every person employed to promote or oppose the passage of any bill shall file in the office of the secretary of state a written statement showing who has employed him and describing the legislation in respect of which his services are to be rendered; the law also requires the employers of lobbyists to file in the same office within two months after the adjournment of the legislature an itemized statement of all their lobbying expenses, and forbids the employment of a lobbyist for a contingent fee.
The administration of the common school system was in the hands of a state superintendent of schools from 1813 to 1821, of the secretary of state from 1821 to 1854, and of a In 1906 a law was enacted for the establishment of a new state prison in the eastern part of the state to take the place of Sing Sing Prison.
By a law of 1908 the board of education of any city is authorized to establish industrial schools for children who have completed the elementary school course or have attained the age of fourteen years, and trade schools for children who are more than sixteen years old and have completed the elementary school course or a course offered by any of the industrial schools.
In 1909, as part of the same policy, a law was passed imposing compulsory military service on all Christian subjects of the empire for the first time.
In the same year a law was also passed authorizing government to repurchase private land for closer settlement.
In 1895 a law controlling servants' registry offices was added.
At the age of fifteen Macdonald entered a law office; he was called to the bar in 1836, and began practice in Kingston, with immediate success.
By a law enacted in 1909 the licensing of the sale of intoxicating liquors, other than for medical purposes by druggists and pharmacists, is left to the option of counties and cities.
The sovereignty over the territory was by a law (Reichsgesetz) of the 9th of June 1871 vested in the German emperor, who, until the introduction of the imperial constitution on the 1st of January 1874, had, with the assent of the federal council (Bundesrat) and, in a few cases, that of the imperial diet (Reichstag), the sole right of initiating legislation.
He may veto any bill passed by the assembly, or in the case of a bill making appropriations of money he may veto any item of it, and no bill or item of an appropriation bill which he vetoes within five days (Sunday excepted) after it has been presented to him, can become a law or part of a law unless passed over his veto in each house by a two-thirds vote of the members present.
But in 1834 a law was passed providing for the union of the scattered lands belonging to each proprietor, and that may be considered the dawn of modern Saxon agriculture., The richest grain districts are near Meissen, Grimma, Bautzen,.
The constitution rests on a law promulgated on the 4th of September 1831, and subsequently amended.
But this omission was supplied in Prussia by a law of the 29th of March 1879, which provided for the appointment, in each commune, of an arbitrator (Schiedsmann) before whom conciliation proceedings in contentious matters might be conducted.
This law was followed in Brunswick by a law of the 2nd of July 1896, and in Baden by a law of the 16th of April 1886.
The last mention of a lex agraria in Roman history is connected with his name, though how far the measure was strictly speaking a law is uncertain.
In 119 as tribune he proposed a law intended to limit the influence of the nobles at elections.
By a law passed in 1903, the ancient system of recruiting the army and navy from the descendants of former prisoners of war was abolished in favour of compulsory service by all able-bodied men.
The Public Library (opened in 1889) contained about 160,000 volumes in 1910, and the library of the New Jersey Historical Society about 26,000 books, about 27,000 pamphlets and many manuscripts; the Prudential Insurance Company has a law library of about 20,000 volumes; and the Essex County Lawyers' Club has one of 5000 volumes or more.
During the war between Marius and Sulla it withstood the latter's troops for two years in 82-80 B.C. As a result of its resistance Sulla carried a law for the confiscation of the land of those inhabitants of Volaterrae who had had the privileges of Roman citizenship. This, however, does not seem to have been carried out until Caesar as dictator divided some of the territory of Volaterrae among his veterans.
Two tendencies appeared in the thought of the primitive Church, the one to regard Christianity as a law given by God for the government of men's lives, with the promise of a blessed immortality as a reward for its observance; the other to view it as a means by which the corrupt and mortal nature of man is transformed, so that he becomes a spiritual and holy being.
To make any alteration in its frontiers a constitutional law is required - a law which, as opposed to an ordinary law, has to be passed by a three-fifths majority of Parliament.
Later still he engaged in the study of the relations between chemical constitution and rotation of the plane of polarization in a magnetic field, and enunciated a law expressing the variation of such rotation in bodies belonging to homologous series.
Liberty of the Press was promised subject to the passing of a law to restrain its abuses.
(I) Priscian avowedly treats Greek writers on (Greek) grammar as his supreme authorities; and bears too little in mind that each has a history of its own and is a law to itself.
Dupuy proposed a law in the chamber transferring the decision to a full court of all the divisions of the court of cassation.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
No veto power whatever was given to the governor until 1867, when, in the present constitution, it was provided that no bill vetoed by him should become a law unless passed over his veto by a three-fifths vote of the members elected to each house, and an amendment of 1890 (ratified by the people in 1891) further provides that any item of a money bill may likewise be separately vetoed.
The legislature of 1908 passed a law under which the minimum pay for a teacher holding a first-class certificate should be $350 a year after three years' teaching, $400 after five years' teaching and $450 after eight years' teaching.
By a law of 1904 all teachers who taught an average of 15 pupils were to receive at least $300.
In 1908 the average school year was nine and seven-tenths months - ten in the cities and nine and four-tenths in the counties; the aim is ten months throughout, and a law of 1904 provides that if a school is taught less than nine months a portion of the funds set apart for it shall be withheld.
- The carrying trade between Algeria and France is confined, by a law passed in 1889, to French bottoms. The largest port is Algiers, after which follow Oran, Philippeville and Bona.
By a law of the 19th of December 1900, Algeria was constituted a legal personality, with power to own goods, contract loans, &c., and a decree of 1901 placed the customs department, until then directed from Paris, under the control of the governor-general, whose hands were also strengthened in various minor matters.
This was modified by a law of 1851.
But ultimately, the results not being satisfactory, the precedent of Australia was followed, and by a law of 1860 domain lands were sold publicly at a fixed price.
In 1883 a law was passed for the reorganization of the systems in force, and primary instruction was made compulsory for Europeans and Jews, whilst in the case of Mahommedans discretion in the establishment of schools was vested in the governorgeneral.
On the 25th of April 1900 a law was enacted for the regulation of the constitution, capital, note emission and metallic reserves of banks.
Derived existence, however, is not like the original Being itself, but is subject to a law of diminishing completeness.
In the Constituent Assembly he was a member of the committee of taxes (comité des contributions), prepared a scheme for a new system of taxation, drew up a law on patents, occupied himself with the laws relating to stamps and assignats, and was successful in opposing the introduction of an income tax.
Suetonius tells us that he threw himself into the agitation for the restoration of the ancient powers of the tribunate curtailed by Sulla, and that he secured the passing of a law of amnesty in favour of the partisans of Sertorius.
The first result was a law regulating free and compulsory education in the federal district and national territories, which came into effect on the 17th of January 1892.
By a law of the 9th of December 1904, promulgated by an executive decree of the 25th of March 1905, the gold standard was adopted, and the silver peso, 9027 fine and containing 24.438 grammes of pure silver, was made the monetary unit with a valuation of .75 grammes of gold.
Juarez almost immediately secured the enactment of a law (Ley Juarez, Nov.
He appointed a commission to consider the question of draining the valley of Mexico, which adopted the plan ultimately carried out in 1890-1900; suppressed a Clerical rising in Puebla (March 1856), which was punished by a considerable confiscation of church property; sanctioned a law releasing church land from mortmain, by providing for its sale, for the benefit, however, of the ecclesiastical owners (called after its author Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, brother of the subsequent president), and a new draft constitution, largely modelled on that of the United States (Feb.
In 75 he was consul, and excited the hostility of the optimates by carrying a law that abolished the Sullan disqualification of the tribunes from holding higher magistracies; another law de judiciis privatis, of which nothing is known, was abrogated by his brother.
His brother, Lucius Aurelius Cotta, when praetor in 70 B.C. brought in a law for the reform of the jury lists, by which the judices were to be eligible, not from the senators exclusively as limited by Sulla, but from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.
After the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy, Cotta proposed a public thanksgiving for Cicero's services, and after the latter had gone into exile, supported the view that there was no need of a law for his recall, since the law of Clodius was legally worthless.
In 88 B.C. a return was made to the original and more aristocratic system by a law passed by the consuls Sulla and Pompeius.
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1857.
If carried, it takes effect as a law.
These constitutions also allow a prescribed number of voters to demand that a law passed by the state legislature, or an ordinance passed by the municipal authority, be submitted to all the voters for their approval.
Among the public buildings are the Federal Building, the Onondaga county courthouse, costing $1,50o,000 and containing a law library of 15,000 vols., the city-hall, the Central high school, a fine building erected at a cost of $400,000, the North high school ($30o,000), and the public library (Carnegie) with 60,000 volumes in 1908 and housing the Museum of Fine Arts (1897), also.
On leaving it he entered a law office at Montreal and took the law course at McGill University.
He began to practise law in Montreal, but owing to ill-health soon removed to Athabaska, where he opened a law office and undertook also to edit Le Defricheur, a newspaper then on the eve of collapse.
In a special session of the legislature in November 1907 a law was passed forbidding the sale of liquor within the state, this prohibition to come into effect on the 1st of January 1909.
Peck (6 Cranch 87) that such a rescindment as that in the new state constitution was illegal, on the ground that a state cannot pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts; and at an expense of more than four millions of dollars the Federal government ultimately extinguished all claims to the lands.
He recommended the readmission of the survivors of the Girondin party to the Convention, and drew up a law limiting the right of insurrection; he had also a considerable share in the foreign policy of the victorious republic. With Cambaceres he had been commissioned in April 1794 to report on the civil and criminal legislation of France, with the result that after eighteen months' work he produced his Rapport et projet de code des delits et des peines (Io Vendemiaire, an.
Returning to Ohio in 1825, he studied law at Canfield, was admitted to the bar in 1827, and began practice at Jefferson, Ashtabula county, where from 1831 to 1837 he was a law partner of Joshua R.
The modern town contains the palace of the chief, a college, a high school, a girls' school, a service school to train officials, a law school, hospitals for men and for women, a museum, paper-mills, and a printing-press issuing a state gazette.
no parliament could make a law that God should not be God," Sir Thomas had replied, " No more could the parliament make the king supreme head of the Church."
Among these was a law providing for compulsory education, and decreeing that no illiterate born after the beginning of Liholiho's reign should hold office, and that no illiterate man or woman, born after the same date, could marry.
A law prohibiting drunkenness (1835) was followed in 1838 by a licence law and in 1839 by a law prohibiting the importation of spirits and taxing wines fifty cents a gallon; in 1840 another prohibitory law was enacted; but licence laws soon made the sale of liquor common.
sweet, red - and refer them as accidents to matter in space, which, though mental, is objective, because its production is grounded on a law of all reason.
(d) Hence, first inductively and then deductively, the third law was originally discovered only as a law of collision or impact between bodies of ascertained weights and therefore masses, impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum, and always reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity to begin with, apart from the subsequent effects of elasticity.
Centuries elapsed after Aquinas before Galileo and his successors reformed natural science, and before Bacon destroyed the metaphysical dualism of matter and form by showing that a form in Nature is only a law of the action of matter, and that, as the action of a body is as individual as the body, the form is eternal only in thought (ratione).
Newton's law of gravitation affords the most notable example of the process of verification of a law of force, and incidentally of the Galileo-Newton theory.
As a law of acceleration of the planets relatively to the sun, its approximate agreement with Kepler's third law of planetary motion follows readily from a consideration of the character of the acceleration of a point moving uniformly in a circle.
The Australian or " Massachusetts " ballot, adopted in 1891 under a law which fails to require personal registration, by a provision like that in Nebraska makes it easy to vote a straight ticket; party names are arranged on the ballot according to the number of votes secured by each party at the last preceding election.
These actions of the state assembly against the college and the bank probably were immediate causes for the insertion in the Federal Constitution (adopted by the convention in Philadelphia in 1787) of the clause (proposed by James Wilson of Pennsylvania, a friend of the college and of the bank) forbidding any state to pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts.
It is the seat of Fort Worth University (coeducational), a Methodist Episcopal institution, which was established as the Texas Wesleyan College in 1881, received its present name in 1889, comprises an academy, a college of liberal arts and sciences, a conservatory of music, a law school, a medical school, a school of commerce, and a department of oratory and elocution, and in 1907 had 802 students; the Polytechnic College (coeducational; Methodist Episcopal, South), which was established in 1890, has preparatory, collegiate, normal, commercial, and fine arts departments and a summer school, and in 1906 had 12 instructors and (altogether) 696 students; the Texas masonic manual training school; a kindergarten training school; St Andrews school (Protestant Episcopal), and St Ignatius Academy (Roman Catholic).
Under William III., Governors Sloughter and Fletcher worked for a law (passed in 1693 and approved in 1697) for the settling of a ministry in New York, Richmond, Westchester and Queen's counties; but the Assembly foiled Fletcher's purpose of establishing a Church of England clergy, although he attempted to construe the act as applying only to the English Church.
In 1853 he entered a law office in New York city, and in the following year was admitted to the bar.
In 1889 the state recognized private denominational schools, and in 1900 passed a law of compulsory attendance.
The constitution of 1848 made it the duty of the state to provide free primary secular education, but it allowed to members of all creeds the liberty of establishing private schools, and this was carried into effect by a law passed in 1857 by the joint efforts of the liberals and Catholics against the opposition of the orthodox Calvinists.
But the long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the CatholicCalvinist coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state.
The passing of such a law was deferred by the coalition (Catholic-Orthodox) ministry of 1888-1891.
the summer is propagated by the mosquito (Anopheles claviger) marks a new epoch; the most diverse theories as to its origin had hitherto been propounded, but it is now possible to combat it on a definite plan, by draining the marshes, protecting the houses by fine mosquito-proof wire netting (for Anopheles is not active by day), improving the water supply, &c., while for those who have fever, quinine (now sold cheaply by the state) is a great specific. A great improvement is already apparent; and a law carried in 1903 for the Bonifica dell' Agro Romano compels the proprietors within a radius of some 6 m.
Carnot set to work to organize the primary school systems, proposing a law for obligatory and free primary instruction, and another for the secondary education of girls_ But he declared himself against purely secular schools, holding that "the minister and the schoolmaster are the two columns on which rests the edifice of the republic."
They passed a law adopting the ballot in 1877, but at the election of the following year a Liberal majority was returned.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
By a law of 1891 further subdivision below 8.3 acres is prohibited.
Through Whitgift's vigilance the printers of the tracts were, however, discovered and punished; and in order more effectually to check the publication of such opinions he got a law passed in 1593 making Puritanism an offence against the statute law.
Liberal-minded as he was, he held that "the will of the nation should be a law to the king," and he boldly upheld the freedom of the press as the surest of safety-valves.
4 Long before the 8th century payment of tithes was enjoined by ecclesiastical writers and by councils of the Church; but the earliest authentic example of anything like a law of the state enforcing payment appears to occur in the Capitularies of Charlemagne at the end of the 8th or the beginning of the 9th century.
Peace and War Strengths.German military policy is revised every five years; thus a law of April 1905 fixes the strength and establishments to be attained on March 31, 1910, the necessary augmentations, &c., being carried out gradually in the intervening years.
In the Prussian parliament Bismarck introduced a law taking out of the hands of the local authorities the whole administration of the schools and giving them to the central authority, so as to prevent instruction being given in Polish.
In order to carry out these clauses a law was passed on the 27th of June 1873 creating an imperial railway office (Rcichsciscnbahnanzt) for the purpose of exercising a general control over the railways.
The Bill was carried through the Prussian parliament, but the opposition aroused in the other states was so great that he did not venture even to introduce in the Btindesrat a law empowering the empire to acquire the Prussian railways.
(This law, which still exists, is popularly known as the Kanzlei or Pulpit-paragraph.) It was of course opposed by the Centre, who declared that the Reichstag had no right to interfere in what was after all a religious question, and the Bavarian Opposition expressed much indignation that their government should turn for help to the Protestants of the North in order to force upon -the Catholics of Bavaria a law which they could not have carried in that state.
Of these, one forbade ministers of religion from abusing ecclesiastical punishment; the second, which was the most important, introduced a law already adopted in Baden, that no one should be appointed to any office in the Church except a German, who must have received his education in a German gymnasium, have studied for three years in a German university, and have passed a state examination in philosophy, history, German literature and classics; all ecclesiastical seminaries were placed under the control of the state, and all seminaries for boys were forbidden.
Moreover, a law of 1878, the occasion of which was Bismarcks long absence from Berlin, empowered the chancellor to appoint a substitute or representative (Stellvertreter) either for the whole duties of his office or for the affairs of a particular department.
There was then no ground for surprise that, when in April 1878 an attempt was made on the life of the emperor, Bismarck used the excuse for again bringing in a law expressly Legisiadirected against the Socialists.
Bismarck then pointed out that the constitution of the empire did not authorize the emperor to withhold his assent from a law which had passed both the Reichstag and the Bundesrat; he could as king of Prussia oppose it by his representatives in the federal council, but when it had been accepted there, it was his duty as emperor to put the law into execution.
In 1895 the Prussian police used a law of 1850 as a pretext for dissolving the Socialist organization in Berlin, as had been done twenty years before.
Nagyszeben has a law academy, a seminary for Greek Orthodox priests, a military academy and several secondary schools.
In 1886 a law was carried in either parliament creating a Landsturm, and providing for the arming and organization of the whole male population up to the age of forty-two in case of emergency, and in 1889 a small increase was made in the annual number of recruits.
When the Reichsrath met there were present only 130 out of 203 members, for the whole Bohemian contingent was absent; the government then, under a law of 1868, ordered that as the Bohemian diet had sent no delegates, they were to be chosen directly from the people.
In 1883 a law was carried, introducing factory inspection, extending to mines and all industrial undertakings.
Originally railways had been built by private enterprise, supported in some cases by a state guarantee; a law of 1877 permitted the acquisition of private lines; when Taaffe retired the state possessed nearly 5000 m.
It was by their influence that a law was introduced limiting the rate of interest, and they co-operated with the government in legislation for improving the material condition of the people, which had been neglected during the period of Liberal government, and which was partly similar to the laws introduced at the same time in Germany.
The Czechs, however, prevented him passing a law on excise which was a necessary part of the agreements with Hungary; it was, therefore, impossible for him to carry on the government without breaking his word; there was nothing left for him to do but to resign, after holding office for less than three months.
is on machinery, with a preface concerning a law at ancient Ephesus compelling an architect to complete any public building he had undertaken; this, he says, would be useful among the Romans of his time.
The necessity for a reorganization of the Azhar system itself being also recognized by the high Moslem dignitaries in Egypt, a law was passed in 1907 creating a superior board of control under the presidency of the Sheikh el-Azhar to supervise the proceedings of the university and other similar establishments.
Under a law of the 4th of May 1907 it was enacted that the metric system of weights and measures should come into official use in three years from that date, and into general use in five years.
A remedy had been attempted to be applied to this evil by a law of the 1 It is commonly identified with the modern Kiistendil, but Uskiib (the ancient Skupi) has also been suggested.
4 In enacting the Digest as a law book, Justinian repealed all the other law contained in the treatises of the jurists (that jus vetus which has been already mentioned), and directed that those treatises should never be cited in future even by way of illustration; and he of course at the same time abrogated all the older statutes, from the Twelve Tables downwards, which had formed a part of the jus vetus.
The identity of the Decalogue with the eternal law of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an open question whether the Decalogue, as such (that is, as a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual obligation.
By a law of primogeniture he secured his land against such testamentary divisions as had diminished his own portion of his father's estate.
Becoming a barrister and a law professor, he was first elected deputy for Partinico in Sicily in 1898.
hospital built between 1847 and 1861; a large penitentiary, insane asylum, orphans' asylum, and beggars' asylum; a law school, artisans' school (Lyceu de Artes e Officios), and archaeological institute; a normal school and school of engineering; and war and naval arsenals.
In 1907 a law went into effect making two cents a mile a maximum railway fare.
By a law of 1905 all employed in such institutions were put on a civil service basis.
A graver mistake, according to some critics, is that Hegel, far from giving a law of progress, seems to suggest that the history of the world is nearing an end, and has merely reduced the past to a logical formula.
The answer to this charge is partly that such a law seems unattainable, and partly that the idealistic content of the present which philosophy extracts is always an advance upon actual fact, and so does throw a light into the future.
God always appeared to him as an implacable judge, threatening punishment for breaking a law which it was impossible to keep. He confessed to himself that he often hated this arbitrary Will which Scotist theology called God.
199), but also in Palestine (" a law of the Amorites "; Test.
He left for Italy on the 4th of August 57, and on arriving at Brundisium (Brindisi) found that he had been recalled by a law passed by the comitia on the very day of his departure.
Other investigators had shown that Cicero's clausulae are generally variations of some three or four forms in which the rhythm is trochaic. Dr Thaddaeus Zielinski of St Petersburg, after examining all the clausulae in Cicero's speeches, finds that they are governed by a law.
The older one - which may be called the " one-drift " hypothesis, since according to it the stars appear to form a single drift moving away from the solar apex - requires that the apparent directions of motion should be so distributed that fewest stars are moving directly towards the solar apex, and most stars along the great circle away from the solar apex, the number decreasing symmetrically, for directions inclined on either side of this great circle, according to a law which can be calculated.
Very similar operations have been carried out in Austria-Hungary, where large tracts of land have been brought into cultivation, and watercourses have been diverted successfully despite serious difficulties, climatic and physical; in Russia convict labour has been largely used in the construction of the Trans-siberian railway; the military operations in the Sudan were greatly aided by convict labourers engaged in useful work at the base and all along the line; Italy passed a law in 1904 enacting outdoor labour for the reclamation and draining of waste lands by prisoners under long sentence; and France, although much wedded to cellular imprisonment, is beginning to favour extra-mural employment of prisoners under strict regulations.
About the same time a law passed Congress for distributing among the states some $35,000,000 balance belonging to the United States, the public debt having all been paid.
According to both, again, the hypothesis of a law with which the process starts contains more than is present in the particular data: according to Jevons, it is the hypothesis of a law of a cause from which induction deduces particular effects; and according to Sigwart, it is a hypothesis of the ground from which the particular data necessarily follow according to universal laws.
A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.
Lotze's procedure is, indeed, analogous to the way in which, in his philosophy of nature, he starts from a plurality of real beings, but by means of a reductive movement, an application of Kant's transcendental method, arrives at the postulate or fact of a law of their reciprocal action which calls for a monistic and idealist interpretation.
Little is known of him before he became consul in 97, except that he proposed a law regulating the expenses of the table, which met with general approval.
In 55 he was again consul with Pompey, and a law was passed, assigning the provinces of the two Spains and Syria to the two consuls for five years.
After a number of attempts to establish a hereditary dukedom, Duke Domenico Flabianico in 1032 passed a law providing that no duke was to appoint his successor or procure him to be elected during his own lifetime.
This state of affairs was defined and developed in the course of centuries, till it produced the present state of centralization, according to a law which can equally be observed in other societies.
By a law enacted in 1909 county commissioners are forbidden to levy a tax which will yield more than 10% in excess of that raised the preceding year.
A new charter was adopted in 1903, and a law school was organized in 1904.
The concurrence of at least three judges is necessary to the decision of a case involving the constitutionality of a law.
A general supervision of all state, county, municipal and private charities and corrections is vested by a law enacted in 1908 in a board of charities and corrections consisting of five members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate.
At Athens there was a law that the Homeric poems should be recited (1 5446a-eat) on every occasion of the Panathenaea.
2.57) that Solon made a law that the poems should be recited " with prompting " (E inro/30Xij).
57) says that Solon made a law that the poems should be recited with the help of a prompter so that each rhapsodist should begin where the last left off; and he argues from this that Solon did more than Peisistratus to make Homer known.
Still, to make a law is one thing; to get it administered is quite another.
She did much by the circulation of petitions to secure the passage in New York in 1848 of a law giving a married woman property rights; and in the same year on the 19th and 20th of June in Seneca Falls, whither the Stantons had removed in 1847 from Boston, was held, chiefly under the leadership of Mrs Mott and Mrs Stanton, the first Woman's Rights Convention.
His administration,which was marked by extreme partisanship, was especially notable for the enactment of a law by which the state was divided into new senatorial districts in such a manner as to consolidate the Federalist vote in a few districts, thus giving the Democratic-Republicans an undue advantage.
He then studied first at the famous law school in Litchfield, Conn., and afterwards in a law office in Charleston, S.C., and in 1807 was admitted to the bar.
An agreement of six commissioners was necessary to pass any measure, but if there was an agreement of less than six the measure might be referred to the General Courts and become a law of the Confederacy if all of those courts approved.
In 44, as tribune of the people, he brought forward a law authorizing Caesar to nominate the chief magistrates during his absence from Rome.
Accordingly common good will be the supreme law "; and this supreme and all-inclusive law is essentially a law of nature.
By a law of 1895 separate boards of education for Moslem and Greek Christian schools were established, and in each district there are separate committees, presided over by the commissioner.
In philosophy, the term (with its antithesis "heteronomy") was applied by Kant to that aspect of the rational will in which, qua rational, it is a law to itself, independently alike of any external authority, of the results of experience and of the impulses of pleasure and pain.
The fact that certain .teaching is associated with a name may have no real significance for its antiquity, even as a law ascribed to the age of Moses - the recognized law-givermay prove to be of much earlier or of much later inception.
In Belgium the institutions for the repression of vagrancy are maintained by the state under a law of November 27th, 1891.
necessarily obey a law of deflection making the deflections proportional to the potential difference of the quadrants, but that an electrometer can be constructed which does fulfil the above law.
In ancient Greece we find similar examples of the evil effects of usury, and a law of bankruptcy resting on slavery.
This does not affect the power of Congress to pass such a law.
Sweden is a limited monarchy, the constitution resting primarily on a law (regerings-formen) of the 6th of June 1809.
Some democratic changes were made in the constitution, notably a law forbidding the re-election of a president, and the gradual and peaceful transition to a Liberal policy was a proof of the progress which the nation had made in political training.
In a law of Edward the Elder (c. i.
By a law of 1882 aliens could be naturalized and enfranchised after a residence in the country of five years, but between 1890 and 1894 the franchise laws were so altered as to render it practically impossible for any foreigner to become a burgher.
In metaphysics and in natural history Aristotle was a law to him, and in medicine Galen, but he was not a slave to the text or the details of either.
In taking this immense stride and identifying the Cynic " reason," which is a law for man, with the " reason " which is the law of the universe, Zeno has been compared with Plato, who similarly extended the Socratic " general notion " from the region of morals - of justice, temperance, virtue - to embrace all objects of all thought, the verity of all things that are.
We saw that virtue is a law which governs the universe: that which Reason and God ordain must be accepted as binding upon P g P the particle of reason which is in each one of us.
- Primary education is regulated by a law of 1844, under which children between the ages of 7 and 15 are bound to attend a school, should there be one within a mile, under penalty to the parents of a fine and deprivation of civil rights.
Verses 25, 26 apparently formed the conclusion of a law on clean and unclean animals similar to that of chap. xi., and very probably mark the place where H's regulations on that subject originally stood.
In December an attempt was made to pass a law creating Sucre the perpetual capital of the republic. Until this Sucre had taken its turn with La Paz, Cochabamba and Oruro.
By a law of April 1906 the U.S. consular service was reorganized and graded, the office of consul-general being divided into seven classes, and that of consul into nine classes; and on June 27 an executive order was issued by President Roosevelt governing appointments and promotions.
732-766, and referred to as a canonical rule in a capitulary of Charlemagne, and it was finally established as a law of the church in the pontificate of Gregory VII., c. 1085.
there is a reference to a law of Augustus which was passed in 18 B.C. The books dealing with the civil wars must have been written during Augustus's lifetime, as they were read by him (Tac. Ann.
He justly claims that such a law connected and explained a vast number of independent facts.
In 1903 a law (revised in 1908) was passed providing for the conduct at public cost of primary elections for the nomination of nearly all elective officers, and for the nomination of delegates to party nominating conventions; nominations for primary elections are made by petitions signed by at least ten voters (except in very small election districts) who make affidavit as to their party affiliations; the nominee thus indorsed must file a letter of acceptance.
In 1884 the state gained the victory by securing the passage of a law taxing the franchises of railway corporations.
The existence of such a law is very encouraging so far as artificial flight is concerned, for it shows that the flying surfaces of a large, heavy, powerful flying machine will be comparatively small, and consequently comparatively compact and strong.
As early as 1285 a law provided for the cutting down of trees and bushes on either side of highways, so as to deprive lawless men of cover.
He was articled as a law clerk in Edinburgh, and his Elegy on Craigmillar Castle (1776) was printed during his clerkship. In 1781 he removed to London to devote himself to literary work, publishing in the same year a volume of Rimes of no great merit, and Scottish Tragic Ballads.
Entering politics as a Democrat, he first attracted general attention by his violent campaign in Lowell in advocacy of the passage of a law establishing a ten-hour day for labourers; he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1853, and of the state senate in 1859, and was a delegate to the Democratic national conventions from 1848 to 1860.
For the protection and promotion of the lobster fishery the United States government has established a lobster hatchery at Boothbay Harbor; and the state legislature enacted a law in 1895 prohibiting the taking of lobsters less than 102 in.
Any bill of which he disapproves he can within five days after its passage prevent from becoming a law unless it is passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature.
When it sits as a law court, at least five of its justices must be present, and it holds three such sessions annually: one at Augusta, one at Bangor, and one at Portland.
Maine was the first state in the Union to enact a law for prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors.
By a law passed in 1899, the proprietors are bound to arrange for the safe outlet of the water from the mountains, keep the existing canals open, and reclaim the district exposed to inundation, within a period of twenty-four years.
1920 he opened a law office in Washington.
The veto of the governor, which extends to separate items in appropriation bills, can be overcome only by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature; but if the bill is not returned to the legislature, within five days it becomes a law without the governor's approval.
Before 1890 some districts in the state under a local option law had established free schools, but the general free school system was founded in 1890 by a law which consolidated all the districts in each city into one large school district and classified Salt Lake City as a city of the first class, and Ogden, Logan and Provo as cities of the second class for school purposes; in 1908-9 six county school districts of the first class were formed.
Under a law of 1905, amended in 1907 and 1909, provision is made for separate juvenile courts in all districts in which there are cities of the first (Salt Lake City) or the second class (Ogden, Logan and Provo) with jurisdiction over children under eighteen years of age; and similar jurisdiction is given to district courts elsewhere.
The idea, inasmuch as it is a law of universal mind, which in particular minds produces aggregates of sensations called things, is a "determinant" (iripas ixov), and as such is styled "quantity" and perhaps "number" but the ideal numbers are distinct from arithmetical numbers.
Like a law of nature, objective in the world, it gives order and regularity to the movement of things, and makes the system rational.3 The failure of Heraclitus to free himself entirely from the physical hypotheses of earlier times prevented his speculation from influencing his successors.
The sale of the larger lots gave rise to so many abuses that in 1896 a law was passed abolishing their further sale.
These include petroleum refineries, iron foundries, distilleries, flour mills, sugar refineries, sawmills, paper mills, chemical works, glass works, soap and candle works, &c. A law passed in 1887 provided that any one undertaking to found an industrial establishment with a capital of at least £2000, or employing at least 25 workmen (of whom two-thirds should be Rumanians), should be granted 12 acres of state land, exemption for a term of years from all direct taxes, freedom from customs dues for machinery and raw material imported, exemption from road taxes, reduction in cost of carriage of materials on the state railways, and preferential rights to the supply of manufactured articles to the state.
Besides bronze coins of less value than 2 le g, nickel pieces worth 5, 10 and 20 bani were authorized by a law of 1900.
The present system, in which his reforms culminated, rests upon a law of 1891, modified in 1900 and 1908.
In 1872 a law was passed by which the bishops were elected by the senate, the chamber of deputies, and the synod sitting as an assembly (the only other occasion on which provision is made for such an assembly is in the event of the throne becoming vacant without any apparent heir).
January 1872 the chambers passed a law by which Rumania undertook to pay the railway coupons.
Nor was very much progress made until a law was passed in 1853 requiring a quarter of the general yearly revenue of the state to be distributed among the counties for schools.
Among the educational establishments are a law academy, a seminary for priests, a modern school, a Roman Catholic and a Calvinistic gymnasium, a commercial academy, a training school for teachers and a secondary school for girls.
It is then found both by experiment and by thermodynamic theory that in these amorphous radiations there is for each temperature a definite distribution of the energy over the spectrum according to a law which may be expressed by 0 5 0(OX)dX, between the wave-lengths X, A+dX; and as to the form of the function 4), Planck has shown (Sitzungsber.
By a law passed in 1878 every able-bodied man between eighteen and fifty is liable to military service without as well as within the limits of the state.
In 1787 the Dutch government passed a law subjecting these wanderers to certain restrictions.
His circular of the 1st of June 1853 to American diplomatic agents abroad, recommending that, whenever practicable, they should " appear in the simple dress of an American citizen," created much discussion in Europe; in 1867 his recommendation was enacted into a law of Congress.
Eight per cent of the number of voters who at the last preceding election voted for a justice of the supreme court, by filing with the secretary of state a petition for the enactment of any law or constitutional amendment - the petition must contain the full text of the law and must be filed at least four months before the election at which it is to be voted upon - may secure a vote on the proposed measure at the next general election, and if it receives the approval of the voters it becomes a law without interposition of the legislature, and goes into effect from the day of the governor's proclamation announcing the result of the election.
Among the measures adopted were: a'law (of doubtful constitutionality) requiring legislators to vote for the people's choice for a United States senator - this was adopted by a vote of 69,668 to 21,162; a corrupt practices act, regulating the expenditure of moneys in political campaigns and limiting a candidate's expenses to onefourth of one year's salary; an amendment permitting the establishment of state institutions elsewhere than at the capital; an amendment changing the time of state elections from June to November; an amendment permitting the legislature to pass a law providing for proportional representation, i.e.
Any portion of a county containing as many as 150 inhabitants may be incorporated as a town or city, and as such it possesses complete self-government in all purely local matters, even 2 Before 1904, under a law of 1901, the people voted for candidates for the United States Senate, but the legislative assembly was in no way bound to carry out the decision of the popular vote; and in 1904 the legislature chose as United States senator a candidate for whom no votes had been cast in the popular election.
In 1906, for example, the people by the initiative secured a law forbidding public officers from accepting free passes from railways.
His father was a law officer, and he was educated for a legal career, but at the age of sixteen he enlisted in the regiment of Savoy-Carignan.
It is not and cannot be a really official code, Authority in which every text has the force of a law.
A person entitled to seize property had to do it himself, accompanied, if the amount was large, by a law agent and witnesses.
Ten days later, the plaintiff crossed the fence in upon the land, with a law agent, a witness and a pair of horses yoked or harnessed, and in a loud voice stated the amount of the debt and called upon the defendant to pay it according to law.
The first step toward such a system was a law of 1824 which provided for the election of school trustees in every township and for the erection of school buildings, but made no provision for support.
The prisoners of the reformatory work under a law providing for trade schools; the product of the work is sold to the state institutions and to the civil and political divisions of the state, the surplus being disposed of on the market.
These efforts consisted in (1) a law regulating the status of " servants," by which it was sought to establish a legal relation between master and slave; (2) a law by which it was sought to establish practical slavery by a system of indenture.
In 1836 the state legislature passed a law providing for an elaborate system of public improvements, consisting largely of canals and railways.
In April 1888 the Prussian parliament passed a law establishing a commission for the purpose of buying the land of the Poles in Posen and West Prussia, and letting it out to German colonists.
The governor appoints, with the approval of the Senate, a board of public works and some other administrative boards, and he may veto any bill from the legislature, which cannot thereafter become a law unless again approved by two-thirds of the members elected to each house.
In 1909 a law was passed for state regulation of fire insurance rates (except in the case of farmers' mutuals insuring farm property only) and forbidding local discrimination of rates within the state.
In the same year a law was passed requiring that any corporation acting as a common carrier in the state must receive the permission of the state board of railway commissioners for the issue of stocks, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness.
The provision of the law permitting the sale of whisky for medicinal, scientific or mechanical purposes was repealed by a law of 1909 prohibiting the sale, manufacture or barter of spirituous, malt, vinous or any other intoxicating liquors within the state.
In this way the exchequer grew into a law court of primary importance, instead of remaining merely a court of receipt.
On the 6th of September 1850 the emperor, Dom Pedro II., sanctioned a law authorizing steam navigation on the Amazon, and confided to an illustrious Brazilian, Barao Maua (Irineu Evangilista de Sousa), the task of carrying it into effect.
We consider in the first instance, and chiefly, a plane curve described according to a law.
A bill vetoed by the governor becomes a law if it is approved by two-thirds of the members present in each house; and a bill not returned by the governor within six days (excepting Sunday; before 1908 the constitutional limit was three days) after its presentation to him becomes a law unless the return of the bill is prevented by the adjournment of the legislature.
Other radical legislation, especially in regard to railways, has included: the Porter Law, regulating rates, which was enacted in 1874 during the "Granger Movement," was modified from time to time, and was displaced by a law of 1905 (in 1908 declared constitutional so long as stockholders receive a "reasonable compensation" on investments) creating a state railway commission, and providing for the physical valuation of railways on an ad valorem basis for taxation; a law (1907) making 2 cents a mile the maximum fare; an antitipping law (1905); a law forbidding the sale of cigarettes; an act (1907) forbidding insurance companies to do both participating and non-participating business; and an eight-hour labour law in effect on the 1st of January 1908.
By a law of 1907 school attendance (24 weeks per annum in the country - a law of 1903 had required only 20 weeks-32 weeks in cities) was made compulsory for children between seven and fourteen years of age who do not live more than 2 m.
In 1901 a law was enacted providing for state graded schools of two classes, which must be opened for at least nine months each year; graded schools of the first class (of three or more departments) receive $300 a year each from the state, and graded schools of the second class (of two departments only) receive $200 a year each from the state.
In 1907 there were about 960,000 volumes in public township libraries for which a law of 1887 had made provision; since 1895 the formation of such libraries has been mandatory, and books, chosen by the county superintendent, are bought from a fund of io cents for every person of school age in towns, villages and cities of the fourth class.
By a law of 1909 certain offenders are placed under probation under the supervision of the State Board of Control.
Amongst its members the following may be mentioned: Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, tribune of the people 104 B.C., brought forward a law (lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis) by which the priests of the superior colleges were to be elected by the people in the comitia tributa (seventeen of the tribes voting) instead of by co-optation; the law was repealed by Sulfa, revived by Julius Caesar and (perhaps) again repealed by Marcus Antonius, the triumvir (Cicero, De Lege Agraria, ii.
The custom whereby the inhabitants of a district were responsible for any crime or injury committed by one of their number is old and widespread; it prevailed in England before the Norman Conquest, and is an outcome of the earlier principle whereby this responsibility rested on kinship. Thus a law of Edgar (d.
975) says "and let every man so order that he have a borh (or surety), and let the borh then bring and hold him to every justice; and if any one then do wrong and run away, let the borh bear that which he ought to bear"; and a law of Canute about 1030 says "and that every one be brought into a hundred and in borh, and let the borh hold and lead him to every plea."
that no governance or ordinance is to be esteemed a law of God which is not founded on Scripture, that every humble-minded Christian man or woman is able without "fail and defaut" to find out the true sense of Scripture, and that having done so he ought to listen to no arguments to the contrary; he elsewhere adds a fourth (i.
The constitution rests on a law of 1819, amended in 1868, in 1874, and again in 1906.
The Committees of Public Safety and General Security were remodelled, in virtue of a law that one-fourth.
The ethical element in the " dark " philosophizing of Heraclitus (c. 530-470 B.C.), though it anticipates Stoicism in its conceptions of a law of the universe, to which the wise man will carefully conform, and a divine harmony, in the recognition of which he will find his truest satisfaction, is more profound, but even less systematic.
downwards, the notion of a law of God, eternal and immutable, partly expressed and partly obscured by the shifting codes and customs of actual human societies.
Meanwhile, from 1849 to 1852, he was governor of Virginia, in which position he recommended to the legislature the enactment of a law laying an import tax on the products of such states as refused to surrender fugitive slaves owned by Virginia masters.
The creation of state vine-nurseries, stocked with American plants, was authorized by a law of 1908.
The Radical government thought to strengthen their position by letting the national assembly vote a law prohibiting the return of the king's father to Servia, and forcibly expelling the king's mother, Queen Natalie.
r 1.2 r1.3 r2.3 The theorems of motion just cited are expressed by seven integrals, or equations expressing a law that certain functions of the variables and of the time remain constant.
The term is derived from privilegiur, a law specially passed in favour of or against a particular person.
For his opposition in 1820 to a law by which any person might be arrested and detained on a warrant signed by three ministers, he was summoned before a court of assize, but acquitted.
of a law incompatible with existing laws - had a direct tendency to make the law court, in such cases, a political arena.
That island was now left an open field for the intrigues of Philip. Worst of all, the party of Eubulus not only defeated a proposal, arising from this campaign, for applying the festival-money to the war-fund, but actually carried a law making it high treason to renew the proposal.
It was also in the material interest of Apollo that the council passed a law which forbade the Greeks to levy tolls on pilgrims to the shrine (Aeschin.
545) A law of great interest, dating from the beginning of the institution, imposed an oath upon the members of the league not to destroy an amphictyonic city or to cut it off from running water in war or peace; but to wage war upon those who transgressed this ordinance, to destroy their cities, and to punish any others who by theft or plotting sought to injure the god (Aeschin.
But the moral law must not be conceived under the form of an "imperative" or a "Sollen"; it differs from a law of nature only as being descriptive of the fact that it ranks the mind as conscious will, or zweckdenkend, above nature.
In 697 an assembly was held at Tara in which a law known as Cain Adamnain was passed, at the instance of Adamnan, prohibiting women from taking part in battle; a decision that shows how far Ireland with its tribal system lagged behind Teutonic and Latin countries in civilization.
Saxe-Altenburg is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1831, subsequently modified.
Finally, all hope of the conduct of affairs being entrusted to him was shattered when the Assembly passed a law forbidding its members to become ministers.
The regular army, at the close of the wars in 1898, had 26,000 officers and about 400 generals, but a law was afterwards made to reduce their numbers by filling only one out of two death vacancies, with a view to reach a peace establishment of 2 marshals, 25 lieuten.ant-generals, 50 divisional- and 140 brigadier-generals, and 15,000 officers.
Modcrados made a law which deprived the towns oi the right of electing their councils.
The horsthegn we know, however, was from an early period a high court official; and from such a law as that of Athelstan prohibiting the exportation of horses except as presents, it may be inferred that the English breed was not only much valued at home but also in great request abroad.'
This, however, must have been an exceptional case, for we know that oxen were used until a comparatively late time, and that in Wales a law existed forbidding horses to be used for ploughing.
In the same year the state enacted a law providing for the non-partisan nomination of all judges, of all superintendents of public instruction and of regents of the state university; nominations are by petition, and there is a separate " official non-partisan ballot " bearing the names and addresses of the nominees and the titles of the office for which they are nominated.
In the same year, following the example of Oklahoma, Nebraska passed a law guaranteeing bank deposits from a fund created by an assessment on the basis of total deposits.
Tobacco, which was first grown here between 1640 and 1660, because of a law restricting the use of tobacco to that grown in the colony, was in the decade 1890-1900 the only crop raised for consumption.
Bills of whatever character may originate in either house, but no bill can become a law until it has passed both houses by a majority of all the members to which the house is entitled under the constitution, and if the governor vetoes a bill it cannot become a law until it has again passed both houses by such a majority.
The employment of children under 14 years of age in any workshop, factory or mine within the state is forbidden by a law of 1901, and the employment of women or of boys under 16 years of age in any manufacturing establishment is limited to 60 hours a week by a law of 1907.
But the Reichstag in Berlin had passed a law for disarmament of this force, and the Government of the Reich insisted that Bavaria, like the rest of Germany, should comply in this respect with the Treaty of Versailles, the Spa decisions and the reiterated demands of the Allied Powers.
Thank goodness for Colorado hospitalityâ€”the friendly room clerk was more than willing to oblige a law enforcement agent.
The Guardian has broken a law that only the Gatekeeper has the power to enforce.
abide, being a law abiding citizen you get robbed £ 60 just for going slightly over the speed limit.
They believe someone is a law enforcement agency on the strength of a printed letterhead.
The King has passed a law making people practice archery every day.
Such a law is anathema to Arnold's neo-liberal big business backers, the very ones that Blair is inviting into the British NHS.
A rational egoist will desire a law that everyone except him will follow.
In March 1942 Vichy passed a law making home economics a compulsory subject for girls.
Herndon was charged with violating a law enacted by the Georgia legislature in 1861 against slave insurrections.
There should be a law against treating pylons with such irreverence.
I have a law degree which has helped in all the contractual negotiations I have had to do.
Robber barons became a law unto themselves and built unlicensed castles from which they terrorized the populace and against them Stephen was largely ineffectual.
The deadline for consultations on the UK's proposal of a law against violent pornography is getting closer.
stifle tinkering can be designed into products and technologies whether or not there is a law requiring them.
In 2000, the government passed a law giving all fighters who renounced the armed struggle complete amnesty.
Parliament passed a law that meant anyone who was caught destroying a turnpike could be executed.
It will be a law without effect because it will grossly violate a fundamental human right.
It left a law called quot greg tramontin shopped for traffic volume.
yearlong placement in a Law Center.
But he never investigated the question whether, since there is a law of progressive evolution in the history of different nations, separately examined, there may not likewise be another law ruling the general history of these nations, every one of which must have represented a new period, as it were, in the history of humanity at large.
(1) if Io correspond to x = o, - a law altogether similar to that of absorption, and showing how the light tends to become yellow and finally red as the thickness of the medium increases (Phil.
Any bill not returned with objections within five days after presentation becomes a law.
In 1908 a law was enacted for establishing the West Virginia Children's Home to be under the control of the Humane Society.
the transgression of a law or command.
Great alterations were made with regard to religious matters in France by a law of December 1905, supplemented by a law of January 1907 (see below, Law and Institutions).
In this form a law prescribing one year's fallow in seven may have been anciently observed, but it scarcely originated from the analogy of a seventh day of rest.
1851) has no sons, so by a law of 1896 the succession is settled upon the sons of his half-brother Prince Frederick (b.
By a law of Aethelred they "seem to have acted as the judicial committee of the court for the purposes of accusation" (W.
According to a law which, as we have seen, applies also to the green and red forms, the superficial cells are packed with chromatophores and form the assimilating tissue (fig.
In 1897 a law was passed making the right of suffrage dependent on the payment of poll taxes for the preceding two years; but in the following year the State Supreme Court declared this act unconstitutional because the title was not descriptive of the matter.
of sound mind must attend, between the ages of eight and fifteen, a school for the deaf at least five terms of nine months each; and by a law of 1908 every blind child (between seven and seventeen), if of sound mind and body, must attend some school for the blind for nine months of each year.
By a law passed by the French chambers in 1902 a subvention of £20,000 a year for fifty years was granted to the company owning the railway (see further Abyssinia).
The state institutions consist of state hospitals for the insane at St Peter (1866), at Rochester (1877), established originally as a state inebriate asylum under a law taxing liquor dealers for that purpose, which was subsequently held to be unconstitutional, at Fergus Falls (1887), at Anoka (1900) and at Hastings (1900); the state institute for defectives at Faribault, consisting of the schools for the deaf (1863), blind (1874) and feeble-minded (1879); the state public school for dependent and neglected children at Owatonna (1886); a sanatorium for consumptives at Walker; a hospital for indigent, crippled or deformed children (1907) at St Paul; the state training school for boys near Red Wing; a similar industrial school for girls (established separately in 1907) at Sauk Center; the state reformatory at St Cloud (1887), intermediate between the training school and the state prison, for first offenders between the ages of sixteen and thirty years, in which indeterminate sentences and a parole system are in operation; the state prison at Stillwater (1851), in which there is a parole system and a graded system of diminution of sentence for good conduct, and in which, up to 1895, prisoners were leased under contract (especially to the Minnesota Thresher Company), and since 1895 have been employed in the manufacture of shoes and of binding twine, and in providing for the needs of the prison population; and the state soldiers home occupying fifty-one acres adjoining Minnehaha Park in Minneapolis.
If B 1 = E(3e, there is a law of addition expressed by A1+B1 = (a, +Ã¯¿½ei =B1+Ai; this law of addition is associative as well as commutative.
It served to strengthen the unfavourable impression formed in England of the Transvaal Boers with regard to their treatment of the natives; an impression which was deepened by tidings of terrible chastisement of tribes in the Zoutpansberg, and by the Apprentice Law passed by the volksraad in 1856 - a law denounced in many quarters as practically legalizing slavery.
On the 9th of February 1792, he succeeded in having a law passed sequestrating the possessions of the Ã©migrÃ©s, and demanded, though in vain, the deportation of refractory priests to French Guiana.
In 12 9 5 a signory favourable to the grandi enacted a law attenuating the Ordinamenti, but now the grandi split into two factions, one headed by the Donati, which hoped to The abolish the Ordinamenti, and the other by the Cerchi, which had given up all hope of their abolition; after wards these parties came to be called Neri (Blacks) and Bianchi (Whites).
As he informed Gilbert Sheldon, then warden of All Souls, in a letter, he was fully resolved on two points - that to say that the Fourth Commandment is a law of God appertaining to Christians is false and unlawful, and that the damnatory clauses in the Athanasian Creed are most false, and in a high degree presumptuous and schismatical.
The legislature (Standeversammlung) is bicameral - the constitution of the co-ordinate chambers being finally settled by a law of 1868 amending the enactment of 1831.
In the Constituent Assembly he was a member of the committee of taxes (comitÃ© des contributions), prepared a scheme for a new system of taxation, drew up a law on patents, occupied himself with the laws relating to stamps and assignats, and was successful in opposing the introduction of an income tax.
In the case of organized bodies lettres de cachet were issued for the purpose of enjoining members to assemble or to accomplish some definite act; the provincial estates were convoked in this manner, and it was by a lettre de cachet (called lettre de jussion) that the king ordered a parlement to register a law in the teeth of its own remonstrances.
In 59 Calenus was praetor, and brought forward a law that the senators, knights, and tribuni aerarii, who composed the judices, should vote separately, so that it might be known how they gave their votes (Dio Cassius xxxviii.
They are then said to decussate, following thus a law of alternation (fig.
At least as early as the beginning of the rrth century, but probably long before that date, mercantile communities claimed the right, confirmed by the emperors, of settling mercantile disputes according to a law of their own, to the horror of certain conservative-minded clerics.& Furthermore, in the rapidly developing towns, opportunities for the exercise of self-administrative functions constantly increased.
in 1361 on the site of a law school probably founded by Lanfranc (d.
The result of the notices now collected is to show that the early history of epic recitation consists of (r) passages in the Homeric hymns showing that poets contended for the prize at the great festivals, (2) the passing mention in Herodotus of rhapsodists at Sicyon, and (3) a law at Athens, of unknown date, regulating the recitation at the Panathenaea.
(See Delian League.) In 426 B.C., in connexion with a reorganization of the festival, which henceforth was celebrated in the third year of every Olympiad, the Athenians instituted a more elaborate lustration, caused every tomb to be removed from the island, and established a law that ever after any one who was about to die or to give birth to a child should be at once conveyed from its shores.
Indiana has an habitualcriminal law, and a law providing for the sterilization of mental degenerates, confirmed criminals, and rapists.
Thus he rewarded the patriotism of the Danish ladies who sacrificed all their jewels to pay the heavy ransom exacted from him by his captors, the Jomsborg pirates, by enacting a law whereby women were henceforth to inherit landed property in the same way as their male relatives.
There ensued forty-five years of groping for a law which should clear up the enigma of the solar reversals.
Then with his strong face aglow in their feeble light, he made a speech in favor of a law to help poor fishermen.
No party may interfere in a law suit or in matters of justice; such interference shall be a crime punishable by law.
There is a law in the US which requires FBI approval on reproduction of photos of United States currency.
From 1827 to 1828 he was a law office clerk, and then worked as a shorthand reporter at Doctor 's Commons.
Architectures to prevent or stifle tinkering can be designed into products and technologies whether or not there is a law requiring them.
In fact a law of 1547 debarred " vagabond actors " from the City.
During the last year of his degree course, Kamaljeet undertook a yearlong placement in a Law Center.
What is the legal process required to abolish a law in the federal government?
She holds a law degree, an M.A. in occupational health and safety, and a B.A. in communications.
Keep in mind that AdoptLink is not an adoption agency, nor is it a law firm.
Actually, the idea that cats always land on their feet is not a law at all, but mostly a theory.
Over time, the needs of a law firm may change.
However, in most cases, banks are not equipped to evaluate a law practice's rights to costs and fees in contingency fee suits.
Even when a law suit is settled or a judgment handed down in favor of the plaintiff, it can still take time before the lawyer collects any money for his or or her hard work.
It can be used as a source of working capital, to cover operating expenses, or to finance the cost of pursuing a law suit to its resolution.
If you live in an area near a law school, you may be able to get no-cost legal advice from a legal clinic.
If you see something about divorce in your state posted on a law firm's web site and the article is attributed to an attorney, you can consider that source to be a credible one.
By making a Law and Order reference, I pointed out the obvious fact that I was a tourist.
From a law clerk on L.A. Law to working with at-risk teens, Michele Dominguez Greene seems like a woman who has done it all.
McConaughey would eventually graduate from the University of Texas at Austin, but not with a law degree.
At the age of 21, Matthew McConaughey was well on his way to earning a law degree when he picked up the best-selling book, The Greatest Salesman in the World by author Og Mandino.
Paralegals perform a number of important tasks in a law firm, from conducting an initial interview with clients to performing legal research to helping attorneys draft documents for court.
Casual Fridays in a law office aren't suited to certain tees - and why tee anyone off if you don't have to?
I'm a former lawyer, and when I worked for a law firm, I had to wear a suit every day.
For those in a setting such as a law office, however, a suit and tie may be a requirement.
A good example of such a law is washing hands after using the restroom.
You can choose an individual to act in this capacity or have a law firm or bank instead.
The value of a law book or a set of law books will be based on a number of criteria.
When passengers left the ship, the captain sometimes filed a passenger list at the port where they landed, but this was not a law until 1820.
And homeschoolers don't want there to be such a law anyway as it might limit their freedom in choosing how, what, when and why to teach their own children.
In 2000, the United States Congress passed a law directing that federal agencies create a plan to allow eligible employees to work from home to "the maximum extent possible without diminished employee performance."
Legal assistants may work for a lawyer working as a sole practitioner or a law firm made up of several attorneys.
You may not immediately think of park rangers as a law enforcement officers, but that's exactly what they are.
One state, Florida, has accused the AMMA of practicing legal matters without a law license.
John, a law student at the time, took his friend up on the offer and set out to sell raincoats.
Copyright Laws and the Internet are confusing to most freelance writers, especially for those who do not hold a law degree.
To view any astrological reading as a law rather than an interpretation is to turn off your common sense, and hand over the control of your decisions to another person.
Answer: "Because he broke a law of the land that stated no one could pray or ask favors of God."
The couple planned to move to Chicago after the wedding when Owen received a partnership offer with a law firm in the Windy City.
Phyllis Bookspan, a law professor, is the founder of Rivertown Yoga and Health, or RYAH, in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia.
In addition to operating a yoga and wellness studio, you're also a law professor.
In fact, the right to choose between two different insurance plans may be a law in your state, depending upon where you live.
Bonds - In some states, it is a law that if you provide services inside a customer's home or office, you must obtain a bond.
The Los Angeles Police Department takes great pride not only in its officers but also in its uniforms, and it is not surprising that LA Police Gear would be a fitting name for a law enforcement apparel company.
Then the web designer is asked to create one, even though the business may have no need for one - such as a law consultancy, for example.
Practically every law of harmony in 16th-century music may be equally well regarded as a law of vocal effect.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.