Today, I have a vegetable garden in my backyard.
This regulation of turgor is as characteristic of vegetable protoplasm as contraction is of muscle.
I won't be turned into a vegetable or an animal or anything else weird?
(From Greens Vegetable Physiology, by permission.)
According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
The same may be said of the vegetable world.
"The alternative is that it keeps growing and I turn into a vegetable," Deidre said.
Pumpkin's vegetable nickname didn't come from his size.
The fauna of the peninsula is varied and no less profuse than is the vegetable life.
Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
A study of the whole vegetable kingdom, however, negatives the theory that the compounds absorbed are in the strict sense to be called food.
"Why, he's vegetable!" cried the Wizard, astonished.
lxiii.; On the Distribution of Assimilated Iron Cornpotrnds other than Haemoglobin and Haematins, in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Quart.
In the vegetable gardens they found the strawberries and melons, and several other unknown but delicious fruits, of which they ate heartily.
He did it very cleverly, indeed, and the Princess looked at the strange piglets as if she were as truly astonished as any vegetable person could be.
You find thus in the very sands an anticipation of the vegetable leaf.
From the outer cortical myceliuni, again, branches pass through the epidermis and grow out in the soil, In stich cases the roots of the plants are usuall) found spreading in soils which contain a large amount of humus, or decaying vegetable matter.
So they went down to greet the beautiful vegetable lady, who said to them:
He might never wake up, and if he did, he might be a vegetable the rest of his life.
Here were more of the vegetable people with thorns, and silently they urged the now frightened creatures down the street.
Those Fungi which are saprophytic can only live when supplied with organic compounds of some complexity, which they derive from decomposing animal or vegetable matter.
extent, covered in summer with an exuberant vegetable growth, which dies every year.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
No word exists in their language for such general terms as tree, bird or fish; yet they have invented a name for every species of vegetable and animal they know.
Stumps thirty or forty years old, at least, will still be sound at the core, though the sapwood has all become vegetable mould, as appears by the scales of the thick bark forming a ring level with the earth four or five inches distant from the heart.
Botanik (1898), 32; Lee, The Microtomists Vade Mecum (London, 1900); Macallum, On the Detection and Localization of Phosphorus in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Proc. Roy.
The words of the cold and moist vegetable Prince were not very comforting, and as he spoke them he turned away and left the enclosure.
The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
The general vegetable protoplasm has not the capacity of being nourished by inorganic substances which are denied to the living substance of the animal world.
It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.
by Ewart; Reynolds Green, Introduction to Vegetable Physiology; The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation; Detmer, Practical Plant Physiology, trans.
Church, A Chemical Study of Vegetable Albinism, Journ.
Teratology, &c.Masters, Vegetable Teratology, Ray Society (1869); Molliard, Ckcidies florales, Ann.
No one now seemed to pay any attention to the strangers, so Dorothy and Zeb and the Wizard let the train pass on and then wandered by themselves into the vegetable gardens.
We were lucky to get away from those dreadful vegetable people.
In the Ebers papyrus, 1550 B.C., mention is made of blisters, ointments, clysters, mineral and vegetable drugs.
It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.
General Structure and Differentiation of the Vegetable Cell.
A survey of the vegetable kingdom indicates that evolution has proceeded, on the whole, from the simple to the complex; at the same time, as has been already mentioned, evidence of reduction or degeneration in common.
A dozen of them smashed together and tumbled to the ground, and seeing his success Jim kicked again and again, charging into the vegetable crowd, knocking them in all directions and sending the others scattering to escape his iron heels.
Most men would feel shame if caught preparing with their own hands precisely such a dinner, whether of animal or vegetable food, as is every day prepared for them by others.
Many who followed the study of vegetable structure did not at that time give an equal prominence to this view.
It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.
This is anextremely important question, since the supply of energy to the animal world has been found to depend entirely upon the vegetable one.
Healing of Wounds, &c.Shattock, On the Reparatory Pro-i cesses which occur in Vegetable Tissues, Journ.
But a little consideration showed that, though Lamarck had seized what, as far as it goes, is a true cause of modification, it is a cause the actual effects of which are wholly inadequate to account for any considerable modification in animals, and which can have no influence at all in the vegetable world; and probably nothing contributed so much to discredit evolution, in the early part of the 29th century, as the floods of easy ridicule which were poured upon this part of Lamarck's speculation.
We are all vegetable, in this country.
Are you not vegetable, also?
There are even records of an Anaphothrips, when cut off from its normal vegetable foodsupply, becoming cannibalistic and feeding on its own species.
Occurring in all temperate and tropical countries, book-scorpions live for the most part under stones, beneath the bark of trees or in vegetable detritus.
All are animals of small or moderate size and arboreal habits, feeding on a vegetable or mixed diet, and inhabiting Australia, Papua and the Moluccan Islands.
In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.
The early histological researches of botanists led them to the recognition of the vegetable cell, and the leading writers in the middle of the ~9th century pointed out the probable identity of Von Mohls protopiarm with the sarcode of zoologists.
Woods, Stigmonose, a Disease of Carnations, Vegetable, Physiol.
Am I not partly leaves and vegetable mould myself?
It is by this time mere vegetable mould and undistinguishable pond shore, through which rushes and flags have pushed up.
avri, against, and vrJIrrucos, putrefactive), the name given to substances which are used for the prevention of bacterial development in animal or vegetable matter.
AUTH0RITne5.General and Historical.Berkeley, Vegetable Pathology, Gardeners Chronicle (1854) p. 4; Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (1889); Erik,sson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); De Bary, Comparative Morph.
Very little is known of the finer structure of the cytoplasm of a vegetable cell.
Since about 1880 considerable attention has been directed to the question of the supply, distribution and expenditure of energy in the vegetable kingdom.
Corn seasoned with red bell peppers and black beans made a colorful vegetable.
It should always be specially noted whether the fungi to be consumed are in a fresh and wholesome condition, otherwise they act as a poison in precisely the same way as does any other semi-putrid vegetable.
The principal are: white beans, largely consumed by the working classes; lentils, much less cultivated than beans; and green peas, largely consumed in Italy, and exported as a spring vegetable.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.
There are several vegetarian options on the menu, including falafel, roasted vegetable wraps and artichoke salad.
Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.
The sap in these active tissues is alkaline, which has been interpreted as being in accordance with not appear to be concerned with digestion so directly as the others is pectase, which forms vegetable jelly from pectic substances occurring in the cell-wall.
There is a kid's menu and vegetarians can stick to salads, pastas and vegetable pizza.
The idea of an identity of protoplasm does not involve a denial of special powers developed in it in different situations, and the possession of such a power by the vegetable cell is not more striking than the location of the powers of co-ordination and thought in the protoplasm of cells of the human brain.
Eureka helped him by flying into the faces of the enemy and scratching and biting furiously, and the kitten ruined so many vegetable complexions that the Mangaboos feared her as much as they did the horse.
Not my or thy great-grandfather's, but our great-grandmother Nature's universal, vegetable, botanic medicines, by which she has kept herself young always, outlived so many old Parrs in her day, and fed her health with their decaying fatness.
Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
So far the evolution of the vegetable kingdom has proceeded without any conspicuous break.
In the Gnetaceous Welwitschia it possesses a vegetable type whose extraordinary peculiarities make it seem amongst contemporary vegetation much as some strange and extinct animal form would if suddenly endowed with life.
the remark on p. 481 of his work that " the countries of the East Indian flora have no kinds of birds in common with America which are vegetable feeders."
Each of these affords animal, vegetable or mixed diet.
The dace feeds on worms, insects, insect-larvae, and also on vegetable matter.
The element also occurs in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard.
Definition is merely a circuitous method of stating an identity: "a tree is a vegetable growth" is logically no more than "a tree is a tree."
Of the numerous other families of the Clavicornia may be mentioned the Cucujidae and Cryptophagidae, small beetles, examples of which may be found feeding on stored seeds or vegetable refuse, and the Mycetophagidae, which devour fungi.
The mandibles are strong, adapted for biting the vegetable substances on which these beetles feed, and the palps of the second maxillae have three segments.
Their support being removed they break away in the direction of natural joints, and the fragments fall down the slope upon the vegetable soil.
Two vegetable products, the " balsam bog " (Bolas glebaria) and the " tussock grass " (Dactylis caespitosa) have been objects of curiosity and interest ever since the first accounts of the islands were given.
But we have in addition to the animal sacrifices, vegetable offerings of meal, oil and cakes (massoth, ashishah and kawwan, which last is specially connected with the `Ashtoreth cult: Jer.
It seems to point to the supersession of a primitive local Cretan divinity by Demeter, and the adoption of agriculture by the inhabitants, bringing wealth in its train in the form of the fruits of the earth, both vegetable and mineral.
To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
They live on small animals or soft vegetable substances, which they root up from the bottom.
The climate itself encourages to passivity, and the very luxuriance of vegetable and animal life tends to blunt the feeling of the value of life.
I) piles up a heap of leaves, twigs and other vegetable refuse, so arranged as to form an orderly series of galleries, though the structure appears at first sight a chaotic heap. Species of Camponotus and many other ants tunnel in wood.
A mountain range such as this, attaining altitudes at which vegetable life ceases, and the support of animal life is extremely difficult, constitutes an almost impassable barrier against the spread of all forms of living creatures.
The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.
Largely present in olive oil and other saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal fats, especially hog's lard.
The chief constituent of palm oil; also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil, and other animal and vegetable fats.
The chief and almost the only use of dung, he thinks, is to divide the earth, to dissolve " this terrestrial matter, which affords nutriment to the mouths of vegetable roots "; and this can be done more completely by tillage.
The Board of Agriculture in 1803 had commissioned Sir Humphry Davy to deliver a course of lectures on the connexion of chemistry with vegetable physiology.
In 1889, at Windsor, prizes were awarded for a fruit and vegetable evaporator, a paring and coring machine, a dairy thermometer, parcel post butter-boxes to carry different weights, and a vessel to contain preserved butter.
Amongst Orthoptera we find many noxious insects, notably the locusts, which travel in vast cloud-like armies, clearing the whole country before them of all vegetable life.
Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.
The soil is composed of red ferruginous kankar, with a stratum of clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable mould, or by recent alluvial deposits.
qutun), the most important of the vegetable fibres of the world, consisting of unicellular hairs which occur attached to the seeds of various species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the Mallow order (Malvaceae).
It was very difficult to burn, and when dumped into rivers and creeks was carried out by flood water to fill the edges of the flats with a decaying and offensive mass of vegetable matter.
For five centuries before the Christian era cotton was largely used in the domestic manufactures of India; and the clothing of the inhabitants then consisted, as now, chiefly of garments made from this vegetable product.
Among those who have considered that it is derived from the decomposition of both animal and vegetable marine organisms may be mentioned J.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
On the other hand, an ozoneless east wind (sirocco) is occasionally experienced - especially during the second half of May and before the beginning of the rainy season - which has a prejudicial influence on both animal and vegetable life.
They may be divided into three classes: the pine lands, which often have a surface of dark vegetable mould, under which is a sandy loam resting on a substratum of clay, marl or limestone - areas of such soil are found throughout the state; the " hammocks," which have soil of similar ingredients and are interspersed with the pine lands - large areas of this soil occur in Levy, Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Jackson counties; and the alluvial swamp lands, chiefly in E.
In 1907-8, according to the State Department of Agriculture, the total value of vegetable and garden products was $3,928,657.
The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.
Of the vegetable oils, in addition to cotton-seed and coco-nut, olive oil is the basis of soaps for calico printers and silk dyers; castor oil yields transparent soaps (under suitable treatment), whilst crude palm oil, with bone fat, is employed for making brown soap, and after bleaching it yields ordinary pale or mottled.
Of her numerous temples at Rome, the most ancient was appropriately in the forum olitorium (vegetable market), built during the first Punic war, and since that time twice burnt down and restored.
It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over red hot charcoal, the unccndensed gases so produced being led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.
In the plains the soil is generally of sand or alluvial clay, covered in the valleys with a rich vegetable mould.
The surface soil of Berar is to a great extent a rich black vegetable mould; and where this surface soil does not exist, there are muram and trap with a shallow upper crust of inferior light soil.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
Taking as a basis the nature of the source of compounds, he framed three classes: " mineral," comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vegetable," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c.; and " animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
a-pyrone condenses with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; benzo-'y-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c., which are derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-y-pyrone); dibenzo--ypyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and /3-naphthoquinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthraquinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an intermediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines.
Of great importance is his introduction of vegetable juices (the so-called indicators, q.v.) to detect acids and bases.
The vegetable product - which is extremely expensive - must be prescribed or the synthetic product guaranteed "physiologically pure," i.e.
Many regard them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum).
Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.
In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
Elsewhere three types of soil are distinguished - a black soil, of decayed vegetable matter, where the land is under forest, a reddish clay, and a white soil occurring along the shores.
It is probable that some are carnivorous, either attacking other larvae or subsisting on more minute forms of animal life; but others perhaps feed more exclusively on vegetable matters of a low type, such as diatoms.
Finally, the plankton (and again the vegetable forms in particular) are practically restricted to the upper hundred fathoms or so of the sea.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
- In the temperate seas the two great features are: (1) the outburst of vegetable life in the spring; and (2) the vernal or summer phase of reproduction among animals.
The plankton, both animal and vegetable, attains its minimal values and many of the larger forms of animal life pass into a kind of condition of hibernation.
The vegetable kingdom is the original source of albuminous substances, the albumins being found in greatest quantity in the seed.
They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.
In the vegetable kingdom glucose occurs, always in admixture with fructose, in many fruits, especially grapes, cherries, bananas, &c.; and in combination, generally with phenols and aldehydes belonging to the aromatic series, it forms an extensive class of compounds termed glucosides.
The rubber is obtained by incising the stems of the vines and coagulating the latex by exposure, by admixture with acid vegetable juices or by heating.
Vegetable and other oils rapidly penetrate caoutchouc and lead to deterioration of its properties.
Others have a special faculty of consuming dry, powdery vegetable and animal refuse, and are liable to multiply in manufactured products of this nature, such as mouldy cheese.
A closely-related species or variety (Euterpe edulis) is the well-known palmito or cabbage palm found over the greater part of Brazil, whose terminal phylophore is cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
Another vegetable product of the Amazon region is made from the fruit of the Paullinia sorbilis, Mart., and is known by the name of guarand.
Vegetable wax, which is an excellent substitute for beeswax, is a product of the carnahuha palm (Copernicia cerifera), and is an important export from Ceara.
The stones at the bottom are slightly reddish, owing to vegetable substances.
the explanation of animal (and vegetable) mechanism, colouring, habits, &c., as advantageous to the species or to its ancestors, are only gradually being carried further.
I I) is difficult to explain, though Maimonides perhaps correctly regarded the law as a protest against heathenism (on the magical use of representatives of the animal and vegetable kingdom, in conjunction with a metal ring, see I.
It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
Every living organism, animal and vegetable, tends to maintain a normal state of health; it is when the natural laws of health are violated that the liability to disease begins to assert itself.
Of all external agents acting for evil, however, probably vegetable and animal micro-organisms with a pathogenic bent are most to be feared.
It is well known that in the vegetable kingdom the protoplasm of one cell frequently overflows into that of cells adjacent - that there is, as it were, a continuous network of protoplasm (idioplasm of Nageli) prevailing throughout vegetable tissues, rather than an aggregation of isolated units.
Sometimes the equatorial depression fails entirely, and the separation, as in some vegetable cells, takes place through the construction of a cell-plate.
The name "amyloid " was applied to it by Virchow on account of the blue reaction which it gives occasionally with iodine and sulphuric acid, resembling that given with vegetable cellulose.
It is now known to have nothing in common with vegetable cellulose, but is regarded as one of the many albuminoid substances existing in the body under pathological conditions.
These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
219; Shattock, " Healing of Incisions in Vegetable Tissues," Journ.
Finely divided vegetable charcoal added to a soda-lime glass gives a yellow colour.
Almost all the Guanches used to wear garments of goat-skins, and others of vegetable fibres, which have been found in the tombs of Grand Canary.
sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxyaldehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and animal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides (q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure.
Whatever pressure be brought to bear upon it, the vegetable or woody fibre of crushed sugar-canes will hold and retain for the from moment a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, Yield .
The boiling juice is run down into subsiding tanks, where it cools, and at the same time the albumen, which has been suddenly coagulated by momentary exposure to high temperature, falls to the bottom of the tank, carrying with it the vegetable and other matters which were in suspension in the juice.
It contains more roots, and as a rule, is darker in colour than the subsoil on account of the larger proportion of decaying vegetable matter present in it: it is also looser in texture than the subsoil.
Humus, the remaining constituent of soil, is the term used for the decaying vegetable and animal matter in the soil.
Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
The constituents of tobacco, as of all other vegetable matter, can be grouped under three heads: water, mineral acids and bases (which pass into the ash on combustion) and organic substances.
These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of life, both aptinal and vegetable.
Vegetable physiology he pursued with special reference to agriculture, which he held to be the foundation of all trade and industry, but which could not be rationally practised without the guidance of chemical principles.
They feed upon nearly all vegetable substances, but drink little.
At night it crawls about in search of food, which consists to a small extent of dead animal or vegetable matter, but principally, as gardeners are aware, of the petals and other parts of flowers of growing shoots and soft ripe fruit.
Their food consists of minute animal and vegetable organisms, (Redrawn by permission from Farmers Bulletin 155, Bureau of Ent., U.S. Dept.
algae, and probably decaying vegetable matter; they are often cannibals, and feed on their own species.
Four kinds are produced: rough cotton or " vegetable wool," sea island, brown or Mitafifi, and smooth or American.
The palm family is numerous and includes the species producing vegetable ivory (Phytelephas), straw for plaiting Panama hats (Carludovica palmata), and the peach palm (Guilielma speciosa).
- Beyond the cultivation of vegetable gardens there is practically no agricultural industry in the colony.
The Piazza delle Erbe (fruit and vegetable market).
The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."
Such is the effect of this combination of agricultural occupations with domestic manufactures that the farmers are more than competent to supply the resident population of the county with vegetable, though not with animal food; and some of the less crowded and less productive parts of Ulster receive from Armagh a considerable supply of oats, barley and flour.
Of the general characters of acids we may here notice that they dissolve alkaline substances, certain metals, &c., neutralize alkalies and redden many blue and violet vegetable colouring matters.
Herpeton of Cambodia has a pair of long tentacles on the snout and is said to have a partly vegetable diet!
The surrounding country is devoted largely to farming, especially vegetable gardening, and to dairying.
This singular phenomenon is supposed to owe its appearance to an accumulation of gas, formed by the decay of vegetable matter, detaching and raising to the surface the matted weeds which cover the floor of the lake at this point.
Their food appears for the most part to be of a vegetable nature.
Ordinary alcohol, which we shall frequently refer to by its specific name, ethyl alcohol, seldom occurs in the vegetable kingdom; the unripe seeds of Heracleum giganteum and H.
The fosse is laid out in vegetable gardens; public gardens have been constructed outside the walls; and artesian wells have been bored by the government.
pectinatus produces a purplish fruit resembling a gooseberry, which is very good eating; and the fleshy part of the stem itself, which is called cabeza del viego by the Mexicans, is eaten by them as a vegetable after removing the spines.
UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.
All the existing members of the group are eminently adapted for a terrestrial life, and in the main for a vegetable diet.
Gall-fly grubs are provided with vegetable food through the eggs being laid by the mother insect within plant tissues.
The feeding habits of the adult may agree with that of the larva, or differ, as in the case of wasps which feed their grubs on flies, but eat principally vegetable food themselves.
But the two substances were generally confounded as "fixed alkali" (carbonate of ammonia being "volatile alkali"), till Duhamel du Monceau in 1736 established the fact that common salt and the ashes of seaplants contain the same base as is found in natural deposits of soda salts ("mineral alkali"), and that this body is different from the "vegetable alkali" obtained by incinerating land plants or wood (pot-ashes).
finding vegetable alkali in certain minerals, such as leucite, proposed to distinguish it as potash, and at the same time assigned to the mineral alkali the name natron, which survives in the symbol, Na, now used for sodium.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
Usually it occurs in compact beds of alternating bright and dark bands in which impressions of leaves, woody fibre and other vegetable remains are commonly found.
Coal is the result of the transformation of woody fibre and other vegetable matter by the elimination of oxygen and hydrogen in proportionally larger quantity than carbon, so that the percentage of the latter element is increased in the manner shown in Table III., given by J.
The alluvial soil, composed of what has been washed from other soils, together with decayed vegetable matter, covers about 6% of the surface of the state and is found in the river bottoms, of greatest extent in that of the Missouri; it varies much in fertility.
In Sir Lowry Road, the chief eastern thoroughfare, is the large vegetable and fruit market.
The Santa Clara Valley has many vegetable and flower-seed farms; it is one of the most fertile of the fruit regions of California, prunes, grapes, peaches and apricots being produced in especial abundance.
Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
These vegetable substances may be divided into foodstuffs and nonfoodstuffs.
Investigations started in 1920 by the British Government, in connexion with the production of alcohol for power purposes, have shown, however, that there are large areas of suitable land in the British Empire where the cost of production would be comparatively low, and where it might be possible to grow vegetable substances in excess of food requirements, and in sufficient quantities to produce alcohol for local consumption to replace expensive petrol.
Mineral, vegetable and animal substances, by means of tools and apparatus of stone, wood and bone - tools for cutting, or edged tools; tools for abrading and smoothing the surfaces of substances, like planes, rasps and sandpaper; tools for striking, that is, pounding for the sake of pounding, or for crushing and fracturing violently; perforating tools; devices for grasping and holding firmly.
No standards of weighing or measuring were known, but the parts of the body were the units, and money consisted in rare and durable vegetable and animal substances, which scarcely reached the dignity of a mechanism of exchange.
With this animal diet everywhere vegetable substances were mixed, even in the boreal regions.
Where the temperature allowed, vegetable diet increased, and fruits, seeds and roots were laid under tribute.
In the course of time it was noticed that certain materials, such as charcoal, had the power to some extent also of softening hard water and of removing organic matter, and at the beginning of the 19th century charcoal, both animal and vegetable, came into use for filtering purposes.
It is generally mixed with vegetable matter and coral sand.
Ammonia is carried back to the soil by means of rain, and there plays an important part in providing nitrogenous matter which is afterwards assimilated by vegetable life.
They feed on various vegetable substances, as shoots of trees and bushes, American Tapir (Tapirus).
In numerous depressions, some of which may have been the beds of lakes formed by beaver dams, the soil is deep and largely of vegetable formation.
In the valleys of rivers which have overflowed their banks and on level bench lands there is considerable silt and vegetable loam mixed with glacial clay; but on the hills and ridges of western Washington the soil is almost wholly a glacial deposit consisting principally of clay but usually containing some sand and gravel.
On the Columbia plateau the soil is principally volcanic ash and decomposed lava; it is almost wholly volcanic ash in the more arid sections, but elsewhere more decomposed lava or other igneous rocks, and some vegetable loam is mixed with the ash.
slope of the Cascades and on the Okanogan Highlands glacial deposits of clay, gravel or sand, as well as vegetable loam, are mixed with the volcanic substances.
Vegetable crops are successfully grown in low alluvial lands of the W.
Farther west and south are: Hoopstad, 452, on the Vet river; Boshof, 1308, a fruit and vegetable centre, 30 m.
It is often locally enriched by vegetable mould, and is well adapted for wheat-growing.
West of the Missouri river the drift gives place to a fine soil of sand aid clay, with deposits of alluvium in the vicinity of streams. Though lacking in vegetable mould, these soils are generally capable of producing good crops where the water-supply is sufficient.
On the ground that the assimilable nutriment from a given weight of selected fruit and grain and nut and vegetable foods will cost less than the same nutriment obtained from flesh foods.
On the ground that an acre of cultivable land under fruit and vegetable cultivation will produce from two to twenty times as much food as if the same land were utilized for feeding cattle.
On the ground that the aim of every prosperous community should be to have a large proportion of hardy country yeomen, and that horticulture and agriculture demand such a high ratio of labour, as compared with feeding and breeding cattle, that the country population would be greatly increased by the substitution of a fruit and vegetable for an animal dietary.
But there is no doubt that, whatever may be the view taken as to the extreme theory of vegetarianism, it has had considerable effect in modifying the excessive meat-consuming regime of previous days, and in introducing new varieties of vegetable cooking into the service of the table.
Here too are found petrified forests and other evidences of a vegetable growth that has long ago disappeared.
Very little attention is paid to fruit and vegetable growing.
Proust also investigated the varieties of sugar that occur in sweet vegetable juices, distinguishing three kinds, and he showed that the sugar in grapes, of which he announced the existence to his classes at Madrid in 1799, is identical with that obtained from honey by the Russian chemist J.
Ooravn, plant; t30aKft y, to graze), the science which includes everything relating to the vegetable kingdom, whether in a living or in a fossil state.
The Chaldaeans, Egyptians and Greeks were the early cultivators of science, and botany was not neglected, although the study of it was mixed up with crude speculations as to vegetable life, and as to the change of plants into animals.
Endlicher (1804-1849), the Prodromus of de Candolle, and the Vegetable Kingdom (1846) of J.
Ammonia is found in small quantities as the carbonate in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter; ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rain-water, whilst ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and ammonium sulphate are found in volcanic districts; and crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.
them for grinding vegetable substances.
most prefer vegetable food, including honey, when a sufficient supply of this can be had.
That it can sustain life on a purely vegetable diet is proved by instances on record of its being fed for years on bread only, in confinement.
It is a solitary animal, frequenting the wooded parts of the regions it inhabits, and living on a mixed diet of fruits, vegetable, honey, fish and the smaller animals.
Imports consist of cotton, linen and woollen fabrics, hardware, cutlery and machinery, kerosene, glass and earthenware; and the exports of cattle, sugar, tobacco, coffee, coco-nuts and fibre, dividivi and dye-woods, vegetable ivory, rubber, hides and skins, medicinal forest products, gold, silver and platinum.
The Hydrozoa comprise the hydroids, so abundant on all shores, most of which resemble vegetable organisms to the unassisted eye; the hydrocorallines, which, as their name implies, have a massive stony skeleton and resemble corals; the jelly-fishes so called; and the Siphonophora, of which the species best known by repute is the so-called "Portuguese man-of-war" (Physalia), dreaded by sailors on account of its terrible stinging powers.
The food is varied but chiefly vegetable, whilst parrots are alone amongst birds in holding the food in the claws.
The principal exports are fish, coarse black tea, cotton, vegetable tallow, sweet potatoes, and some wheat.
Even in the worst cases, therefore, only vegetable forms, easily destroyed by boiling, can find their ay into the milk from the body of the cow.
limus, mud, clay), a fertile soil composed of a mixture of sand, clay, and decomposed vegetable matter, the quantity of sand being sufficient to prevent the clay massing together.
It is found native as the diamond (q.v.), graphite, as a constituent of all animal and vegetable tissues and of coal and petroleum.
Large quantities of crin vegetal (vegetable horse-hair) an excellent fibre, are made from the leaves of the dwarf palm.
The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
The natives live very largely on vegetable food, among the most important plants which supply them being the taro, yam, banana, bread-fruit, arrow-root, pandanus and coco-nut.
The low coral islands suffer frequently from drought; their soil is sandy and unproductive, and in some cases the natives attempt cultivation by excavating trenches and fertilizing them with vegetable and other refuse.
Besides those already mentioned, his works include An Outline of the First Principles of Horticulture (1832), An Outline of the Structure and Physiology of Plants (1832), A Natural System of Botany (1836), The Fossil Flora of Great Britain (with William Hutton, 1831-1837), Flora Medica (1838), Theory of Horticulture (1840), The Vegetable Kingdom (1846), Folia Orchidacea (1852), Descriptive Botany (1858).
Most lizards live on animal food, varying from tiny insects and worms to lizards, snakes, birds and mammals, while others prefer a mixed or an entirely vegetable diet.
Most of them are insectivorous, but a few are almost entirely vegetable feeders.
In the last years of his life he returned to the vegetable acids, and investigated citric, malic, oxalic and gallic acids.
In recent years the science of vegetable palaeontology has been given the distinct name of Palaeobotany, so that " palaeontology e' among biologists mainly refers to zoology; but historically the two cannot be disconnected.
- The types of animal and vegetable life found in Mexico belong, in a general sense, to those of the northern temper ate region, and those of the tropical regions of Central and South America.
The common potato (Solanum tuberosum), of which wild varieties are found, is not commonly used as a vegetable, but as a flavouring for soups and other dishes.
In the mountain region the soil is mostly a sandy loam composed of disintegrated granitic gneiss and organic matter; on the lower and more gentle slopes as well as in the valleys this is generally deep enough for a luxuriant vegetable growth but on the upper and more precipitous slopes it is thin, or the rocks are entirely bare.
Widely divergent forms make their appearance suddenly in the Cambrian period amongst the earliest known fossils; and the high perfection of structure to which they had at that time attained Let a = We have also (31) n2x2 y (I implies the antecedent existence of much simpler types, and refers the origin of life to a date immeasurably distant from that at which we have actual proof of the existence of animal and vegetable organisms.
The vegetable products of Guatemala include coffee, cocoa, sugar-cane, bananas, oranges, vanilla, aloes, agave, ipecacuanha, castor-oil, sarsaparilla, cinchona, tobacco, indigo and the wax-plant (111yrica cerifera).
The signaculum oris forbids all eating of unclean food (which included all bodies of animals, wine, &c. - vegetable diet being allowed because plants contained more light, though the killing of plants, or even plucking their fruit and breaking their twigs, was not permitted), as well as all impure speech.
The Comanchean system contains the oldest known remains of netted-veined leaved plants, which mark a great advance in the vegetable world.
Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish.
a nitrogenous substance which forms salts with acids; now, however, it is usual to restrict the term to bases of vegetable origin and characterized by remarkable toxicological effects.
C. Biddle with the title The Vegetable Alkaloids (New York, 1904); and by J.
The majority of the lakes have rocky shores and islands and great variety of depth, many of the smaller ones, however, are rimmed with marshes and are slowly filling up with vegetable matter, ultimately becoming peat bogs, the muskegs of the Indian.
The food of the Anodonta, as of other Lamellibranchs, consists of microscopic animal and vegetable organisms, brought to the mouth by the stream which sets into the sub-pallial chamber at the lower siphonal notch (e in fig.
They belong to the family Psocidae which has a few score species - most of them winged - living out of doors on the bark of trees and among vegetable refuse.
The family Phryganeidae have males with foursegmented hairy palps; the larvae inhabit stagnant water and make cases of vegetable fragments.
The convention sets out the scope and objects of the institute, which a recent British official publication states has been joined by 38 states, including Great Britain and all other great powers, as follows: Whilst limiting its action to international questions, it shall be the duty of the institute: (a) To collect, elaborate and publish, with as little delay as possible, statistical, technical, or economic information regarding the cultivation of the soil, its productions, whether animal or vegetable, the trade in agricultural products, and the prices obtained on the various markets.
The consecration consisted of a smearing with fat of victims or with oil of vegetable offering (Gen.
That those to the westward have long been inactive is shown by the destruction of craters by denudation, by deep ravines, valleys and tall cliffs eroded on the mountain sides, especially on the windward side, by the depth of soil formed from the disintegrated rocks, and by the amount as well as variety of vegetable life.
This corpulence was due not alone to over-feeding but to an almost purely vegetable diet; stoutness was a part of the ideal of feminine beauty.
Their food is entirely vegetable, especially grass roots and stalks, shoots of dwarf birch, reindeer lichens and mosses, in search of which they form, in winter, long galleries through the turf or under the snow.
The passage of dissolved substances through animal and vegetable membranes was the subject of many early experiments.
Besides a large number of animal and vegetable substances, many precipitates formed in the course of inorganic chemical reactions are non-crystalline and appear in the colloidal state, instances are the sulphides of antimony and arsenic and the hydroxides of iron and alumina.
The species are extremely numerous, about 1400 being known, nearly entirely confined to fresh water, and feeding on vegetable substances or small animals.
The water, like all the other constituents of concrete, should be clean and free from vegetable matter.
It has been found that by a particular treatment, in which the mixing of large quantities of vegetable colouring agents with the food plays an important part, the ordinary "canary yellow" may be intensified so as to verge upon a more or less brilliant flame colour.'
It is much frequented as a health and summer resort, and has a variety of lake, brine, vegetable and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation chambers, whey cure, &c. There are a great number of excursions and points of interest round Gmunden, specially worth mentioning being the Traun Fall, 10 m.
Mimicry is a special form of protective resemblance, differing from ordinary protective resemblance as exemplified by the similarity of the resting goat-sucker to a piece of bark or of leafand stick-insects to the objects after which they are named, in that the imitated object belongs to the animal kingdom and not to the vegetable kingdom or to inorganic nature.
As is well known, the lichens are often found in the most exposed and arid situations; in the extreme polar regions these plants are practically the only vegetable forms of life.
Vegetation is, however, tolerably abundant - tamarisks, oleanders, kafas, euphorbias, the milk bush, rhamnus and acacias being the most common and most characteristic forms of vegetable life, and pools of water are frequent.
Bottom-Heat.----The " optimum " temperature, or that best suited to promote the general activity of roots, and indeed of all vegetable organs, necessarily varies very much with the nature of the plant, and the circumstances in which it is placed, and is ascertained by practical experience.
From a careful series of experiments made in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, it was found that where the soil is loamy, or light and slightly enriched with decayed vegetable matter, the apple succeeds best on the doucin stock, and the pear on the quince; and where it is chalky it is preferable to graft the apple on the crab, and the pear on the wild pear.
- The site chosen for the mansion will more or less determine that of the garden, the pleasure grounds and flower garden being placed so as to surround or lie contiguous to it, while the fruit and vegetable gardens, either together or separate, should be placed on one side or in the rear, according to fitness as regards the nature of the soil and subsoil, the slope of the surface or the general features of the park scenery.
The almost universal practice is to have the fruit and vegetable gardens combined; and the flower garden may sometimes be conveniently placed in juxtaposition with them.
When the fruit and vegetable gardens are combined, the smaller and choicer fruit trees only should be admitted, such larger-growing hardy fruits as apples, pears, plums, cherries, &c., being relegated to the orchard.
Vegetable soils or moulds, or humus soils, contain a considerable percentage (more than 5) of humus, and embrace both the rich productive garden moulds and those known as peaty soils.
The slips are also convenient as affording a variety of aspects, and thus helping to prolong the season of particular vegetable crops.
They form, moreover, neat enclosures for the vegetable quarters, and, provided excess of growth from the centre is successfully grappled with, they are productive in soils and situations which are suitable.
- These are of two classes, organic and inorganic - the former being of animal and vegetable, the latter of mineral origin.
Bones are employed as a manure with decided advantage both to vegetable crops and to fruit trees, as well as to flowers.
Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed.
Vegetable refuse of all kinds, when smother-burned in a similar way, becomes a valuable mechanical improver of the soil; but the preferable course is to decompose it in a heap with quicklime and layers of earth, converting it into leaf-mould.
Potato haulms, and club-rooted cabbage crops should, however, never be mixed with ordinary clean vegetable refuse, as they would be most likely to perpetuate the terrible diseases to which they are subject.
Sow vegetable marrow.
Plant out vegetable marrows and pumpkins on dung-ridges, under hand-glasses.
- Collect and smother-burn all vegetable refuse, and apply it as a dressing to the ground.
In March flower seeds and vegetable seeds may be sown in boxes or flats in the greenhouse, or in residence windows, or near the kitchen stove.
Hardier sorts of vegetable seeds and plants, such as beets, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, spinach, turnip, &c., should all be sown or planted by the middle of the month if the soil is dry and warm, and in all cases, where practicable, before the end of the month.
Any who expect to get early cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce or radishes, while planting or sowing is delayed until the time of sowing tomato and egg plant in May, are sure to be disappointed of a full crop. Frequent rotation of crops should be practised in the vegetable garden, in order to head off insects and diseases; and also to make the best use of the land.
Every three or four years the vegetable garden should be laid out in some new place; but if this cannot be done, the crops should be rotated on different parts of the old garden.
All vegetable roots not designed to be left in the ground during the winter should be dug up, such as beets, carrots, parsnips, sweet potatoes, &c. The cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce plants grown from seed sown last month should be pricked out in cold frames.
Vegetable gardens often become infested with diseases that are carried over from year to year in the old plants and litter; this is specially true of water-melons and of some diseases of tomatoes.
All vegetable roots that are yet in the ground, and not designed to be left there over winter, must be dug up in this latitude before the middle of the month or they may be frozen in.
plates); Vilmorin et Cie., The Vegetable Garden (Eng.
The conditions under which the beds of coal were formed will be found described under that head; it will be sufficient to notice here that some coal seams were undoubtedl y formed by jungle or swamplike growths on the site of the deposit, and it is equally true that others were formed by the transport and deposition of vegetable detritus.
The cells of fungi, in addition to protoplasm, nuclei and sap-vacuoles, like other vegetable cells, contain formed and amorphous bodies of various kinds.
The genus Peziza (in its widest sense) may be taken as the type of the group. Most of them grow on living plants or on dead vegetable remains, very often on fallen wood; a number, however, are found growing on earth which is rich in humus.
This is the only case of heteroecism known in the vegetable kingdom outside the Uredineae.
This is an extraordinarily large and varied group of forms which mostly live parasitically or saprophytically on vegetable tissue, but a few are parasitic on insect-larvae.
This is simply one instance of the inevitable progressive increase in cost of the irrecreatable mineral relatively to the recreatable animal and vegetable.
The vegetable products do not differ greatly from those found on the Gold Coast; the most important commercially is the rubber tree (Funtumia elastica).
In combination it is found as a constituent of water, of the gases from certain mineral springs, in many minerals, and in most animal and vegetable tissues.
The south-western part of the country, a vast and almost level plain, is known as Dar Homr. A granitic sand with abundance of mica and feldspar forms the upper stratum throughout the greater part of Kordofan; but an admixture of clay, which is observable in the north, becomes strongly marked in the south, where there are also stretches of black vegetable mould.
south-east of Asuncion), and native copper, oxide of manganese, marbles, lime and salt have been found, the real wealth of the country consists rather in the variety and value of its vegetable products.
Gdppert as vegetable structures and were supposed to point to an organic origin, but this view is no longer held.
In parasites (Lathraea, Orobanche) and in plants growing on decaying vegetable matter (saprophytes), in which no chlorophyll is formed, these scales are the only leaves produced.
2 per cent.) of boheic acid, a vegetable acid peculiar to tea.
CH 2 CO 2 H, and optically active methylethylacetic acid, (CH 3) (C 2 H 5)CH CO 2 H, which occur free or as esters in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, chiefly in the roots of Angelica archangelica and Valeriana officinalis.
Flax and other vegetable spinning materials except cotton.
2 Excluding vegetable and animal textile materials.
~ Excluding vegetable textile materials.
Animal and vegetable tex tile materials and wares thereof 98,540 92,105 78,086 70,343
Other vegetable textile materials.
Wares of animal or vegetable material for carving or moulding 2,448 2,068 4,260 4,131
Craiova is the chief commercial town west of Bucharest; the surrounding uplands are very rich in grain, pasturage and vegetable products, and contain extensive forests.
Among other trees and shrubs may be mentioned the sumach, the date-palm, the plantain, various bamboos, cycads and the dwarf-palm, the last of which grows in some parts of Sicily more profusely than anywhere else, and in the desolate region in the south-west yields almost the only vegetable product of importance.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
The most important vegetable products are cotton and indigo, which are universally grown.
A terrible pest is a kind of termite which is locally abundant and has probably visited most parts of Egypt at one time or another, destroying all dead vegetable or animal material in the soil that was not specially protected.
There were green crops such as clover, and lentils, peas, beans, radishes, onions, lettuces (as a vegetable and for oil), castor oil and flax were grown.
On the other hand, cereal or vegetable diet calls for a supplement of salt, and so does boiled meat.
Interpreted in this way, the place of algae in the vegetable kingdom may be shown by means of a table: - ' Myxomycetes Thallophyta.
To adopt a figure, it is probable that the sources from which the two streams of life - animal and vegetable - spring may not be separable by a well-defined watershed at all, but consist of a great level upland, in which the waterways anastomose.
Physiology of.) In the literature of vegetable physiology there has thus accumulated a great body of facts relating not only to the phenomena of reproduction, but also to the nutrition of algae.
To the aggregate of such forms, both animal and vegetable, the term plankton has been applied, and the investigation of the vegetable plankton, both freshwater and marine, has been pursued in recent times with energy and success.
The German Plankton Expedition of 1889 added greatly to our knowledge of the floating vegetable life of the North Atlantic Ocean, while many laboratories established on the shores of inland seas and lakes have rendered a similar service in the case of our freshwater phyto-plankton.
Considering, however, that it is generally believed that Bryophyta and vascular plants are descended from an algal ancestry, it is natural to suppose that, prior to the luxuriant vegetable growths of the Carboniferous period, there must have existed an age of algae.
Its food consists almost wholly of waterweeds, rushes and other vegetable substances, but it will also eat animal food on occasion, in the shape of insects, mice or young birds.
- Mixtures of animal, vegetable and mineral substances are employed in great variety in the arts for making joints, mending broken china and other objects, &c. A strong cement for alabaster and marble, which sets in a day, may be prepared by mixing 12 parts of Portland cement, 8 of fine sand and 1 of infusorial earth, and making them into a thick paste with silicate of soda; the object to be cemented need not be heated.
He considered that a struggle for existence was the inevitable result of the operation of the principle of Malthus in the animal and vegetable worlds.
Every organism is an individual, its different parts, organs and functions being associated in a degree of intimacy that varies, but that corresponds roughly with the integration of the individual and its place in the ascending scales of animal or vegetable life.
We may therefore conclude that for large classes of characters, both animal and vegetable, the variability of an individual, as measured by the standard deviation of its undifferentiated but repeated organs, is a constant fraction of the variability of its race, as measured by the standard deviation of the corresponding series of organs produced by all the individuals of its race.
They employ vegetable dyes for painting their bark-cloth, calabashes, &c. In some islands they also use a red earth for this purpose.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
The principal exports are cacao, rubber, coffee, tobacco, hides, cotton, Panama hats, cinchona bark and ivory nuts, the value of all exports for the year 1905 being 14,148,877 sucres, in a total of 18,565,668 sucres for the whole republic. In 1908 the exports were: cacao, about 64,000,000 lb, valued at $6,400,000; hides, valued at $135,000; rubber, valued at $235,000; coffee, valued at $273,000; and vegetable ivory, valued at $102,000.
In a memoir presented to the Academy in 1777, but not published till 1782, he assigned to dephlogisticated air the name oxygen, or "acidproducer," on the supposition that all acids were formed by its union with a simple, usually non-metallic, body; and having verified this notion for phosphorus, sulphur, charcoal, &c., and even extended it to the vegetable acids, he naturally asked himself what was formed by the combustion of "inflammable air" (hydrogen).
A paper discovered many years after his death showed that he had anticipated later thinkers in explaining the cyclical process of animal and vegetable life, for he pointed out that plants derive their food from the air, from water, and in general from the mineral kingdom, and animals in turn feed on plants or on other animals fed by plants, while the materials thus taken up by plants and animals are restored to the mineral kingdom by the breaking-down processes of fermentation, putrefaction and combustion.
About 150o acres are under rice cultivation, and there are scattered patches of coco-nut and sago palms and a few vegetable gardens, the latter owned for the most part by Chinese.
Lake Xochimilco contains powerful springs, but away from them the water appears dark and muddy, full of suspended fresh and decomposing vegetable matter, teeming with fish, larvae of insects, Daphniae, worms and axolotl.
The most valuable vegetable products are aloes and the dragon's-blood tree.
It is pre-eminently a garden vegetable, the ear being used before the grain hardens, when it is well filled but soft and milky.
It is extensively grown throughout India, both for the ripe grain and for use of the unripe cob as a green vegetable.
C6h2(Oh)2[I.2], C]] a vegetable dyestuff formerly prepared from madder root (Rubia tinctorum) which contains a glucoside ruberythric acid (C26H28014).
The village system is well described, each little rural unit seeming to be an independent republic. Megasthenes remarked the exemption of the husbandmen (Vaisyas) from war and public services, and enumerates the dyes, fibres, fabrics and products (animal, vegetable and mineral) of India.
Rough cotton, called "vegetable wool," and tobacco are the principal products, and are also produced in the valley of the Tumbes and in some of the elevated mountain districts.
In habits it is chiefly nocturnal, and by preference carnivorous, feeding on birds and the smaller quadrupeds, in pursuit of which it climbs trees, but it is said also to eat fruits, roots and other vegetable matters.
VEGETABLE (Late Lat.
Vegetable Marrow >>
Inclusiveness of range in the distribution of vegetable life is perhaps more suggestive than the distribution of animal species.
Stock ranches, tobacco plantations, and hay and grain farms, average from Boo to 530 acres, and counteract the tendency of dairy farms, beet plantations, orchards, vegetable gardens and nurseries to lower the size of the farm unit still further.
Vegetable exports more than doubled between 1894 and 1903.
Dye-woods and indigo are exported, but the demand for vegetable dyes has decreased.
They live entirely on the ground, or in burrows or holes among rocks, and feed on grass, roots and other vegetable substances.
The most important vegetable productions are - cereals, cotton, gum tragacanth, liquorice, olive oil, opium, rice, saffron, salep, tobacco and yellow berries.
A substance of similar physical character is found in the Coorong district of South Australia, and is hence termed coorongite, but Prof. Ralph Tate considers this to be a vegetable product.
Springtails and bristle-tails live in damp concealed places - under stones or tree-bark, in moss, and in the decaying vegetable or animal matter which serves as food for most of them.
Another of his papers dealt with the delusions of the philosopher's stone, but nevertheless he believed that iron could be artificially formed in the combustion of vegetable matter.
The value of vegetable products, of fruits, and of dairy products was, relatively, equally small (only $7,346,415 in 1899).
Among Western nations it was, without any competitor, the most important of all vegetable fibres till towards the close of the 18th century, when, after a brief struggle, cotton took its place as the supreme vegetable fibre of commerce.
JUTE, a vegetable fibre now occupying a position in the manufacturing scale inferior only to cotton and flax.
TANNIN, or Tannic Acid, the generic name for a widely disseminated group of vegetable products, so named from their property of converting raw hide into leather.
These lands are very extensive, and present every degree of fertility and elevation, from the vast chars of pure sand, subject to annual inundations, to the firm islands, so raised by drift-sand and the accumulated remains of rank vegetable matter, as no longer to be liable to flood.
It slowly evaporates, leaving a thin crust of animal and vegetable matter.
Vegetable tallow is also exported in large quantities from this part of Hu-peh.
A peculiar vegetable product of this inclement region is a small globular fungus growing on the bark of the beech, which is a staple article of food among the Fuegians - probably the only instance where a fungus is the bread of a people.
The insect life of these strangely associated regions is likewise greatly restricted by adverse climatic conditions, a considerable part of the northern desert being absolutely barren of animal and vegetable life, while the climate of Tierra del Fuego and the southern coast is highly unfavourable to terrestrial animal life, for which reason comparatively few species are to be found.
The natural vegetable productions are important, and include manigoba or Ceara rubber, carnahuba wax and fibre, caju wine and ipecacuanha.
Among the valuable vegetable products forming articles of export are various gums and dyes, the most important being gum tragacanth, which exudes from the astragalus plant in the hilly region from Kurdistan in the north-west to Kermn in the south-east.
Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America.
It is incompatible with potassium, calcium, mercury and vegetable astringents.
Gold is found in the central part; and sugar, coco-nuts, betel-nuts, birds' nests, and agar agar, or sea vegetable, are among the other products of the island.
Some of these are of mineral and some of vegetable origin, but they almost all possess one chemical property in common, namely, they precipitate albumin.
This power is possessed alike by a glass of brandy, by solution of lime, soluble salts of zinc, copper, or silver, by tannic and gallic acids, as well as vegetable juices and extracts which contain them.
POTATO (Solanum tuberosum), a well-known plant which owes its value to the peculiar habit of developing underground slender leafless shoots or branches which differ in character and office from the true roots, and gradually swelling at the free end produce the tubers (potatoes) which are the common vegetable food.
He further tells us that by the natives Virginieae insulae the plant was called "openauk," and that it is now known in European gardens, but he makes no mention of its use as an esculent vegetable, and, indeed, includes it among "plantae malignae et venenatae."
Gypsum, bone-dust, superphosphate of lime and nitrate of soda may also be used, and wood ashes are advantageous if the soil contains much vegetable matter; but the best results are usually obtained when farmyard manure is supplemented by artificials, not by using artificials alone.
Like that vegetable, also, they are earthed over to keep them longer fit for consumption; and they afford a continuous supply during the whole year, though it is more abundant in autumn.
In plants again and all the vegetable kingdom it is manifest as something far purer and possessing greater tension, called a " nature," or principle of growth (4d s ns).
Between these extremes the diversity in vegetable life is as great as that of climate and soil.
The schizomycetes or bacteria are minute vegetable organisms devoid of chlorophyll and multiplying by repeated bipartitions.
Plants appear to be less subject to their attacks - possibly, as has been suggested, because the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms are less suited for the development of Schizomycetes; nevertheless some are known to be parasitic on plants.
Mixed zoogloea found as a pellicle on the surface of vegetable infusions, &c.; it consists of various forms, and contains cocci (a) and rodlets, in series (b and c), &c. (x 540).
Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.
but results when the washings of fresh waste are added, has led to clearer proof that the heating of hay-stacks, hops, tobacco and other vegetable products is due to the vital activity of bacteria and fungi, and is physiologically a consequence of respiratory processes like those in malting.
Immunity of the same nature can be acquired in the same way against snake and scorpion poisons, and against certain vegetable toxins, e.g.
Amongst the latter, the vegetable poisons of known constitution, alkaloids, glucosides, &c., are to be placed.
The laws of antitoxin production and action are not confined to bacterial toxins, but apply also to other vegetable and animal toxins, resembling them in constitution, viz.
the vegetable toxalbumoses and the snake-venom group referred to above.
p. 8, 1601) describes it as a vegetable curiosity, of which in 1588 he had left in Vienna a living specimen, but of which he had not yet seen either the flowers or recent fruit.
Chestnuts (the fruit of the tree) are extensively imported into Great Britain, and are eaten roasted or boiled, and mashed or otherwise as a vegetable.
Having the same Greek origin are the scientific words "empyreuma" and "empyreumatic," applied to the characteristic smell of burning or charring vegetable or animal matter.
Except for the broad valleys of the Panhandle, where the soils are black in colour and rich in vegetable mould, the surface of the state is arid; the Snake river valley is a vast lava bed, covered with deposits of salt and sand, or soils of volcanic origin.
The soil of south-west and south-east Michigan is for the most part a dark clay loam or muck; in the north central part of the lower peninsula it is a light sandy loam, along the Huron shore it is heavy with blue clay, in the mining districts of the north-west the rocks are usually either barren or very thinly covered; and elsewhere in the state the soil is generally rich in a variety of mineral elements, and varies chiefly in the proportions of vegetable loam, sand or gravel, and clay.
On an average, £3,000,000 to £4,000,000 worth of wheat, about £i,000,000 worth of rye, and over £1,500,000 worth of barley are exported annually, besides oats, flax, linseed, rape seed, oilcake, bran, flour, vegetable oils, raw wool and caviare.
The book ends with the obscurest passage of the whole, an elaborate eulogy of the "herb pantagruelion," which appears to be, if it is anything, hemp. Only two probable explanations of this have been offered, the one seeing in it an anticipation of Joseph de Maistre's glorification of the executioner, the other a eulogy of work, hemp being on the whole the most serviceable of vegetable products for that purpose.
Pictet, Vegetable Opium also contains a gum, pectin, a wax, sugar and similar substances, in addition to meconic and lactic acids.
Natural scalps are subject to extreme vicissitudes: an area of many acres may be destroyed by a local change of current producing a deposit of sand or shingle over the scalp, or by exposure to frost at low tide in winter, or by accumulation of decomposing vegetable matter.
The value of the marketable vegetables in 1899 was $4,630,658, and the value of the total vegetable crop, $8,425,596, or 30.7% of that of all crops.
Tin is worked in the rivers of the New England tableland as at Vegetable Creek.
The Copepoda live upon the diatoms and other important microscopic vegetable life at the surface of the sea, and in their turn serve as food for fishes and other larger forms and thus, indirectly, for man himself.
In the former the bow with vegetable string is the chief weapon, and clothing is woven from palm fibre; in the east spears are found, and in the Welle district swords and throwing-knives also; clothing made from skins also makes its appearance, and more attention is paid to the shades of departed ancestors.
Over a great part of the country the natives manufacture cloth from vegetable fibre.
Geology has made it manifest that our earth must have been the seat of vegetable and animal life for an immense period of time; while the first appearance of man, though comparatively recent, is positively so remote, that an estimate between twenty and a hundred thousand years may fairly be taken as a minimum.
Here three layers of vegetable soil appear, proved by the objects imbedded in them to have been the successive surface soils in two prehistoric periods and in the Roman period, but now lying 4, io and 1q ft.
Meat and vegetable food, such as fern-root, was broiled over the fire, but boiling in a vessel was unknown.
In the sense of a furry growth, consisting of minute fungi found on animal or vegetable substances exposed to damp, the word may be either an extension of "mould," earth, or an adaptation of an early "moul," with an additional d due to "mould."
The vegetable crop in 1899 occupied 24,042 acres, or 3.5% of the acreage of all crops, and its value was 81,250,713, or 15.2% of the value of all crops.
On Gunnison and Hat islands in Great Salt Lake are valuable guano deposits which are used as fertilizers for vegetable gardens.
This oriental Aphrodite was worshipped as the bestower of all animal and vegetable fruitfulness, and under this aspect especially as a goddess of women.
The moon, by its connexion with menstruation, and as the cause of the fertilizing dew, was regarded as exercising an influence over the entire animal and vegetable creation.
During her stay all animal and vegetable productivity ceases, to begin again with her return to earth - a clear indication of the conception of her as a goddess of fertility.
Aphrodite as the goddess of all fruitfulness in the animal and vegetable world is especially prominent.
It occurs in small quantities in sea, river and spring water, and is also widely but very sparingly distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom.
Near Bilma is a small circular oasis, kept green by a fine spring, but immediately to the south begins the most dreary part of the Saharan desert, over which the caravans travel for fifteen days without discovering the slightest trace of vegetable life.
Their life is nomadic, and they are hunters, living upon the flesh of the guanaco, and using only tussock-roots and wild celery for vegetable food.
It is also necessary to animal and vegetable life (see Manure).
It is a tall slender palm, and is the source of the vegetable wax so largely used in some parts of the country in the manufacture of matches, a single stem sometimes yielding 16-20 lb.
Another palm of much economic importance in Colombia is the "tagua" (Phytelephas macrocarpa),which grows abundantly in the valleys of the Magdalena, Atrato and Patia, and produces a large melon-shaped fruit in which are found the extremely hard, fine-grained nuts or seeds known in the commercial world as vegetable ivory.
Friction matches are made from the vegetable wax extracted from the Ceroxylon palm, and are generally used throughout the interior.
The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
There is a fish market in Shadwell, and a vegetable market in Spitalfields.
Scheele; it occurs in the leaves of the bearberry, in pomegranate root-bark, in tea, in gall-nuts to the extent of about 3%, and in other vegetable productions.
Whale-oil is principally used in oiling wools for combing, in batching flax and other vegetable fibres, in currying and chamois leather-making, and as a lubricant for machinery.
Its food consists of vegetable substances, mostly leaves, which it obtains from the forest trees among whose branches it lives and in the hollows of which it deposits its eggs.
Numerous derivatives of isoquinoline are obtained in the decomposition of various vegetable alkaloids.
Needham (1713-1781) that animalcules did not develop in vegetable infusions which had been boiled and were kept in properly closed vessels.
Slow in their movements, and feeding on vegetable substances, they are confined to the neighbourhood of rivers, estuaries or coasts, although there is a possibility of accidental transport by currents across considerable distances.
Substances containing tannic or gallic acid turn black when compounded with a ferric salt, so it cannot be used in combination with vegetable astringents except with the infusion of quassia or calumba.
of the same Izvestia), forming a series of monographs by specialists which deal with separate divisions of the animal and vegetable kingdom (the flora by E.
There are valuable vegetable dye-stuffs, medicinal plants (especially sarsaparilla, copaiba and ipecacuanha), cabinet and building timber (mahogany, &c.), india-rubber, tropical fruits (especially bananas), and various palms; fish are economically important - the name Panama is said to have meant in an Indian dialect " rich in fish " - and on the Pacific coast, oysters and pearl " oysters " (Meleagrina californica) - the headquarters of the pearl fishery is the city of San Miguel on the largest of the Pearl Islands, and Coiba Island.
In 1908 the country's imports were valued at $7,806,811 (vegetable products, $1,879,297; agricultural products, $1,258,900; textiles, $1,187,802; mineral products, $788,069; and wines and liquors, $675,703; the textiles mainly from Great Britain, all other imports largely from the United States); and the exports were valued at $1,757,135 (including vegetable products, mostly bananas, $ 1, 539,395, animal products, $135,207, and mineral products, $79,620), of which $1,587,217 was the value of goods shipped to the United States, $113,038 of goods to Great Britain, and $34,495 to Germany.
The functions of the goddess extended from the vegetable to the animal world, to the inhabitants of the woods and mountains.
Like the Greek Artemis, she was essentially a nature goddess, the great fostermother of the vegetable and animal kingdom.
Another question of great interest, which can only be touched upon here and may fitly close the consideration of this division of the Vegetable Kingdom, concerns the evidence as to the derivation of higher groups from the Pteridophyta.
COVENT GARDEN, formerly an open space north of the Strand, London, England, now occupied by the principal flower, fruit and vegetable market in the metropolis.
On some islands the men collect their hair into small bunches, and carefully bind each bunch round with fine vegetable fibre from the roots up to within about two inches from the end.
The Papuan varies his vegetable diet with the flesh of the wild pig, wallabi and other small animals, which are hunted with dogs.
According to P. P. Semenov, the following vegetable zones may be distinguished on the northern slopes: altitudes of 525-1575 ft.
The plains of Esdraelon, and the Buttauf, and the plateau of el-Ahma are all remarkable for the rich basaltic soil which covers them, in which corn, cotton, maize, sesame, tobacco, millet and various kinds of vegetable are grown, while indigo and sugar-cane were cultivated in former times.
The various decomposing volcanic rocks - tufas, conglomerates and basalts - mingled with decayed vegetable matter, and abundantly watered, form a very fertile soil.
They may be divided into black and red according to the degree of moisture and the vegetable matter which formed them.
Flora.-From the varied character of its climate and soil the vegetable productions of Austria are very diverse.
Their non-employment of skins for clothing is a marked distinction between the Malagasy and the South African races, and their use of vegetable fibres an equally strong link between them and the Polynesian peoples.
" The site now occupied by wide quays extending several miles in length was then entirely covered with water when the sea rose a few inches above ordinary level, and that even in a perfect calm; the banks of the river near the mouth were only indicated by clusters of wretched hovels built on piles and by narrow patches of sand skirted by tall weeds, the only vegetable product of the vast swamps beyond.
Another fertile source of myth is magic, especially the magic designed to produce fertility, vegetable and animal.
It is certainly true that divine beings in most mythologies are apt to acquire solar with other elemental attributes, including vegetable attributes.
But that the origins of such mythical beings were, ab initio, either solar or vegetable, or, for that matter, animal, it would often be hard to prove.
These gods were some in vegetable, some in animal form; some traditions place among these gods Tiki the demiurge, who (like Prometheus) made men out of clay.
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States; Miss Jane Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion; and Frazer, The Golden Bough, especially as regards the vegetable or " probably arboreal ".aspect of Zeus.
Cultivation is almost wholly confined to rice, but there are many vegetable and fruit gardens.
A good sandy loam is common in the Heath division; a sandy loam with chalk, or a flinty loam on chalk marl, abounds on portions of the Wolds; an argillaceous sand, merging into rich loam, lies on other portions of the Wolds; a black loam and a rich vegetable mould cover most of the Isle of Axholme on the north-west; a well-reclaimed marine marsh, a rich brown loam, and a stiff cold clay variously occupy the low tracts along the Humber, and between the north Wolds and the sea; a peat earth, a deep sandy loam, and a rich soapy blue clay occupy most of the east and south Fens; and an artificial soil, obtained by "warping," occupies considerable low strips of land along the tidal reaches of the rivers.
In 1896 some 3196, and by 1905 fully 3300 species had been listed, " representing every branch and nearly every class of the vegetable kingdom " (C. E.
Grasses are perhaps the most noteworthy vegetable forms. Nebraska claims a greater variety of native hay and forage species than grow in any other state of the Union.
the Massoth or feast of unleavened cakes (which marked the beginning of the corn-harvest), and the Asiph (" ingathering," later called succoth, " booths") which marked the close of all the year's ingathering of vegetable products.
The principal exports in 1905 and their values were: wool, £401,958; gold, £187,873; tin and ore, £ 2 57, 2 5 6; silver and ore, £318,971; copper, £569,052; farm, fruit and vegetable products, £477,866; timber, £78,380.
The food of penguins consists of crustaceans, cephalopods and other molluscs, varied by fish and vegetable matter.
The oils and fats are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost all tissues and organs.
The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back.
Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilaginous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For the most part these foreign substances can be removed by processes of refining, but even after this purification they still retain small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat.
The former occurs in all oils and fats of vegetable origin; the latter is characteristic of all oils and fats of animal origin.
This important difference furnishes a method of distinguishing by chemical means vegetable oils and fats from animal oils and fats.
The animal and vegetable fats possess somewhat higher specific gravities, up to 0.930.
In the East, where vegetable oils form an important article of food and serve also for other domestic purposes, various ingenious applications of lever presses and wedge presses, and even of combined lever and wedge presses, have been used from the remotest time.
If care be exercised in the process of rendering animal oils and fats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a rule, sufficiently pure to be delivered to the consumer, after a preliminary settling has allowed any mucilaginous matter, such as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces of moisture, to separate out.
Linolenic acid characterizes all vegetable drying oils; similarly clupanodonic acid characterizes all marine animal oils.
The production of edible fats (margarine, lard compounds, and vegetable butters) has taken root in this country, and bids fair to extend largely.
Vast stores of hard vegetable fats are still practically wasted in tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sunda Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China.
Vegetable waxes appear to be very widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, and occur mostly as a very thin film covering leaves and also fruits.
So far carnaiiba wax is practically the only vegetable wax which is of importance in the world's markets.
The essential, ethereal, or "volatile" oils constitute a very extensive class of bodies, which possess, in a concentrated form, the odour characteristic of the plants or vegetable substances from which they are obtained.
Brannt, Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils (London, 1896); J.
of flake charcoal and vegetable silica, or II of small pumice, are required to give the same protection as 7 in.
In the present article the subject of vegetable palaeontology is treated from a botanical point of view.
The science of botany is concerned with the vegetable kingdom as a whole, and not merely with the flora now living.
The remains of the plants of former periods, which have come down to us in the fossilized state, are almost always fragmentary, and often imperfectly preserved; but their investigation is of the utmost importance to the botanist, as affording the only direct evidence of the past history of vegetable organisms. Since the publication of the Origin of Species the general acceptance of the doctrine of evolution has given a vastly increased significance to palaeontological data.
Before considering the results of palaeobotanical research, some account must be given of the way in which the evidence is presented, or, in other words, of the modes of preservation of vegetable remains.
The great majority of vegetable fossils are of this kind, and the term incrustation is used as a general term to cover all such methods of fossilization.
Langendreer in Westphalia; Ostrau in Moravia), calcareous nodules, crowded with vegetable fragments of every kind, occur in certain mines embedded in the substance of the coal and representing its raw material in a petrified condition..
This is often a difficult task, and generally the fragmentary nature of practically all vegetable fossils is the chief hindrance to their investigation.
Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.
I.-Palaeozoic The present section is concerned with the botany of the Palaeozoic age, from the oldest rocks in which vegetable remains have been found up to the close of the Permian period.
The first evidence for the existence of Palaeozoic Bacteria was obtained in 1879 by Van Tieghem, who found that in silicified vegetable remains from the Coal Measures of St Etienne Bacteria.
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