Her frame was rigid, the table empty.
His body went rigid, and confusion crossed his features.
New Mexico (then including the present Arizona) and Utah were organized without any prohibition of slavery (each being left free to decide for or against, on admission to statehood), and a rigid fugitive slave law was enacted; these were concessions to the South.
Sirian's coldness had never struck her as anything but rigid discipline and cool thinking.
She'd never learned to lie; in fact, she would never dare lie to Mr. Tim, not with his rigid sense of integrity.
Darkyn's frame was rigid and his growl loud.
most European countries, are descendants of the foxhound which have been taught to follow game by general body scent, not by tracking, nose to the ground, the traces left by the feet of the' quarry, and, on approaching within sight of the game, to stand rigid, "pointing" in its direction.
Her shapely, feminine body went rigid beneath his.
4.85 in.); locomotives, maximum weight per axle 6 tons, rigid wheel base 1 .
Darkyn appeared unwelcoming as usual, his frame rigid and his growl loud enough for Gabriel to hear.
She clenched her hands, her arms rigid as she faced him.
Brady and his men paused after two rigid security inspections and being granted permission to enter.
But receiving no orders, he remained for some time in that rigid position.
She suspected both meeting the clan heads and the announcement to be big deals for a people with such rigid traditions, but A'Ran looked as if he were discussing the whereabouts of her translator.
Anger seized me, my fingers refused to move, I sat rigid for one long moment, the blood throbbing in my temples, and all the hatred that a child can feel concentrated in my heart.
We have not had an opportunity of testing this, nor Grubb's more recent models; but, should it be found possible to produce such images satisfactorily, without distortion and with an apparatus convenient and rigid in form, such micrometers may possibly supersede the filar micrometer.
There was a gentle air around the woman, and her large brown eyes lacked the rigid stoniness of her husband's.
She'd never thought desire could conquer her normally rigid self-control.
advent of a rigid and honest statesman would usher in a new era of Italian parliamentary life.
In June 1675 he signed the paper of advice drawn up by the bishops for the king, urging the rigid enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics, their complete banishment from the court, and the suppression of conventicles, 2 and a bill introduced by him imposing special taxes on recusants and subjecting Roman Catholic priests to imprisonment for life was only thrown out as too lenient because it secured offenders from the charge of treason.
We are therefore entitled to assume that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and, speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
One cause of this separation was the rigid adherence to precedent on the part of the common law courts.
Luther was not, like Calvin, a man of rigid system.
The tall youth, with a stony look on his face, and rigid and uplifted arm, stood beside Vereshchagin.
The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.
Rigid leathery leaves are fixed by means of glue, or, if they present too smooth a surface, by stitching at their edges.
Thus the length of the body was limited, for to increase it involved an increase in the length of the rigid wheel base, which was incompatible with smooth and safe running on curves.
Gallatin tried to earn a living by teaching French in Harvard College, apparently not without success, but the cold and rigid civilization of New England repelled him, and he made his way to the South.
In advanced religion, indeed, prayer is the chosen vehicle of the free spirit of worship. Its mechanism is not unduly rigid, and it is largely autonomous, being rid of subservience to other ritual factors.
Stone blocks were tried as sleepers in the early days of railways, but they proved too rigid, and besides, it was found difficult to keep the line true with them.
Mahommed in fact represented a revolt against the anthropomorphism of commonplace Mahommedan orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law.
And even the proposal to apply the unaided reason to solve questions which had divided the fathers must have been resented by the more rigid churchmen as the rash intrusion of an over-confident Rationalism.
As will have been seen, they hold an exalted view of the divinity and work of Christ as the Word become flesh and the Saviour of the world; but they have always shrunk from rigid Trinitarian definitions.
But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.
Two lines may be drawn from this point, one to each of the two rails, in a plane normal to the rails, and the ends of these lines, where they meet the rails, may be joined to complete a triangle, which may conveniently be regarded as a rigid frame resting on the rails.
For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
The rigid regulations for admission to their ranks were soon relaxed: at the close of the Persian war in 1590 their total amounted to 50,000.
In regard to fencing and precautions at level-crossings, less rigid requirements may be enforced than with standard railways; and in some cases where trains are likely to be few, it has been provided that the normal position of the gates at crossings shall be across the line.
They are rigid non-resistants, and will not bear arms or study the art of war; they refuse to take oaths, and discountenance going to law over issues that can possibly be settled out of the courts.
The most strongly distinguishing feature of the code is the rigid exclusion of the worship of other gods than Yahweh.
Overlooking all smaller details, we may consider Asia to consist of a northern mass and a southern mass, too rigid to crumple, but not too strong to fracture, and an intermediate belt of softer rock which was capable of folding.
Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.
By rigid precedence the Brahmans occupy the first rank; they are numerous and influential, and with them may be classed the peculiar and important caste of Bhats, the keepers of secular tradition and of the genealogies.
Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
In public he maintained a bearing of rigid solemnity, and was seen to laugh only three times in the course of his life.
Broadly speaking, the " smaller body" is characterized by a rigid adherence to old forms of dress and speech, to a disapproval of music and art, and to an insistence on the " Inward Light " which, at times, leaves but little room for the Scriptures or the historic Christ, although with no definite or intended repudiation of them.
Don't be so rigid.
Jenn's whole body went rigid.
He stayed where he was, rigid.
l ' so that over the surface of an ellipsoid where X and ¢ are constant, the normal velocity is the same as that of the ellipsoid itself, moving as a solid with velocity parallel to Ox U = -q, - 2 (a2+X) dtP, and so the boundary condition is satisfied; moreover, any ellipsoidal surface X may be supposed moving as if rigid with the velocity in (I I), without disturbing the liquid motion for the moment.
These theorems, which hold for the motion of a single rigid body, are true generally for a flexible system, such as considered here for a liquid, with one or more rigid bodies swimming in it; and they express the statement that the work done by an impulse is the product of the impulse and the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocity; so that the kinetic energy is the work done by the impulse in starting the motion from rest.
On the way home Alex was unusually quiet, his lips a thin line and his jaw rigid.
These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."
The Ars magna of the former professed by means of a species of logical machine to give a rigid demonstration of all the fundamental Christian doctrines, and was intended by its author as an unfailing instrument for the conversion of the Saracens and heathen.
Beyond appearing at the meetings of learned societies he took little part in public affairs; he lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
Thus, to refer again to the acoustical analogue in which plane waves are incident upon a perforated rigid screen, the circumstances of the case are best represented by the first method of resolution, leading to symmetrical secondary waves, in which the normal motion is supposed to be zero over the unperforated parts.
Bog-asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum), a member of the same family, is a small herb common in boggy places in Britain, with rigid narrow radical leaves and a stem bearing a raceme of small golden yellow flowers.
Yet in spite of the wealth which the industry of the Uitlanders was creating, a policy of rigid political exclusion and restriction was adopted towards them.
Rock-filling yields and becomes consolidated under heavy pressure, and therefore does not furnish a rigid support of the overlying strata, but rather a cushion to control and equalize the subsidence.
The use of the heavy timbers and continuous framing which characterize this system facilitates greatly the work of mining and maintaining the haulage roads on the different floors, and gives more rigid support to the unmined portions of the block of ground above.
between two rigid parallel arms, projecting forwards and backwards and sloping slightly from back to front.
By analogy with the spin of a rigid body, the component spin of the fluid in any plane at a point is defined as the circulation round a small area in the plane enclosing the point, divided by twice the area.
For in a rigid body, rotating about Oz with angular velocity the circulation round a curve in the plane xy is x ds yds) ds = times twice the area.
An opponent of church government in any form, he was no friend to the rigid and tyrannical Presbyterianism of the day, and inclined to Independency and Cromwell's party.
She was escorted with great ceremony to Moscow in 1728 and exhibited to the people attired in the splendid, old-fashioned robes of a tsaritsa; but years of rigid seclusion had dulled her wits, and her best friends soon convinced themselves that a convent was a much more suitable place for her than a throne.
Caspar Koolhaes, the heroic minister of Leiden - its first lecturer, too, in divinity - pleaded against a too rigid uniformity, for such an agreement on "fundamentals" as had allowed Reformed, Lutherans and Anabaptists to unite.
In the case of all quasi-public corporations rigid laws exist prohibiting the issue of stock or bonds unless the par value is first paid in; prohibiting the declaration of any stock or scrip dividend, and requiring that new stock shall be offered to stockholders at not less than its market value, to be determined by the proper state officials, any shares not so subscribed for to be sold by public auction.
But religious liberty in our modern sense they did not seek for themselves, nor accord to others; they abhorred it, they trampled on it, and their own lives they subjected to all the rigid restrictions to which they subjected others.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
Dorsey, again, draws a distinction between lore narratives, which can be rehearsed without fasting or prayer, and rituals which require the most rigid preparation.
In this sight both hind and fore sights are fixed on a rigid bar pivoted about the centre; the rear end is raised or depressed by a rack worked by a hand-wheel; ranges are read from the periphery of a drum; the fore-sight and leaf of the hind-sight are provided with small electric glow lamps for night firing.
He held the most rigid views on the sanctity of marriage and against easy divorce, and vehemently defended them in controversies with Robert Dale Owen and others.
It was for defence, sometimes partial and elastic, sometimes rigid and " at-all-costs," that he had made his dispositions throughout.
The arch ring can be treated as a blockwork structure composed of rigid voussoirs.
Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
Three cases therefore arise: (a) The arch is rigid at crown and springings; (b) the arch is two-hinged (hinges at springings); (c) the arch is three-hinged (hinges at crown and springings).
- A frame is a rigid structure composed of straight struts and ties.
This frame will be rigid, i.e.
The bishop consented and promised a small pension; and in August 1495 Erasmus entered the "domus pauperum" of the college of Montaigu, which was then under the somewhat rigid rule of the reformer Jan Standonck.
Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.
He was as lenient with the offences iof the orthodox as he was rigid in suppressing heresy and schism.
After Luther's death the more rigid Lutherans declared it to be their duty to preserve the status religionis in Germania per Lutherum instauratus, and to watch over the depositum Jesu Christi which he had committed to their charge.
Whereupon the more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of the idea of ubiquity.
to combine two different confessions under one common government, and, resulting from it, the possibility of changing from one confession to another, have all combined to free the state churches from any rigid interpretation of their theological formulas.
In doctrine the church is Calvinistic, but its preachers are far from being rigid in this particular, being warmly evangelical, and, in general, distinctly cultured.
His reactionary conservative temper was in complete harmony with the views of Bismarck and the emperor William, and with their powerful support he attempted, in defiance of modern democratic principles and even of the spirit of the constitution, to re-establish the old Prussian system of rigid discipline from above.
Fasts are long and rigid.
The rigid line between fact or fiction in religious literature, which readers often wish to draw, cannot be consistently justified, and in studying old Oriental religious narratives it is necessary to realize that the teaching was regarded as more essential than the method of presenting it.
This is not the place to notice the course of Jewish literary activity in Palestine or Alexandria, whether along the more rigid lines of Pharisaic legalism (the development of the canonical " priestly " law), or the popular and less scholastic phases, which recall the earlier apocalyptical tendencies of the Old Testament and were cultivated alike by early Jewish and Christian writers.
By some rigid Moslems these rulers were regarded as only amirs, not caliphs.
He had well employed the short time at his disposal for training his men, and on the first field of Bull Run they won for themselves and their brigadier, by their rigid steadiness at the critical moment of the battle, the historic name of "Stonewall."
A rigid monotheism appeared to Plotinus a miserable conception.
The book, it is true, is not framed on a rigid mould, nor is there any parade of systematic divisions and subdivisions.
His refusal to subscribe unconditionally to the rigid formula of belief adopted by the theologians of Tubingen permanently closed against him the gates of his alma mater.
The twigs are densely clothed with flat spreading linear leaves of a fine glossy green above and glaucous beneath; in the old trees they become shorter and more rigid and partly lose their distichous habit.
The leaves of this species are awl-shaped, short and rigid, with pointed apex; closely adpressed, they completely cover the branchlets.
The young tree is more formal and rigid in growth than S.
When the horse is in motion the hands should not be held rigid, as the horse's mouth would thereby become dead, and the horse would lean unpleasantly on the hand; but the rider should give and take, without, however, entirely relaxing the hold.
In the American Union, and in every state of the Union, there exists a documentary or rigid constitution, creating and defining the powers o~ every authority in the government.
Should the people wish to confer them, they would have to do so by way of amending the Constitution; and herein lies a remarkable difference between the American system on the one hand and those of some European countries on the other, which, although they have created rigid constitutions, do not expressly debar the legislature from using any and every power of government.
Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in large numbers, all owing allegiance to the "archabbot," established at Cluny.
The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected by them.
It was his desire to unite the enthusiasm cf primitive Christianity with intelligent thought, the original demands of the Gospel with every letter of the Scriptures and with the practice of the Roman church, the sayings of the Paraclete with the authority of the bishops, the law of the churches with the freedom of the inspired, the rigid discipline of the Montanist with all the utterances of the New Testament and with the arrangements of a church seeking to set itself up within the world.
Lucceius, who was of the party of Caesar; and bribery was freely used, with the approval of even the rigid Cato (Suetonius, Caesar, 9), to secure his election.
The leaves are short, thicker and more rigid than in any of the other larches; the cones are much larger than those of the hackmatacks, egg-shaped or oval in outline; the scales are of a fine red in the immature state, the bracts green and extending far beyond the scales in a rigid leaf-like point.
strong, stern, able, devoted woman of the old Puritan school, Calvinist in religion, unsparing of herself and others, rigid in her ideas of duty, proud, reserved and ungracious.
The child was brought up under a rigid system of nursing, physical, moral and intellectual; kept without toys, not seldom whipped, watched day and night, but trained from infancy in music, drawing, reading aloud and observation of natural objects.
general concurrence, though the years that have passed since Unto this Last appeared have seen the practical overthrow of the rigid plutonomy which he denounced.
Such an instrument consists of a triangular prism set with its refracting edge vertical on a rigid platform attached to a massive stand.
Instead of plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid economy (hence the nickname Kv'Avowpicmis, " cummin-splitter").
From Wittenberg he fled, April 1549, to Magdeburg, making it the headquarters of rigid Lutheranism.
wall, straight and rigid, towering above all surrounding hills, from the mass of mountains which overlook Kabul on the south-east to the frontiers of India, and preserving a strike which - being more or less perpendicular to the border line - is in strange contrast to the usual conformation of frontier ridge and valley.
But Huygens's most important contribution to the subject was his investigation, published in 1673, of the motion of a rigid pendulum of any form.
This is the earliest example of a theoretical investigation of the rotation of rigid bodies.
Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates" was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever.
maintained its rigid austerity, till in the course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its members sank into indolence and luxury.
The patient is then seized with violent convulsions of a tetanic character; the arms are stretched out, respiration impeded, the muscles are rigid, the body is thrown into opisthotonos, i.e.
When disturbed the soles raise this black fin and, as a rule, hold it rigid so that it becomes a very conspicuous object.
Provided it be rigid, the bed-plate of an engine is no better for weighing 30 cwt.
The fur differs from the overhair, in that it is soft, silky, curly, downy and barbed lengthwise, while the overhair is straight, smooth and comparatively rigid.
Generally they have coarse rigid hair and none possess any underwool.
more than the heaviest of coat-furs, and is so rigid as to be uncomfortable, while the subtileness of fur makes it "kind" to the body.
The function of the veins which consist of vessels and fibres is to form a rigid framework for the leaf and to conduct liquids.
His temper was hot, kept under rigid control; his disposition tender, gentle and loving, with flashing scorn and indignation against all that was ignoble and impure; he was a good husband, father and friend.
Henry Thrale, one of the most opulent brewers in the kingdom, a man .of sound and cultivated understanding, rigid principles, and liberal spirit, was married to one of those clever, kind-hearted, engaging, vain, pert young women who are perpetually doing or saying what is not exactly right, but who, do or say what they may, are always agreeable.
In this year, however, a rigid protective system was introduced by the Zolltarifgesetz, since modified by the commercial treaties between Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, of the 1st of February 1892, and by a customs tariff law of the 25th of December 1902.
Since 1817 the distinction has accordingly been ignored in Prussia, and Christians are there enumerated only as Evangelical or Roman Catholic. Theunion, however, has not remained wholly unopposeda section of the more rigid Lutherans who separated themselves from the state church being now known as Old Lutherans.
electoral Saxony re-established a rigid Lutheranism at home and pursued a policy of moderation and neutrality abroad.
The extravagance of Frederick drained the resources of his state, but this was amply atoned for by the rigid economy of Frederick William I., who not only paid off the debts accumulated by his father, but amassed an enormous treasure.
1 Subsequent pontiffs continued to exhort the episcopate and the whole body of the faithful to be on their guard against heretical writings, whether old or new; and one of the functions of the Inquisition when it was established was to exercise a rigid censorship over books put in circulation.
2 The peril from the independent growth of Liberalism within was guarded against by a rigid supervision of the press and the re-establishment of clerical control over education.
There was no element of heresy in his creed, which was mainly distinguished by a rigid formalism and strict obedience to the letter of the Koran and the orthodox tradition or Sunna.
By the exercise of the most rigid economy in all branches this end was attained, though budgetary equilibrium was only secured by a variety of financial expedients, justified by the vital importance of saving Egypt from further international interference.
Here already more or less rigid groups of chapters may be noted, but individual manuscripts differ greatly in what they include and exclude.
(C) In some tombs painting only was used, and it followed the general character of the relief treatment, being more rigid, detailed, and scholastic than the older style.
A rigid censorship was exercised concerning the publication of information as to the production of munitions, measures of defence, bombardments, air raids, arrests, trials and executions of spies, etc.
It renders the truth of any time relative to the knowledge of the time, and precludes the notion of any rigid, static or incorrigible truth.
As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race - as in the case of the English - is itself ecumenical.
The emperor's rough and severe habits and his rigid administration prompted Antiochene lampoons, to which he replied in the curious satiric apologia, still extant, which he called Misopogon.
The previous treatment of the motion of a rigid body had in every case been purely analytical, and so gave no aid to the formation of a mental picture of the body's motion; and the great value of this work lies in the fact that, as Poinsot himself says in the introduction, it enables us to represent to ourselves the motion of a rigid body as clearly as that of a moving point.
In his administration of the war office Stanton was vigorous, rigid, and often harsh, and his peremptory manner, in speech and correspondence, was the cause of considerable friction between the war department and the generals, one of the last and most conspicuous instances being his controversy with General Sherman over the terms of surrender granted to J.
In the course of 1833 he was chosen a member of the consistory, and rapidly acquired the reputation of a great pulpit orator, but his liberal views brought him into antagonism with the rigid Calvinists.
The peculiar form of the tube is eminently suited for rigid preservation of the relative parallelism of the axes of the two telescopes, so that,;i the image of a certain selected star is retained on the intersection of two wires of the micrometer, by means of the driving clock, aided by small corrections given by the observer in right ascension and declination (required on account of irregularity in the clock movement, error in astronomical adjustment of the polar axis, or changes in the star's apparent place produced by refraction), the image of a star will continue on the same spot of the photographic film during the whole time of exposure.
For Diatomic Or Compound Gases Clerk Maxwell Supposed That The Molecule Would Also Possess Energy Of Rotation, And Endeavoured To Prove That In This Case The Energy Would Be Equally Divided Between The Six Degrees Of Freedom, Three Of Translation And Three Of Rotation, If The Molecule Were Regarded As A Rigid Body Incapable Of Vibration Energy.
Boltzmann Suggested That A Diatomic Molecule Regarded As A Rigid Dumb Bell Or Figure Of Rotation, Might Have Only Five Effective Degrees Of Freedom, Since The Energy Of Rotation About The Axis Of Symmetry Could Not Be Altered By Collisions Between The Molecules.
For A Rigid Molecule On This Theory The Smallest Value Possible Would Be 4/3.
He marks, indeed, a stage of transition from the older Platonizing philosophy to the later and more rigid scholasticism.
The Koreans are rigid monogamists, but concubinage has a recognized status.
Korean ancient history is far from satisfying the rigid demands of modern criticism, but it appears that Ki-tze's dynasty ruled the peninsula until the 4th century B.C., from which period until the 10th century A.D.
In other words, if the system (considered as rigid) be made to turn about till the first factor coincides with i and the second with j, the product will coincide with k.
Also, everything relating to change of systems of axes, as for instance in the kinematics of a rigid system, where we have constantly to consider one set of rotations with regard to axes fixed in space, and another set with regard to axes fixed in the system, is a matter of troublesome complexity by the usual methods.
In 1617 Virginia fell into the hands of a rigid Puritan, Captain Samuel Argall.
At a later stage in our subject the conception of the ideal rigid body is introduced; this enables us to fill in some details which were previously wanting, but others are still omitted.
the earlier stages of our subject this may be any rigid, or apparently rigid, structure fixed relatively to the earth.
Plane kinematics of a rigid body.
Three-dimensional kinematics of a rigid body.
Kinetics of a rigid body.
Plane Kinematics of a Rigid Body.The ideal rigid body, is one in which the distance between any two points is invariable.
may in general be fixed by connecting any three points of it by rigid links to three fixed points in its plane.
Plane Stalics.The statics of a rigid body rests on the following two assumptions:
In structural applications a frame must be stiff, or rigid, i.e.
It is said to be just rigid if it ceases to be rigid when any one of its bars is removed.
When a plane frame which is just rigid is subject to a given system of equilibrating extraneous forces (in its own plane) acting on the joints, the stresses in the bars are in general uniquely determinate.
A frame of n joints and vi 3 bars may of course fail to be rigid owing to some parts being over-stiff whilst others are deformable; in such a case it will be found that the statical equations, apart from the thre identical relations imposed by the equilibrium of the extraneous forces, are not all independent but are equivalent to less thar 2,13 relations.
A plane frame which can be built up from a single bar by suc cessive steps, at each of which a new joint is introduced by tw new bars meeting there, is called a simple frame; it is obviously just rigid.
When a frame, though just rigid, is not simple in the above sense, the preceding method must be replaced, or supplemented, by one or other of various artifices.
~ Three-dimensional Kinematics of a Rigid Body.The position of a rigid body is determined when we know the positions of three points A, B, C of it which are not colljnear, for the position of any other point P is then determined by the three distances PA, PB, PC. The nine co-ordinates (Cartesian or other) of A, B, C are subject to the three relations which express the invariability of the distances BC, CA, AB, and are therefote equivalent to six independent quantities.
Hence a rigid body not constrained in any way is said to have six degrees of freedom.
Again, a rigid three-dimensional frame can be rigidly fixed relatively to the earth by means of six links.
The six independent quantities, or co-ordinates, which serve to specify the position of a rigid body in space may of course be chosen in an endless variety of ways.
We proceed to sketch the theory of the finite displacements of a rigid body.
It follows from Eulers theorem that the most general displacement of a rigid body may be effected by a pure translation which brings any one point of it to its final position 0, followed by a pure rotation about some axis through 0.
It thus appears that an infinitesimal rotation is of the nature of a localized vector, and is subject in all respects to the same mathematical Jaws as a force, conceived as acting on a rigid body.
We have seen that a rigid structure may in general be rigidly connected with the earth by six links, and it now appears that any system of forces acting on the structure can in general be balanced by six determinate forces exerted by the links.
There is a corresponding kinematic peculiarity, in that the connection is now not strictly rigid, an infinitely small relative displacement being possible.
If we imagine a rigid body to be acted on at given points by forces of given magnitudes in directions (not all parallel) which are fixed in space, then as the body is turned about the resultant wrench will assume different configurations in the body, and will in certain positions reduce to a single force.
In the same way, the work dne by a force acting on a rigid body in any infinitely small displacement of the body is the scalar product of the force into the displacement of any point on the line of action.
The total work done by two concurrent forces acting on a particle, or on a rigid body, in any infinitely small displacement, is equal to the work of their resultant.
It follows from the preceding statements that any two systems of forces which are statically equivalent, according to the principles of ~ 4, 8, will (to the first order of small quantities) do the same amount of work in any infinitely small displacement of a rigid body to which they may be applied.
The work of a couple in any infinitely small rotation of a rigid body about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the couple is equal to the product of the moment of the couple into the angle of rotation, proper conventions as to sign being observed.
Considering a rigid body in any given position, we may eontemplate the whole group of infinitesimal displacements which might be given to it.
Conversely, we can show that if the, virtual work of the extraneous forces be zero for every infinitesimal displacement of the body as rigid, these forces must be in equilibrium.
The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.
A general criterion for the case of a rigid body movable in two dimensions, with one degree of freedom, can be obtained as follows.
In particular, in the case of a frame which is just rigid, the principle enables us to find the stress in any one bar independently of the rest.
The method is specially appropriate B S< S when the frame, although just rigid, is ~ D not simple in the sense of 6, and when accordingly the method of reciprocal figures is not immediately available.
We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.
We may note that a frame of n joints which is just rigid must have 3116 bars; and that the stresses produced in such a frame by a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium are statically determinate, subject to the exception of critical forms.
It follows that the forces on any finite portion will satisfy the conditions of equilibrium which apply to the case of a rigid body (~ 4).
Kinetics of a Rigid Body.
In the case of a rigid body we must suppose that those forces adjust themselves so as to preserve the mutual distances of the various particles unaltered.
It is to be noticed that the preceding statements are not intended to be restricted to rigid bodies; they are assumed to hold for all material systems whatever.
The increase of the kinetic energy of a rigid body in any interval of time is equal to the work done by the extraneous forces acting on the body.
The statement may be extended to a system of rigid bodies, provided the mutual reactions consist of the stresses in inextensible links, or the pressures between smooth surfaces, or the reactions at rolling contacts (~ 9).
Proceeding to the general motion of a rigid body in two dimensions we may take as the three co-ordinates of the body the rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates x, y of the mass-centre G and the angle C through which the body has turned from some standard position.
The equation of energy for a rigid body has already been stated (in effect) as a corollary from fundamental assumptions.
The motion of a rigid body in the most general case may be specified by means of the component velocities u, v, w of any point 0 of it which is taken as base, and the component angular velocities p, q, r.
Moving A xes of ReferenceFor the more general treatment of the kinetics of a rigid body it is usually convenient to adopt a system of moving axes.
The moving axes Ox, Oy, 01 form a rigid frame of reference whose motion at time t may be specified by the three component angular velocities p, q, r.
If we now apply them to the case of a rigid body moving about a fixed point 0, and make Ox, Oy, Oz coincide with the principal axes of inertia at 0, we have X, u, v=Ap, Bq, Cr, whence A (B C) qr = L,
ed., Cambridge, 1896), Dynamics of a Particle (Cambridge, 1898), Rigid Dynamics (6th ed., Cambridge 1905); G.
Division 3.Motion of a rigid solid.
Motion of a Rigid Solid.
This being the case, the various possible motions of a rigid solid body may all be classed under the following heads: (I) Shifting or Translation; (2) Turning or Rotation; (3) Motions compounded of Shifting and Turning.
This is the principle of the modification of motion by the lever, which consists of a rigid body turning about a fixed axis called a fulcrum, and having two points at the same or different distances from that axis, and in the same or different directions, one of which receives motion and the other transmits motion, modified in direction and velocity according to the above law.
Velocity Ratio of Components of Motion.As the distance between any two points in a rigid body is invariable, the projections of their velocities upon the line joining them must be equal.
90 be a point in a rigid F body CD, rotating round the fixed axis c, a ~ F, the component of the velocity of A
And from this, and from the property of a rigid body, already stated in 29, it follows, that the components along a is ne of connection of all the points traversed by that line, whether -in the driver or in the follower, are equal; and consequently, that the velocities of any pair of points traversed by a line of connection are to each other inversely as the cosines, or directly as the secants, of the angles made by the paths of those points with the line of connection.
respectively; E1E1 a bar sliding in a diametral groove in the face of Di; E2E, a bar sliding in a diametral groove in the face of Di: those bars are fixed together at A, so as to form a rigid cross.
The link by which they are connected is a rigid rod or bar, which may be straight or of any other figure; the straight figure being the most favorable to strength, is always used when there is no special reason to the contrary.
Comparative Motion of Connected Points.As the link is a rigid body, it is obvious that its action in communicating motion may be determined by finding the comparative motion of the connected points, and this is often the -most convenient method of proceeding.
(I) to produce aggregate velocity, or a velocity which is the resultant of two or more components in the same path, and (2) to produce an aggregate paththat is, to make a given point in a rigid body move in an assigned path by communicating certain motions to other points in that body.
A kinematic link of the simplest form is made by joining up the halves of two kinematic pairs by means of a rigid link.
Thus if A1B1 represent a turning pair, and A5B1 a second turning pair, the rigid link formed by joining Bl to B2 is a kinematic link.
If B atops rolling, then the two cylinders continue to move as though they were parts of a rigid body.
The mode of distribution of a force applied to a solid body requires to be considered when its stiffness and strength are treated of; but, in questions respecting the action of a force upon a rigid body considered as a whole, the resultant of the distributed force, determined according to the principles of statics, and considered as acting in a single line and applied at a single point, may, for the occasion, be substituted for the force as really distributed.
It is only certain that at this epoch the fabric of Catholic faith was threatened with various forms of prophetic and Oriental mysticism, symptomatic of a widespread desire to grasp at something simpler, purer and less rigid than Latin theology afforded.
These and other reasons, notably the manufacture of much fictitious wine with the aid of sugar (fortunately stopped by the rigid new wine laws), led to the grave wine crisis, which almost amounted to a revolution in the Midi in the spring and summer of 1907.
It remained for him, however, to submit them to a rigid analysis and reduce them to a logical form.
The rigid adherents to the synod of Dort accused them of Pelagianism, and even of Manichaeism, and the controversy between the parties was carried on with great zeal; yet the whole question between them was only, whether the will of man is determined by the immediate action of God upon it, or by the intervention of a knowledge which God impresses on the mind.
The Resolutioners, or supporters of the resolution to rescind that act, were opposed by the Protesters, the rigid adherents to the strictest interpretation of the Covenant.
His theological position was that of a mild and large-hearted orthodoxy, which laid more stress upon Christian experience than upon rigid dogmatic belief.
His Catholicism, however, was of a less rigid type than Gardiner's and Bonner's; he felt something of the force of the national antipathy to foreign influence, whether ecclesiastical or secular, and was always impressed by the necessity of national unity, so far as was possible, in matters of faith.
This block gave a more rigid platen, and at the same time ensured a more equal motion to the screw when actuated by the bar-handle.
Great strength is imparted to the frame, and the type bed is particularly rigid.
A rigid orthodoxy is sustained by means of purblind imitation assisted by no little persecution.
Of other papers in which he dealt with this and kindred branches of physics may be mentioned "Observations with a Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal Radiation in Uniaxal Crystals."
In the 18th century many of the General Baptists gradually adopted the Arian, or, perhaps, the Socinian theory; whilst, on the other hand, the Calvinism of the Particular Baptists in many of the churches became more rigid, and approached or actually became Antinomianism.
As a means of preserving harmony the Philadelphia Confession of Faith, a Calvinistic document, with provision against too rigid a construction, was adopted and a step was thus taken toward harmonizing with the "Regular" Baptists of the Philadelphia type.
In some the rakes are attached to rigid frames, with a reciprocating motion, in others to cross-bars moved by revolving chains.
Knox was even more clearly in this case the chief author, and he had by this time come to desire a much more rigid Presbyterianism than he had sketched in his "Wholesome Counsel" of 1555.
The amount of revenue accruing to the Crown from the whole Reduktion it is impossible to estimate even approximately; but by these means, combined with the most careful management and the most rigid economy, Charles XI.
His eloquence gained him a hearing and a numerous following, including many laymen, but consisting principally of poor ecclesiastics, who formed around him a party characterized by a rigid morality and not unlike the Lombard Patarenes of the 11th century.
The foliage much resembles that of the Scotch fir, but is shorter, denser and more rigid; the cones are smaller but similar in form.
The black pine, P. austriaca, generally now regarded as a variety of P. Laricio, derives its name from the extreme depth of its foliage tints - the sharp, rigid, rather long leaves of a dark green hue giving a sombre aspect to the tree.
in diameter, and weighing more than 4 lb); the scales end in long hooked points curving upwards; the leaves are long, rigid, and glaucous in hue.
It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.
The substance which determines the form of a column of air is demonstrabl y indifferent for the timbre or quality of tone so long as the sides of the tubes are equally elastic and rigid.
In South Africa there is a rigid and universal application of the principle of registration.
No details of the earlier history of Thebes have been preserved, except that it was governed by a land-holding aristocracy who safeguarded their integrity by rigid statutes about the ownership of property and its transmission.
These again have been connected by links of more or less regularity, so that, if the Baluchistan triangulation lacks the rigid accuracy of a " first class " system, it at least supports good topography on geographical scales.
Two lines in the poem suggest that the satirist, who inveighed with just severity against the worst corruptions of Roman morals, was not too rigid a censor of the morals of his friend.
The tangential pressures which are known to be set up in the earth's crust - either by the contraction of the interior or in some other way - caused the deposits of this sea to be crushed up against the rigid granites and other old rocks of the peninsula and finally led to the whole mass being pushed forward over the edge of the part which did not crumple.
One thing is certain: the Stoics provided no loophole of escape by entrenching upon the " purely material " nature of matter; they laid down with rigid accuracy its two chief properties - extension in three dimensions, and resistance, both being traced back to force.
Its chief employment was to lay things bare and sever them from their surroundings, in order that they might be contemplated in their simplicity, with rigid exactness, as objects of thought, apart from the illusion and exaggeration that attends them when presented to sense and imagination.
Even then it remains to give the will that property of rigid infallibility without which we are always liable to err, and this must be effected by the training of the judgment.
No case' of so-called " spontaneous generation " has withstood rigid investigation; but the discussion contributed to more exact ideas as to the ubiquity, minuteness, and high powers of resistance to physical agents of the spores of Schizomycetes, and led to more exact ideas of antiseptic treatments.
(a) Filaments rigid, non-motile, sheathed: - Crenothrix (Cohn), filaments unbranched and devoid of sulphur particles; Thiothrix (Winogr.), as before, but with sulphur particles; Cladothrix (Cohn), filaments branched in a pseudo-dichatomous manner.
His private life and public career were marked by the utmost integrity, and by a rigid austerity which earned him the name of the "iron baron."
Occam was a sincere Franciscan, and believed with his master that salvation was won through rigid imitation of Jesus in His poverty and obedience, and up to his days it had always been possible for Franciscans to follow the rules of their founder within his order.'
In order to meet these peculiarities the travelling organs of aquatic and flying animals (whether they be feet, fins, flippers or wings) are made not of rigid but of elastic materials.
Although the third order of lever is particularly inefficient when the fulcrum is rigid and immobile, it possesses singular advantages when these conditions are reversed, that is, when the fulcrum, as happens with the air, is elastic and yielding.
The natural kite formed by the wing differs from the artificial kite only in this, that the former is capable of being moved in all its parts, and is more or less flexible and elastic, whereas the latter is comparatively rigid.
A rigid wing can never be an effective flying instrument.
This author, distinguished alike as a physiologist, mathematician and mechanician, describes and figures a bird with artificial wings, each of which consists of a rigid rod in front and flexible feathers behind.
There are three points in Borelli's argument to which it is necessary to draw attention: (r) the direction of the down stroke: it is stated to be vertically downwards; (2) the construction of the anterior margin of the wing: it is stated to consist of a rigid rod; (3) the function delegated to the posterior margin of the wing: it is said to yield in an upward direction during the down stroke.
If the anterior margins of natural and artificial wings were rigid, it would be impossible to make them vibrate smoothly and continuously.
If a rigid rod, or a wing with a rigid anterior margin, be made to vibrate, the vibration is characterized by an unequal jerky motion, at the end of the down and up strokes, which contrasts strangely with the smooth, steady fanning movement peculiar to natural wings.
Borelli's artificial wing, it will be remembered, consists of a rigid rod in front and a flexible sail behind.
In his theology of nature he describes a schematic wing as consisting of a rigid ribbing in front, and a flexible sail behind.
He describes two artificial wings, the one composed of a rigid rod and sail - the rod representing the stiff anterior margin of the wing; the sail, which is made of paper bordered with cardboard, the flexible posterior margin.
The other wing consists of a rigid nervure in front and behind of thin parchment which supports fine rods of steel.
On the anterior margin the extended nervures make it rigid, while behind it is fine and flexible.
During the vigorous depression of the wing, the nervure has the power of remaining rigid, whereas the flexible portion, being pushed in an upward direction on account of the resistance it experiences from the air, assumes an oblique position which causes the upper surface of the wing to look forwards."
r e, Anterior margin of the right wing,consisting of a rigid rod.
No part of it is rigid.
All the models referred to (Cayley's excepted') were provided with rigid screws.
In 1872 Penaud discarded the rigid screws in favour of elastic ones, as Pettigrew had done some years before.
from 1 Cayley's screws, as explained, were made of feathers, and consequently elastic. As, however, no allusion is made in his writings to the superior advantages possessed by elastic over rigid screws, it is to be presumed that feathers were employed simply for convenience and lightness.
De Villeneuve made the wings of his artificial bat conical in shape and comparatively rigid.
They were all constructed on a common principle, and were provided with extensive flying surfaces in the shape of rigid aeroplanes inclined at an upward angle to the horizon, and more or less fixed on the plan advocated by Henson.
The backbone was a light but very rigid tube of aluminium steel, 15 ft.
Nardus stricta (matweed), found on heaths and dry pastures, is a small perennial with slender rigid stem and leaves, it is a useless grass, crowding out better sorts.
The Indian government failed to take sufficient account of the social and religious feelings of their native soldiers, whilst a rigid insistence on the principle of seniority had greatly diminished the efficiency of the British regimental officers.
from Delhi, was an important military station, under the command of Colonel Archdale Wilson: the district was commanded by General Hewitt, one of the old and inefficient officers whom the rigid system of The outbreak at seniority had placed in so many high commands.
It must not only be strong enough to sustain all possible vertical loads, but it must be sufficiently rigid to resist without deformation or weakening all lateral disturbing forces, the principal of which are the pressure of wind, the possible sway of moving crowds or moving machinery, and the vibration of the earth from the passage of loaded vans and trolleys, and slight earthquakes which at times visit almost all localities.
In buildings wide in proportion to their height it is the ordinary practice to make the floors sufficiently rigid to transfer the lateral strains to the walls, and to brace the wall framings to resist them.
In cases in which the lateral rigidity of the floors is depended upon to transfer the horizontal strains to the exterior walls which are framed to resist them, no form of floor construction should be used which is not laterally strong and rigid.
The utter exclusion of Whigs as well as Dissenters from office, the remodelling of the army, the imposition of the most rigid restraints on the heir to the throne - such were the measures which, by recommending, Swift tacitly admitted to be necessary to the triumph of his party.
The secret of success, here as elsewhere, is the writer's marvellous imperturbability in paradox, his teeming imagination and his rigid logic. Grant his premises, and all the rest follows; his world may be turned topsy-turvy, but the relative situation of its contents is unchanged.
The worst that can be laid to his charge is that he had a great liking for some diversions, quite harmless in themselves, but condemned by the rigid precisians among whom he lived, and for whose opinion he had a great respect.
In the 6th century, his statues of stone were naked, stiff and rigid in attitude, shoulders square, limbs strong and broad, hair falling down the back.
Between 1754 and 1764 he published a series of theological treatises, their main tendency being to modify the rigid scholastic system by an appeal to the Fathers, notably Augustine; from 1759 to 1762 he travelled in Germany, Italy and France, mainly with a view to examining the collections of documents in the various monastic libraries.
He afterwards spent a year in Geneva, and was powerfully influenced by the strict moral life and rigid ecclesiastical discipline prevalent there, and also by the preaching and the piety of the Waldensian professor, Antoine Leger, and the converted Jesuit preacher, Jean de Labadie.
1 During a stay in Tubingen he read Grossgebauer's Alarm Cry, and in 1666 he entered upon his first pastoral charge at Frankfort-on-the-Main, profoundly impressed with a sense of the danger of the Christian life being sacrificed to zeal for rigid orthodoxy.
Benjamin (American Machinist, 1898) on castiron pulleys loaded by a belt to imitate the conditions in practice led him to the conclusion that the rim is usually not sufficiently rigid to load the arms equally, and that the ends of the arms are subjected to bending movements of opposite sign, that at the nave being almost invariably the greater.
But the result of a rigid application of this principle would be that the calculation of the cost of 3 1B of tea at 2s.
are either incorporated in, or pressed below, the tegmen by interambulacrals; all thecal plates united by suture, somewhat loose in the earliest forms, but speedily becoming close, and producing a rigid theca; mouth and tegminal food-grooves closed; arms pinnulate.
The rigid conservatism that resulted from this attitude served, indeed, a useful purpose in giving weight to Castlereaghs counsels in the European concert; for Metternich at least, wholly occupied with propping up mouldering institutions, could not have worked harmoniously with a minister suspected of an itch for reform.
Hence any region of space enclosed by a rigid boundary can be easily filled with a fluid, which then takes the form of the bounding surface at every point of it.
When Leo the Great became pope in 440, a period of more rigid uniformity began.
During even the least rigid of these the use of flesh and lacticinia is strictly forbidden; fish, oil and wine are occasionally conceded, but not before two o'clock in the afternoon.
Another American influence, potent in reducing the rigid though limited supernaturalism of Belsham and his successors, was that of Theodore Parker (1810-1860).
While favouring sacerdotal celibacy the council laid rather rigid restrictions on monasticism.
Another famous statue is one from Gabii, in which she is finishing her toilet and fastening the chlamys over her tunic. In older times her figure is fuller and stronger, and the clothing more complete; certain statues discovered at Delos, imitated from wooden models (oava), are supposed to represent Artemis; they are described as stiff and rigid, the limbs as it were glued to the body without life or movement, garments closely fitting, the folds of which fall in symmetrical parallel lines.
He stood aloof from parties and had no rigid principles, but held views closely resembling those of Narbonne.
Moreover, many of the arguments by which the position of rigid libertarians of the older school has been proved untenable.
Thus, for example, the anti-secular tendencies of the new creed, to which Tertullian (160-220) gave violent and rigid expression, were exaggerated in the Montanist heresy which he ultimately joined; on the other hand, Clement of Alexandria, in opposition to the general tone of his age, maintained the value of pagan philosophy for the development of Christian faith into true knowledge (Gnosis), and the value of the natural development of man through marriage for the normal perfecting of the Christian life.
A corporation commission of three members, elected for a term of six years, is intrusted with the necessary powers for a rigid control of public service corporations.
A state dispensary system for the sale of intoxicating liquors was authorized by the constitution, but the popular vote in 1908 was unfavourable to the continuance of the system, the sentiment seeming to be for rigid prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors.
His decision to accept episcopal orders led to difficulties with his family, especially with his mother, who held rigid Presbyterian views.
We are also told that he administered rigid and impartial justice and dispensed royal hospitality.
In the halls of the kings the position of each person's bed and seat, and the portion of meat which he was entitled to receive from the distributor, were regulated according to a rigid rule of precedence.
The principle of autocracy triumphed everywhere over the remnants of local or provincial authority, in the sphere of industry as in that of administration; while the gild system became much more rigid.
While retaining the principles of feudal recruiting, he had endeavoured to establish a system of rigid discipline among his troops, which he had strengthened by taking into his pay foreign mercenaries, particularly Englishmen and Italians, and by developing his artillery.
Its foundation was the desire for self-knowledge and truth, untrammelled by the rigid bonds of any particular system.
And on the 18th the resignations were announced, not only of the more rigid freetraders in the cabinet, Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, but also of Mr Chamberlain.
He was a great soldier and a rigid but just disciplinarian.
In deriving a period of 305 days the earth is regarded as an absolutely rigid body, and no account is taken either of its elasticity or of the mobility of the ocean.
It is therefore less than the motion in an absolutely rigid spheroid in the proportion RP': RP. It is found that, even though the earth were no more elastic than steel, its yielding combined with the mobility of the ocean would make this ratio about 2 :3, resulting in an increase of the period by one-half, making it about 457 days.
Thus this small flexibility is even greater than that necessary to the reconciliation of observation with theory, and the earth is shown to be more rigid than steel - a conclusion long since announced by Kelvin for other reasons.
It is impossible to give a rigid botanical definition of the term " flower."
In the Mennonite church they represent the rigid, conservative party, as opposed to the Galenists, who inclined towards the Arminian latitudinarianism and admitted into their community all those who led a virtuous life, whatever their doctrinal tendencies.
Some historians, in their zeal for rigid classification, have regarded the Fraticelli as a distinct sect, and have attempted to discover its dogmas and its founder.
Owing to the care which he lavished upon the proper maintenance of the army, Nicephorus was compelled to exercise rigid economy in other departments.
As a lecturer, Kant avoided altogether that rigid style in which his books were written.
Brought up in the bigoted and chilling atmosphere of the Piedmontese court, he received a rigid military and religious training, but little intellectual education.
Maybe he wasn't the kind of man who would commit or put any woman above his rigid sense of duty.
Tense and rigid, he was watching her with no small amount of emotion in his features.
The demon stopped, rigid enough Gabriel knew it wouldn't take much more to make him snap.
While she could never fully understand what it was to have the weight of a planet on her shoulders for fifteen years, her resentment toward A'Ran's rigid sense of duty began to thaw as Evelyn went on.
Focusing hard on not letting him affect her, she continued her game of seduction, teasing him with looks, touches, whispers, until Darian's body was rigid and his turmoil had melted into lust intense enough to make his eyes glow.
Her hands were bound by rigid metal fetters connected by a chain to a leather belt around her waist.
Satisfied, she returned to the living area and plopped down on a couch too rigid to be comfortable.
The same remarks apply to a society that is caste-based, or has any other rigid hierarchy to social status.
Abdomen: distended, rigid upper abdomen: distended, rigid upper abdomen, with absent bowel sounds.
In some sense too rigid adherence to the " own doctor " principal may not be good.
But it was Count von Zeppelin's rigid airship of 1900 that proved air travel was possible.
The vast majority of simulations of physical systems, including the movement of rigid bodies under forces, are carried out using vector algebra.
amoebake in fresh water, shelled ameba which build rigid ' houses ' with organic debris, are not present in marine samples.
rigid asceticism that paints all pleasure as somehow inherently wrong is another false distortion of biblical discipline.
bamboo cane through the wire at the back to keep the whole thing rigid.
Labor are supposed to be the bossy ones --- the ones with a rigid blueprint for society --- not the Tories.
The Stortz ventilating bronchoscope is the most commonly used rigid bronchoscope in most centers.
A 3.5 rigid bronchoscope was introduced into the trachea.
A rigid code of ethics was established to improve the caliber of Shaolin boxers.
Thread a short bamboo cane through the wire at the back to keep the whole thing rigid.
Hinduism has a rigid caste system which often results in pressure on the young to ensure they don't marry into the wrong caste system which often results in pressure on the young to ensure they don't marry into the wrong caste.
Transients in pipe flow: wave celerity, slow and rapid valve closure, surge pressures in rigid and elastic pipes.
This, of course, produces a rigid axlebox finescale chassis.
conductive inks on flexible and rigid substrates.
Most of the fantastically talented people I know were disasters within the rigid confines of schools and universities.
Such a mutation could for example be in one of the DNA-binding helices introducing a kink in a normally straight and rigid helical conformation.
Labor are effectively imposing a blueprint of rigid conformity on parish councils.
rigid contact lenses usually last approximately one year and require cleaning with the solutions recommended by your contact lens practitioner.
There are no rigid meal plans, no low-fat recipes, no carb and calorie counters.
I used two male-male couplers here plus a short length of semi rigid coax to reach the bulkhead mounted SMA output socket.
A more rigid twelve point crampon is better for winter climbing.
Virtue ethics require a less mechanistic and rigid enforcement of company credos and must empower individuals to a higher degree of ethical understanding.
crumple zones, airbags, seat belts, rigid frames, for example, are all designed to protect people within a vehicle.
METHODS: Both rigid cystoscopy and CT were performed before treatment in patients with cervical cancer of FIGO stage IB or greater.
Further data are provided on basic elements, such as springs, dampers and rigid bodies.
Changing education and training of professionals, with less rigid demarcation between the professions and some elements of generic training (25 ).
dietetic intervention than adhering to a rigid regimen or giving advice on healthy eating.
abdomen: distended, rigid upper abdomen, with absent bowel sounds.
I have found a vapor bath very efficacious in releasing rigid fibers.
encased the house in a timber cradle, to keep it rigid.
The rigid distinction among science and history of science is based on the idea of the latter as pure literary erudition.
Prawns and shrimps have a rigid exoskeleton that protects the soft internal structure.
In normal ferritin, a rigid protein shell surrounds an 8 nm diameter cavity, part-filled with non-magnetic ferrihydrite.
The problem of rigid ferrules has been overcome by using flexible ferrules that Pilley and Lawes developed over 30 years ago and is patented.
rigid head fixation was achieved by using cast material.
Business Development Managers " NatWest knows entrepreneurial flair needs freedom, not rigid process.
Fork: Specialized Comp rigid fork: Specialized Comp rigid fork with alloy legs.
It reviews the principles of statics and kinematics and applying them to the approximate analysis of pin and rigid jointed frames.
The laws of nature are thus not ' laws ' in the rigid, prescriptive sense, but inductive generalizations.
gimbal structure were constructed specially to provide rigid coupling between the motion generator and the animal.
The tops or backs of all forward facing seats must be fitted with a rigid handhold.
Sam had a go at weaving with a rigid heddle.
At times perhaps he was a little rigid -- and some slight hesitancy in the exposed woodwind writing will surely lessen with familiarity.
Instead of the aliens listed above, choose plants such as spiked water milfoil, rigid hornwort and water starwort as oxygenating plants.
The small horsetail that looks like a soft baby pine tree is preferred over the rigid, leafless kind.
Now the rigid inflatable will enjoy a new lease of life with the sailing club.
livid chalky white, and with something set and rigid about it which was shockingly unnatural.
rocksil Slabs A range of semi-rigid to rigid non-combustible rock mineral wool slabs, bonded with a high performance binder.
moralistic, rigid attitude to the consumption of drink.
These include oesophageal stents - either rigid plastic or self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) and local tumor ablative techniques such as laser therapy.
plotter cut on specialist in house equipment for application to glass, rigid clear acrylic panels and mirrors.
The range meets the varied applications of the flexible, integral skin, RIM and rigid polyurethane [PU] foam markets.
Includes: 2 assembled rustic oak tubs, cast iron Village pump, electric submersible pump, high quality rigid PVC liner.
To be considered thriller and feels that rigid Puritan.
It reflects rather excessively high and excessively rigid pay costs.
ICPs should not be applied in an overly rigid way.
The actors do a commendable job with what they're given, but the delivery on occasion is fairly rigid.
Focus Groups have proved popular with members who found the Regional Committee system too rigid.
The engine unit is exceptionally rigid, with vibration and noise reduced as much as possible.
It provides an extremely rigid 700 x 600 mm platform.
rigid with fear.
It can be used to keep bones rigid during a time of healing, help with movement, correct a deformity or relieve pain.
rigid adherence to the " own doctor " principal may not be good.
rigid inflatable, so you can take pictures of the barge under sail.
rigid body refinement and there is no TLS refinement in Refmac.
rigid demarcations as to what a nurse could or could not do.
In the audience, Philip Seymour Hoffman is already bored rigid.
My fear permeated through everyone in the room, they sat rigid in anticipation.
The culture in schools must become less rigid, he said.
Yet they are all doing it and I would actually look sillier if I stood there rigid as a statue.
His eyes moved slowly, his body remaining rigid as tho he were petrified.
If you contract your muscles, your body may stay rigid in places and not join the wave.
rock wool Slabs A range of semi-rigid to rigid non-combustible rock mineral wool slabs, bonded with a high performance binder.
All points in a rigid body move in a circular motion about a fixed axis rotation about a fixed point.
rotator assembly and gimbal structure were constructed specially to provide rigid coupling between the motion generator and the animal.
Current status The first documented case of glyphosate resistance was reported in 1996 involving rigid ryegrass in Australia.
shelled ameba which build rigid ' houses ' with organic debris, are not present in marine samples.
He was too shrewd a student of his fellow- men to remain long content with rigid formulae of conduct.
rigid sigmoidoscope - a thin short tube which is able to investigate the back passage up to 20cms.
We have used solid-state NMR extensively to estimate how rigid any polymer is within the composite structure of the cell wall.
Rigid adherence by the parties to their past positions will simply continue the stalemate which has already lasted too long.
The temporary hydraulic jacks which had been used to keep the piles rigid were replaced by steel stanchions.
This section is extremely rigid and is made of extra high-strength steel.
Bring soft bags as we do not have stowage for rigid bags or suit cases.
straitjacket of rigid rules which can apply harshly or unfairly in an individual case.
Classic wooden baby walker stroller with rigid wooden handle and cross brace.
Having removed the first rigid subcomponent the segmentation algorithm was run again with the remaining range data, this time taking 74 seconds.
suffocate seen how the Government's rigid and centralized target culture is suffocating innovation and local discretion in the public services.
The whole body picks up on the messages from the fingers, becoming tense, rigid, fixated.
Safeglass, a styrene based thermoplastic, is more rigid than PET, even sounds like glass but is much safer than glass.
The ECB indicates that rates will continue to rise, but does not suggest it has a rigid timetable for the moves.
Rigid, mechanical or hydraulic folding units with a choice of 7mm or 8mm tines are available.
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unfurled, ladder locks rigid so it won?t swing or twist and can be set to clear balconies below if need be.
An EU of six might have got by with the bloc model of rigid uniformity.
Constructed with an innovative blend of resin and high density rigid urethane, these trays are approximately 40% lighter than stone trays.
The tool kit includes a 50mm (2 inch) long mini bullet vibrator with five soft, rigid, jelly sleeves.
walker stroller with rigid wooden handle and cross brace.
The third pair of driving wheels had no flanges, to assist the long rigid wheelbase get round sharp curves.
These kitchen workhorses are made from a special heavy duty rigid alloy that won't distort in the oven.
His main principle was a rigid unitarianism which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God, as being incompatible with his unity, and therefore a polytheistic idea.
At first a part of the population were content with Austrian rule, which provided an honest and efficient administration; but the rigid system of centralization which, while allowing the semblance of local autonomy, sent every minute question for settlement to Vienna; the severe police metho4ls; the bureaucracy, in which the best appointments were usually conferred on Germans or Slays wholly dependent on Vienna, proved galling to the people, and in view of the growing disnffection the country was turned into a vast armed camp. In Modena Duke Francis proved a cruel tyrant.
an outer one (o.c.), tough and rigid in nature, and an inner one (i.c.) of more flexible consistence.
The medusae of this order are characterized by the tough, rigid consistence of the umbrella, due partly to the dense nature of the mesogloea, partly to the presence of a marginal rim of chondral tissue, consisting of thickened ectoderm containing great numbers of nematocysts, and forming, as it were, a cushion-tyre supporting the edge of the umbrella.
The Curculionidae, or weevils (q.v.), comprising 23,000 species, are by far the largest family of the group. The maxillary palps are short and rigid, and there is no distinct labrum, while the feelers are usually of an "elbowed" form, the basal segment being very elongate (figs.
From consideration of the rigid triangular frame described above, it is clear that the " overturning " force acts horizontally from the centre of gra'Vity, and that the length of its lever arm is, at any instant, the vertical distance from the centre of gravity to the level of the outer rail.
" As soon," he says, " as I understood the principles, I relinquished for ever the pursuit of the mathematics; nor can I lament that I desisted before my mind was hardened by the habit of rigid demonstration, so destructive xi.
If then by the contraction of the earth's interior the outer crust were forced to accommodate itself to a smaller nucleus, the central softer belt would yield by crumpling; the more rigid masses to the north and south, if they gave way at all, would yield by faulting.
His first act was to submit to the king a statement of his guiding principles:" No bankruptcy, no increase of taxation, no borrowing."Turgot's policy, in face of the desperate financial position, was to enforce the most rigid economy in all departments.
He attributed to his early discipline in this logic an impatience of vague language which in all likelihood was really fostered in him by his study of the Platonic dialogues and of Bentham, for he always had in himself more 6f Plato's fertile ingenuity in canvassing the meaning of vague terms than the schoolman's rigid consistency in the use of them.
Europe persistently refused to assist the republic to preserve a trade in which she had established a rigid monopoly, and Venice was left to fight the Turk single-handed.
A rigid adherence to the boundary authorized in 1787, however, would have resulted in the loss to Ohio of 470 sq.
the word bntng, think first of bintang, a star; but the word might also mean a large scar, to throw down, to spread, rigid, mutilated, enceinte, a kind of cucumber, a redoubt, according as it is pronounced, bantang, banting, bentang, buntang, buntung, bunting, bonteng, benteng.
After vulcanization, rubber is no longer softened by a moderate heat, a temperature of 160Ã‚° C. scarcely affecting it, nor is it rendered rigid by cold, and the ordinary solvents fail to dissolve it.
In Laconia Aristodemus (or his twin sons) effected a rigid military occupation which eventually embraced the whole district, and permitted (a) the colonization of Melos, Thera and parts of Crete (before 800 B.C.), (b) the reconquest and annexation of Messenia (about 750 B.C.), (c) a settlement of half-breed Spartans at Tarentum in south Italy, 700 B.C. In Argos and other cities of Argolis the descendants of the Achaean chiefs were taken into political partnership, but a tradition of race-feud lasted till historic times.
The Cretan cities, irrespective of origin, exhibit serfage, militant aristocracy, rigid martial discipline of all citizens, and other marked analogies with Sparta; but the Asiatic Dorians and the other Dorian colonies do not differ appreciably in their social and political history from their Ionian and Aeolic neighbours.
Germany, harassed by the Thirty Years' War and deadened by a rigid Lutheranism, can show little besides Andrea and Johann Arndt until the coming of the Pietists (see Pietism), A.
After the death of his father, who was a rigid Dissenter, his mother, left in poverty, lived with some Roman Catholic families.
The more dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the more did it please their rigid mood.
Further, in treating rhetoric as an art in the Theodectea he was forced into a conclusion, which carried him far beyond Plato's rigid notions of proof and of passion: he concluded that it is the work of an orator to use persuasion, and to arouse the passions (TO Tic 71 - 607 7 bcayeipaL), e.g.
A mechanical construction, when the same conditions are given, consists in taking a rigid bar ABC bent at right angles at B (fig.
These reacted upon this institutional religion, which readapted and reinterpreted itself from time to time, and when they did not help to build up another theology (as in Christianity), they ended by assuming too rigid and unprogressive a shape (see Qaraites), or, breaking away from long-tried convention, became a mysticism with mixed results (see Kabbalah).
This rigid regime was superseded in 1 619 by a milder system under Sir George Yeardley (d.
A plane frame of n joints which is just rigid (as regards deformation in its own plane) has 2n3 bars, for if one bar be held fixed the 2(n2) co-ordinates of the remaining fl2 joints must just be determined by the lengths of the remaining bars.
If the small displacements of a rigid body be subject to one constraint, e.g.
The peculiar status of rigid bodies is that the principles in question are in most cases sufficient for the complete determination of the motion, the dynamical equations (I or 2) being equal in number to the degrees of freedom (six) of a rigid solid, whereas in cases where the freedom is greater we have to invoke the aid of other supplementary physical hypotheses (cf.
Equations of Motion in Generalized Co-ordinates.Suppose we have a dynamical system composed of a finite number of material particles or rigid bodies, whether free or constrained in any way, which are subject to mutual forces and also to the action of any given extraneous forces~ The configuration of such a system can be completely specified by means of a certain number (n) of independent quantities, called the generalized coordinates of the system.
2 It is thus that Lotze declares' that "behind the tranquil surface of matter, behind its rigid and regular habits of behaviour, we are forced to seek the glow of a hidden spiritual activity."
Fenelon was feeling his way away from the rigid standards of Boileau to "a Sublime so simple and familiar that all may understand it."
His writings, which are distinguished by clarity, vigour and rigid reasoning, rather than by any show of scholarship - in the extent of which, however solid in character Hamilton's might have been, he was surpassed by several of his contemporaries - are in general strikingly empirical in basis.
Her face was pale and rigid.
To be considered thriller and feels that rigid puritan.
The actors do a commendable job with what they 're given, but the delivery on occasion is fairly rigid.
Even after the Fury had killed Jaspers and badly weakened, was fighting Captain Britain, she merely watched, rigid with fear.
Also available for charter is an additional rigid inflatable, so you can take pictures of the barge under sail.
Most seem to be acquiring wider responsibilities in an evolutionary way, rather than by following a rigid hierarchy.
I only use rigid body refinement and there is no TLS refinement in Refmac.
There were rigid demarcations as to what a nurse could or could not do.
The general case of 3D motion of rigid bodies reduces to translation + rotation about a fixed axis.
Rigid norms for wage growth cannot last indefinitely, tho they can help for a shortish time during disinflation.
Rigid sigmoidoscope - a thin short tube which is able to investigate the back passage up to 20cms.
A student from " rigid rule schools " in all out sparring sessions: " You are not supposed to do that !
It avoids the straitjacket of rigid rules which can apply harshly or unfairly in an individual case.
We have seen how the Government 's rigid and centralized target culture is suffocating innovation and local discretion in the public services.
Manipulate the subtalar joint to identify a rigid hindfoot suggesting arthritis or a tarsal coalition.
Conditions 23 of that permission specified 6 or 8 wheel rigid tipper bodies, but the original application only mentioned 6 wheel vehicles.
Trucks NI Armstrong Commercials website trucks NI provides details of their latest stock of refrigerated trucks, rigid trucks and other HGV vehicles.
When unfurled, ladder locks rigid so it won?t swing or twist and can be set to clear balconies below if need be.
These kitchen workhorses are made from a special heavy duty rigid alloy that wo n't distort in the oven.
Just how rigid should you be about feeding your baby?
The thicker the plexiglass, the more rigid it is and the more it can cost.
As Animal Planet explains, the rigid structure of their voice box and the smaller chest cavity limits the domestic cat's range, but not its ability to use sounds for communication.
Laws are so rigid that many payers have been unable to continue to make the payments as ordered.
It's not fussy, and it's not rigid; you can mix floral fabrics with stripes if you like and break all kinds of rules that would not fly in other design styles.
Art deco designs were a breath of fresh air that sprang out of the rigid and complex design rules of the Victoria era.
If you've ever been in a room that feels rigid, then you understand that too many straight lines can ruin a décor.
Too many rigid lines of straight-legged furniture, striped fabrics, linear wall décor, and even straight lamps repeated throughout the room can result in an uncomfortable room design.
Nylon and vinyl are popular choices because they can be wiped clean with a damp cloth, and while they are sturdy, they are not overly rigid and can withstand some minor twisting and contortions.
That flexibility is vital because some products may be awkward shapes or sizes and may not fit easily into a rigid bag.
Use a sponge-tipped blending tool or fine brush to smudge the line for a less rigid effect.
Based on the rigid shape of the strip, parts of my tooth were not covered and it did not whiten the areas in the cracks between the teeth.
The best aspect of 70s' makeup fashion is that you won't be looking at a compact all day in order to ensure that your sirenesque lipstick is not feathering outside the rigid boundaries of your lip liner.
A daily routine doesn't have to be a rigid schedule but rather a rhythm that incorporates necessary activities into each day.
Sex as an adult can be a fun and enjoyable experience, so why paint it as a rigid and fear-filled world to those who are at an age most curious about it?
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.