For the text of scripture he uses both the Latin versions, the Itala and the Vulgate, often comparing them together.
and Vulgate use "Adam" (Aba,u) in this way freely.
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
CUSH, the eldest son of Ham, in the Bible, from whom seems to have been derived the name of the "Land of Cush," commonly rendered "Ethiopia" by the Septuagint and by the Vulgate.
In 1546 the council of Trent adopted the canon of Augustine, declaring " He is also to be anathema who does not receive these entire books, with all their parts, as they have been accustomed to be read in the Catholic Church, and are found in the ancient editions of the Latin Vulgate, as sacred and canonical."
Thus the Apocrypha Proper constitutes the surplusage of the Vulgate or Bible of the Roman Church over the Hebrew Old Testament.
But this is only true with certain reservations; for the Latin Vulgate was revised by Jerome according to the Hebrew, and, where Hebrew originals were wanting, according to the Septuagint.
It should further be observed that the Vulgate adds the Prayer of Manasses and 3 and 4 Ezra after the New Testament as apocryphal.
version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
The received Syriac Bible or Vulgate (called the Peshitta or " simple " version from the 9th century onwards 4) contains all the canonical books of the Old Testament.
masterful Rabbula, who was bishop of Edessa from 411-412 to 435, a new version or recension of the Gospels was made and incorporated in the Peshitta or Vulgate, the use of the Diatessaron being henceforth proscribed.
Libanus, for frankincense, occurs only in the Vulgate.
Osiander, besides a number of controversial writings, published a corrected edition of the Vulgate, with notes, in 1522, and a Harmony of the Gospels - the first work of its kind - in 1537.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
His great work was the Vulgate, but his achievements in other fields would have sufficed to distinguish him.
The two canonical books entitled Ezra and Nehemiah in the English Bible' correspond to the I and 2 Esdras of the Vulgate, to the 2 Esdras of the Septuagint, and to the Ezra and Nehemiah of the Massoretic (Hebrew) text.
He attended lectures on grammar, and his favourite work was St Augustine's De civitate Dei, He caused Frankish sagas to be collected, began a grammar of his native tongue, and spent some of his last hours in correcting a text of the Vulgate.
(a) The best is the Latin, which is found in the Old Latin (g h m and the text used by Primasius) and the Vulgate, of which there are eight MSS.
Even if others before him had reached the conviction that the Vulgate's word justitia in Romans i.
as EV, "his people," but Ammon is read by the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac and Vulgate Versions and some Hebrew MSS., and is accepted by many modern scholars.
But it was the first, and it revealed the fact that the Vulgate, the Bible of the church, was not only a second-hand document, but in places an erroneous document.
The theory of Indulgences is based by theologians on the following texts: 2 Samuel (Vulgate, 2 Kings) xii.
420), the most scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the Chronology of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the Bible now known as the Vulgate.
A comparatively subordinate place was assigned to Greek, especially as the importance attributed to the Vulgate weakened the motive for studying the original text.
Substantially the same order was followed in the Vulgate.
the Apocrypha) from the rest, and placed them at the end; the remaining books, as they stood in the Vulgate, were then in the order which they still retain in the English Bible.
The non-canonical books of the Vulgate, how- .
It was not until after the 6th century that the Old Latin was finally superseded by the Vulgate or Latin translation of the Old Testament made by Jerome during the last quarter of the 4th century.
For textual purposes the Vulgate possesses but little value, since it presupposes a Hebrew original practically identical with the text stereotyped by the Massoretes.
Subsequently, however, this version of Jerome (the Vulgate) became the basis of Western Biblical scholarship. Henceforward the Western Church suffered both from the corruptions in the official Hebrew text and also from the fact that it worked from a version and not from the original, for a.
C. Burkitt has shown) to a misunderstanding of a remark of Augustine about the " Itala " which really refers to the Vulgate.
The Vulgate or Hieronymian version.
Brixianus (f) of the 6th century would be added if it were not probable that it is merely a Vulgate MS. with intrusive elements.
In 1546 the council of Trent decided that the Vulgate should be hold as authentica, and in 1590 Pope Sixtus V.
Among these the works of Sanday, Corssen, Wordsworth, White, Burkitt and Harris on the history of the Old Latin and Vulgate, and especially the work of Burkitt on the Old Syriac, have given most light on the subject.
C. edition of the Vulgate); Luther's Prefaces (to be found in German-printed editions of Luther's Bible); F.
In 797 Charlemagne commissioned Alcuin to prepare an emended text of the Vulgate; copies of this text were multiplied, not always accurately, in the famous writingschools at Tours.
Impressed by the popular ignorance of the Scriptures, he himself translated, or caused others to translate, the New Testament into French from the Vulgate, and formed an association to distribute copies systematically at low prices.
BIBLE The history of the vernacular Bible of the English race resolves itself into two distinctly marked periods - the one being that of Manuscript Bibles, which were direct translations from the Latin Vulgate, the other that of Printed Bibles, which were, more or less completely, translations from the original Hebrew and Greek of the Old and New Testaments.
The Latin original is a glossed version of the Vulgate, and in the English translation the words of the gloss are often substituted for the strong and picturesque expressions of the Biblical text;.
Versions of the Scriptures so far noticed were all secondary renderings of the Vulgate, translations of a translation.
1 He translated straight from the Hebrew and Greek originals, although the Vulgate and more especially Erasmus's Latin version were on occasion consulted.
p. 163) identifies as Luther, the Zurich Bible, the Latin version of Pagninus, the Vulgate, and, in all likelihood, the English translation of Tyndale.
Coverdale consulted in his revision the Latin version of the Old Testament with the Hebrew text by Sebastian Minster, the Vulgate and Erasmus's editions of the Greek text for the New Testament.
Vulgate) ab Hebraica veritate, 1 333.
Most people take their notions of a classical book not from its traditional form but from a "received" or vulgate text.
Merlin - alike in the Ordinary, or Vulgate (ed.
Westcott's work for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, notably his articles on "Canon," "Maccabees," "Vulgate," entailed most careful and thorough preparation, and led to the composition of his subsequent valuable popular books, The Bible in the Church (1864) and a History of the English Bible (1869).
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
More important was the appointment in 1907 of a commission, under the presidency of Abbot Gasquet, to attempt the restoration of the pure text of the Vulgate as St Jerome wrote it.
In the Vulgate it immediately precedes Isaiah.
The majority of Greek cursives agree generally with the Latin Vulgate, and offer the fuller text in a corrupt form.
On the other hand, it follows Judges in the Septuagint, the Vulgate and the English version.
In 1589 was begun a revision of the Vulgate, the so-called Editio Sixtina.
Arcturus has been supposed to be referred to in various passages of the Hebrew Bible; the Vulgate reads Arcturus for stars mentioned in Job ix.
translation, the Chaldee paraphrase, and an Arabic version, it contains the Vulgate translation, a new Latin translation by the editor, a Latin translation of the Chaldee, and a collection of scholia.
Besides an edition of the book of Job, .containing the original text, the Vulgate, and a new translation, he published a Latin version of the Moreh Nevochim of Maimonides (Director dubitantium ant per plexorum, 1520), and also edited in Latin the Aureus libellus of Aeneas Platonicus, and the Timaeus of Chalcidius.
He never knew much Hebrew and was not specially strong in Greek; so he used the Vulgate in his prelections.
CALVARY, the conventional English rendering of the calvaria of the Vulgate, the Latin version of the Greek rcp6.mov, both meaning "skull" and representing the Hebrew Golgotha, the name given to the scene of Christ's crucifixion.
Five years of power were enough for Sixtus to reform the central government of the Church and the administration of the Papal States, to set on foot the Vatican press and issue an official edition of the Vulgate.
Of the Latin there are two chief forms, the old translation, sometimes called the Itala, and that of Jerome in the Vulgate.
and the Itala, but resembles the Vulgate in having nothing in the first person.
The last fact is obscured by the Vulgate.
He directed the first revision of the text of the Vulgate, begun in 1236 by the Dominicans; this first "correctorium," vigorously criticized by Roger Bacon, was revised in 1248 and in 1256, and forms the base of the celebrated Correctorium Bibliae Sorbonicum.
Jacobi), but the assertion that we owe the present division of the chapters of the Vulgate to him is false.
in 1588, who introduced the revised Vulgate text; by Clement VIII.
The Septuagint favours (I) by its rendering Eiri (cdXlov Tou €i Oous in Samuel (it omits the words in Joshua); the Vulgate has in libro justorum in both places; the Syriac in Samuel has Ashir, which suggests a Hebrew reading ha-shir (the song), and in Joshua it translates " book of praises."
Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded.
Thus it agrees at times with the Samaritan, or Septuagint, or Syriac, or Vulgate, or even with Onkelos against all the rest.
On the other hand, its independence of the Septuagint is shown in a large number of passages, where it has the support of the Samaritan and Massoretic, or of these with various combinations of the Syriac Vulgate and Onkelos.
The word was early applied by the Protestants to the Romanists, with an allusion to the "congregation of evil doers" (Vulgate Ecclesiam malignantium) of Psalm xxvi.
It consisted of a small MS. of the Gospels in the Vulgate, fragments of the liturgy of the Celtic church, and notes, in the Gaelic script of the 12th century, referring to the charters of the ancient monastery, including a summary of that granted by David I.
This addition was placed by Theodotion before chap. i., and Bel and the Dragon at its close, whereas by the Septuagint and the Vulgate it was reckoned as chap. xiii.
Theodotion's version is the source of the Peshitto and the Vulgate, for all three additions, and the Septuagint is the source of the Syro-Hexaplaric which has been published by Ceriani (Mon.
2 The Vulgate Dies irae dies illa, whence the striking hymn by Thomas of Celano (c. 1250).
6 In the New Testament we meet with Beelzebul, 7 which some of the versions, especially the Vulgate and Syriac, followed by the Authorized Version, have changed to Beelzebub, under the influence of 2 Kings.
1 The substitution of Beelzebub for Beelzebul by the Syriac, Vulgate and other versions implies the identification of the New Testament arch-fiend with the god of Ekron; this substitution, however, may be due to the influence of the Aramaic B`el-debaba, " adversary," sometimes held to be the original of these names.
While the English version follows the Septuagint directly in speaking of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy, it follows the Vulgate in speaking of Numbers.
30 it is certainly applied to Rome, the Vulgate rendering it "Romam" there just as that version translates it here by "Italia."
This writing, which since the Council of Trent has been relegated by the Church of Rome to the position of an appendix to the Vulgate, was placed by Luther and the translators of the English Bible among the apocryphal books.
VULGATE (from Lat.
In the Vulgate the word firmamentum, which means in classical Latin a strengthening or support (firmare, to make firm or strong) was used as the equivalent of crepEWµa (ammpE6 v, to make firm or solid) in the LXX., which translates the Heb.
German) "and Latyn": and Coverdale mentions that he used five interpreters, which are supposed to have been the Vulgate, the Latin version of Pagninus, Luther's translation, the Zurich version, and Tyndale's Pentateuch and New Testament.
The Vulgate contains two books of Maccabees which were declared canonical by the council of Trent (1546) and found a place among the Apocrypha of the English Bible.
is included in the Septuagint but not in the Vulgate.
In addition to his achievements in black-letter bibliography he threw great light on ancient Celtic language and literature by the discovery, in 1857, of the Book of Deer, a manuscript copy of the Gospel in the Vulgate version, in which were inscribed old Gaelic charters.
The division into two (like the two Hebrew books of Kings) follows the Septuagint and the Vulgate, whose four books of " kingdoms " correspond to the Hebrew books of Samuel and Kings.
between Jeremiah and Lamentations, and in the Vulgate after Lamentations.
The versions are the two Latin, a Syriac, and an Arabic. The Latin one in the Vulgate belongs to a time prior to Jerome, and is tolerably literal.
A related set of concerns animates Bourdieu and Wacquant's recent critique of cultural studies, which they call ' the new global Vulgate ' .
Vulgate cycle P. Hannon, ED.
Among, the peculiarities of the Edomites was government by certain officials known as av* 2 which the English versions (by too close a reminiscence of the Vulgate duces) translate "dukes."
Furthermore, the Vulgate rejects 3 and 4 Maccabees and Psalm cli., which generally appear in the Septuagint, while the Septuagint and Luther's Bible reject 4 Ezra, which is found in the Vulgate and the Apocrypha Proper.
Certainly the editors did not intend' hereby to exalt the original above the versions; for they placed the Vulgate in the centre of the page with the Hebrew on one side, the Greek on the other, i.e.
[The text of the Vulgate may be studied in Wordsworth and White, Novum Testamentum Latine; Corssen, Epistula ad Galatas.
Berger's Histoire de la Vulgate (Paris, 1893), in which a good bibliography is given on pp. xxxii.-xxxiv.
The Nouum Instrumentum published by Erasmus in 1516 (see above, Textual Criticism) contained more than the mere Editio Princeps of the Greek text: Erasmus accom panied it with a Latin rendering of his own, in which he aimed at giving the meaning of the Greek without blindly following the 'conventional phraseology of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only form in which the New Testament had been current in western Europe for centuries.
made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and His Followers (4.
Like the Wycliffite Versions it is merely a secondary rendering from the Latin Vulgate, and it suffered from many of the defects which characterized these versions, extreme literalness, often stilted, ambiguous renderings, at times unintelligible except by a reference to the Latin original, as in Luke xxii.
A related set of concerns animates Bourdieu and Wacquant's recent critique of cultural studies, which they call ' the new global vulgate '.
The object and the cause in the vulgate cycle P. Hannon, ED.
26) is called haiPno, where the Vulgate has gentilis.
The word " oxen," which occurs in our version of the Scriptures, as well as in the Septuagint and Vulgate, denotes the species, rather than the sex.
other than Roman, and was so used in the Vulgate, with gentes, to translate the Hebrew goyyin2, nations, LXX.
Sukkoth, in the Vulgate Tabernacula, whence the English name of the feast).
It gives the text of Stephanus (1550) with collations of 78 MSS., besides those of Stephanus, the readings of the Old Latin, so far as was then known, the Vulgate and Peshito, together with full and valuable prolegomena.
The first book printed in Europe was the Latin Bible, and Copinger estimates that 124 editions of the Vulgate had been issued by the end of the 15th century.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.