There is little evidence of the imposition of fines as ecclesiastical penalties; but there are references to the practice in the epistles of St Gregory the Great, notably in his instructions to St Augustine.
15 and the frequent references to death and burial-i.
References to original papers indicate further sources of information.
This is a force for peace—to the extent that as we share the same set of cultural references, we understand each other better.
For general information and references to the literature of the subject, see Otto ZOckler, Askese and Monchtum (1897), ii.
refers to Agilmar, archbishop of Vienne, as archchancellor, and there are several other references to archchancellors in various chronicles.
References to the chief sources of information regarding the states is given under each of them.
Nissen, Jtalische Landeskunde (Berlin, 1883 1902); also references in articles ROME, LATIUM, &c. (T.
2 An outline of the history of theism is reserved for Section IV.; but it has not proved possible to sketch the types of philosophy without introducing references to the history of philosophy and sometimes even to the history of theism as well.
Further references of great value will be found in the works of Bateson and Pearson referred to above, and in the annual volumes of the Zoological Record, particularly under the head " General Subject."
Spraying, &c.See Lodeman, The Spraying of Plants (1896), and numerous references in the publications of U.S. Agricultural Department, Zeitschr.
Himilco, a contemporary of Hanno, was charged with an expedition along the west coast of Iberia northward, and as far as the uncertain references to this voyage can be understood, he seems to have passed the Bay of Biscay and possibly sighted the coast of England.
it, 1885), with references to other publications of the Survey.
Full references to authorities will be found in the articles by Brzoska in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopeidie (1901); M.
At some period between the time of the Maccabees and of Herod, a second or outer wall had been built outside and north of the first wall, but it is not possible to fix an accurate date to this line of defence, as the references to it in Josephus are obscure.
This promise was carried out, but two charters appeared, one being a revised issue of Magna Carta proper, and the other a separate charter dealing with the forests, all references to which were omitted from the more important document.
the fact that Propertius could not marry her, &c. For references to her beauty see ii.
1848), by Dufrnoy and Elie de Beaumont; a more modern account, with full references, is given by A.
For America see the works of Frazer and Westermarck and the references there given.
Moreover, we have frequent references to sacred springs, as that of sheba, `Enharod (`eyn-harod) (Judges vii.
I spotted familiar references to our earliest sojourns in West Virginia and knowing the time and location Howie visited there at least gave me a starting point.
- On the Prytaneum as the centre of an ancient state see article Fire, and references in a paper (s.v.) by Frazer (Journal of Philology, 1885, xiv.
The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.
For full accounts of the battle, with copious references to authorities and to ancient controversies, mostly arising out of the conduct of Doria, see Sir W.
639; several references in Aulus Gellius; Teuffel, Hist.of Roman Literature, 170; M.
156-158, are the chief references in ancient literature.
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
3218, § 21 (with references).
3332 sqq with references.
Besides the sections on Ionians in the general histories of Greece and the references given in G.
For further references to the literature on Alexander, see Kaerst's article in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie (1894).
The Egyptian references to it are few, and do not give us much light regarding its early inhabitants.
Maass, De Sibyllarum indicibus (1879); C. Schultess, Die sibyllinischen Bucher in Rom (1895; with references to authorities in notes).
24; Cicero, Pro Sestio, 54, fragments of Pro Scauro, numerous references in the Letters; Asconius, Argumentum in Scaurum.
For editions of texts and the innumerable articles in scientific journals see the bibliographies and references in the above works.
A revival of Irredentism in connection with the execution of an Austrian deserter named Oberdank, who after escaping into Italy endeavoured to return to Austria with explosive bombs in his possession, and the cordial references to France made by Depretis at Stradella (8th October 1882), prevented the French government from suspecting the existence of the alliance, or from ceasing to strive after a Franco-Italian understanding.
Flint, Theism, Antitheistic Theories, Agnosticism - all with valuable notes and references, and J.
(1904), where full references to the literature of the subject will be found.
civ.; for the references in Cicero see Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum.
Besides some occasional references in the text, only a few more of the general works dealing with the distribution of birds can here be mentioned.
The preface to this edition collects all the biographical details and gives full bibliographical references to MSS.
It has oversight of all the congregations within its bounds; hears references from kirk-sessions or appeals from individual members; sanctions the formation of new congregations; superintends the education of students for the ministry; stimulates and guides pastoral and evangelistic work; and exercises discipline over all within its bounds, including the ministers.
The general assembly reviews all the work of the Church; settles controversies; makes administrative laws; directs and stimulates missionary and other spiritual work; appoints professors of theology; admits to the ministry applicants from other churches; hears and decides complaints, references and appeals which have come up through the inferior courts; and takes cognizance of all matters connected with the Church's interests or with the general welfare of the people.
Much confusion has been caused by attributing to Moses more than the Pentateuch itself claims, and by misunderstanding the meaning of later references (Mat.
From the numerous incidental references in his works, and from his knowledge of European literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad.
See the liturgical and ecclesiastical dictionaries of Martigny, Migne, and Smith and Cheetham, sub voce, where all the scattered references are collected together and summarized.
In the writings of the pre-exilian period we have frequent references to supernatural personalities good and bad.
We're had poor Howie in thirty-two sessions since you're been here so Quinn's developed cross references.
See Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie, " Innocenz II.," with full references.
Wallace (Lectures and Essays, incorporating Glasgow lectures) gives some useful historical references.
The ore is kindled from above and the fire so regulated (by making or unmaking air-holes in the covering) that, by the heat produced References.
Consequently the references to " Egypt " (Heb.
Cheyne, Decline and Fall of Judah (1908), p. 13, with references.
19 (part of an addition), and by the references to the border at Riblah in Ezek.
" Dispersion " (with references); also below, § 25 sqq.
4 See Ezra And Nehemiah with bibliographical references, also T.
references to the rebuilding of the Temple in the reign of Artaxerxes (I Esdras ii.
12) seems to be connected with other references to some new settlement (Neh.
But at least the book remains an indispensable storehouse of references to ancient and modern authorities.
p. 7, and the references there given).
references in print, even before 1819, to a declaration of independence in the county in 1775.
In 756 the North Britons are said to have been forced into submission and from this time onwards we hear very little of their history, though occasional references to the deaths of their kings show that the kingdom still continued to exist.
I would reiterate the earlier suggestion that references be implemented.
von Syrakus (Vienna, 1881), with full references to authorities in footnotes; articles Sicily and Syracuse.
See the references in A.
Brann), with further references; N.
For monographs on the grand masters, the various territories, and the different epochs in the history of the Order see the references in Loserth's work.
On the other hand the Porisms, to which Diophantus makes three references ("we have it in the Porisms that.
Long before his death, Bright's references in public speeches to the achievements of the Anti-Corn Law League were received with respectful impatience, and Peel's famous speech on the repeal of the corn laws would not convince the German Reichstag or a modern House of Commons.
The figures which are given here of various Pectinibranchia are in most cases ' YP sufficiently explained by the references attached to them.
References to the older classical writings on the Hexapoda are given in the article on Entomology.
Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).
2 The Seventh of Wotton's De differentiis animalium Libri Decem, published at Paris in 1552, treats of birds; but his work is merely a compilation from Aristotle and Pliny, with references to other classical writers who have more or less incidentally mentioned birds and other animals.
However, to have conceived the idea of executing a work on so grand a scale as this - it forms three folio volumes, and contains one hundred and eighty-five coloured and one hundred and forty-eight uncoloured plates, with references to upwards of two thousand four hundred generic names - was in itself a mark of genius, and it was brought to a successful conclusion in 1849.
A nominal list, with references, of the birds of the island is contained in the Handbook of Jamaica.
It is, however, only noticed here on account of the numerous references made to it by succeeding writers, for neither in this nor in the author's second volume (not published until 1814) did he propound any systematic arrangement of the Class.
The final disposition of the " Sub-class Insessores " - all the 2 On the other hand, Muller makes,several references to the labours.
We only know of Andrew through references in other writers: see especially William of Rubruquis in Recueil de voyages, iv.
For other references to Palmyra (called Tarmod) in the Talmud see Neubauer Geogr.
References to Palmyra in later times have been collected by Quatremere, Sultans Mamlouks, ii.
Beetles (Scarabaei) are the subjects of some of the oldest sculptured works of the Egyptians, and references to locusts, bees and ants are familiar to all readers of the Hebrew scriptures.
References to the works of the above authors, and to many others, will be found under HEXAPODA and the special articles on various insect orders.
Throughout the 14th century references are made to Margate in crown regulations regarding fisheries and shipping.
An excellent article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed.), "Briider des gemeinsamen Lebens," supplies copious information with references to all the literature; see also Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1897), ii.
Here the application of the term is limited to the liquid which is so important an article of commerce, though references will also be made to natural gas which accompanies petroleum.
See also the references under Palestine.
The general historical situation, also, presupposed or referred to, is that of the period from the year 200 B.C. to the beginning of our era; in particular, the familiar references to kings as a part of the social system, and to social dislocations (servants and princes changing places, x.
A precise indication of date has been sought in certain supposed references or allusions to historical facts.
The earliest Greek alchemistical writings abound with references to Oriental authorities and traditions.
The literature of succeeding centuries furnishes only isolated references; the more important are found in the scholia on Aristophanes, the lexicons of Hesychius, Photius and others, and the Etymologicum Magnum.
About the same period, too, the church of Bavaria was organized by St Boniface, and the country divided into several bishoprics; and we find frequent references to these bishops (in the plural) in the law of the Bavarians.
The Annals abound with references to the prices and comparative abundance or scarcity of the two staple products, wool and corn.
See Bulliot, Fouilles de Beuvray; Dechelette, Oppidum de Bibracte; also references s.v.
A pilgrimage feast must be fixed in date to ensure the simultaneous presence of the pilgrims. There are, besides, seeming references to the feast in the early prophets, as Hosea xii.
The limits of space prevent any systematic account of the separation of the rare metals, the alkaloids, and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these matters may be found are given in the list of references.
The references given by Beloch (Griech.
Later references to them probably indicate that the term was.
See eulogy by his friend Dr David Hosack (Essays, i., New York, 1824), with biographical details taken from a letter of Rush to President John Adams; also references in the works of Thacker, Gross and Bowditch on the history of medicine in America.
He speaks for the most part only in general references of the divine commands and of good and evil works.
Broyde (" Bahir," "Zohar "), with the references.
- References to the works containing expositions of the various branches of mathematics are given in the appropriate articles.
A bibliography of such references would be in effect a bibliography of metaphysics, or rather of epistemology.
References in the Jewish Talmud show that this city still continued to exist at and after the commencement of our era; but according to Arabian writers, at the time when the Arab city of Bagdad was founded by the caliph Mansur, there was nothing on that site except an old convent.
4, 1920), gives numerous references.
The traditional history of Ammon as related in the Old Testament is not free from obscurity, due to the uncertain date of the various references and to the doubt whether the individual details belong to the particular period to which each is ascribed.
The few scattered references in contemporary records to the dress of the clergy all point to this as the only recognized rule.
Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies (1897), a polemical work from the Protestant point of view, but scholarly and based on a mass of contemporary authorities to which references are given; the bishop of Exeter, The Ornaments Rubric (London, 1901), a pamphlet.
10), and was liable to the same duties and privileges as Israel (see references in Oxford Gesenius, p. 158).
(References as in fig.
References For The Theory Of Determinants.-T.Muir's "List of Writings on Determinants," Quarterly Journal of Mathematics.
daP4 References For Symmetric Functions.-Albert Girard, In- -vention nouvelle en l'algebre (Amsterdam, 1629); Thomas Waring, Meditationes Algebraicae (London, 1782); Lagrange, de l'acad.
Bibliographical references to ternary forms are given by Forsyth (Amer.
References to earlier literature will be found in the following noteworthy studies of recent date: Davidson, "Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah," in Cambridge Bible (1896); Nowack, Die kleinen Propheten (Hdkr.) (1897); Wellhausen, Die kleinen Propheten (1898); G.
An excellent summary regarding the magnetic properties of matter, with many tables and references, has been compiled by du Bois (Report to the Congres Int.
The application of this property to the construction of the mariner's compass is obvious, and it is in connexion with navigation that the first references to it occur '(see' Compass).
His De magnete magneticisque corporibus et de magno magnete tellure physiologia nova (1600), contains many references to the expositions of earlier writers from Plato down to those of the author's own age.
For outlines of the mathematical theory of magnetism and references see H.
(2nd ed., Leipzig, 1905; the most exhaustive compendium of magnetic science yet published, containing references to all important works and papers on every branch of the subject).
Cagnat in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites, where full references to ancient authorities are given in the footnotes; A.
References to works dealing with the taxonomy and geographical distribution of scorpions are given at the end of this article (28).
References to systematic works will also be found at the end of this article (33).
Zittel, American edition of his Palaeontology (the Macmillan Co., New York), where ample references to the literature of Trilobitae and Eurypteridae will be found; also references to literature of fossil Scorpions and Spiders; 23.
But these references have been denied by Scholten, Lipsius, and Lightfoot.
- References to this gospel as in use among the Cainites are made by Irenaeus (i.
559, 57 0, and Lehmann's monograph, Die Clementischen Schriften, Gotha, 1867, in which references will be found to other sources of information.
Most Hebrew prophecies contain pointed references to the foreign politics and social relations of the nation at the time.
- The cult goes back to a period before the separation of the Persians from the Hindus, as is shown by references in the literatures of both stocks, the Avesta and the Vedas.
On the other hand, there are elements in the poem which show that it is not entirely the work of a poor crowder; and these (notably references to historical and literary authorities, and occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the Scots Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text, as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song story.
But, though he implies an ample previous treatment of the questions by philosophers, Porphyry gives no references to the different systems of which such distinctions are the outcome, nor does he give any hint of his own opinion on the subject, definite enough though that was.
Putting these two references together with Sulpicius Severus, Dialogi i.
As to the teaching of algebra, see references under Arithmetic to works on the teaching of elementary mathematics.
- The history of algebra is treated in all historical works on mathematics in general (see MATHEMATICS: References).
Meanwhile the opposition parties openly allied themselves with the Yugoslav Club in Austria, which agitated for complete national unity, but saved itself from prosecution by occasional references to the dynasty and absolute silence regarding Serbia.
Hence the references to the Scyths in the Hebrew prophets (Jer.
In some of the following psalms there are still references to deeds of oppression and violence, but more generally Israel appears as happy under the law.
17, need not have been composed long before the book in which it is quoted: the references to the " godly " and to their persecutions at the hands of wicked men, who seem to be Jews, recall the Maccabaean age; in Ps.
The earliest references are to be found in the various accounts of the Deluge.
[True, there was not so much said about Babylon as we should have expected even in the first book; the paucity of references to the local characteristics of Babylonia is in fact one of the negative arguments urged by older scholars in favour of the Isaianic origin of the prophecy.] Israel himself, with all his inconsistent qualities, becomes the absorbing subject of the prophet's meditations.
pp. 8-61 of his edition of the Lives of the Saints, already cited, which gives a full account of the MSS., and a discussion of f lfric's sources, with further bibliographical references; and Alfric, a New Study of his Life and Writings, by Miss C. L.
His carefulness was exemplary, and his references are always exact.
On supposed references to breeches in Dan.
(gives a full collection of literary references); Cybulski, op. cit., pls.
It seems difficult also to believe that Map's name should be so constantly connected with our Arthurian tradition without any ground whatever; though it must be admitted that he himself never makes any such claim - the references in the romances are all couched in the third person, and bear no sign of being other than the record by the copyist of a traditional attribution.
The form in which certain of the references to him are couched favours the above view; the compiler of Guiron le Cortois says in his prologue that "maistre Gautier Map qui fu clers au roi Henrydevisa cil l'estoire de monseigneur Lancelot du Lac, que d'autre chose ne parla it mie gramment en son livre"; and in another place he refers to Map, "qui fit lou pro pre livre de monsoingnour Lancelot dou Lac."
References to companionship in these wanderings, and the well-known description of the charm of a rustic meal (ii.
The resident, Freytag, was not a very wise person (though he probably did not, as Voltaire would have it, spell "poesie" "poeshie"); constant references to Frederick were necessary; and the affair was prolonged so that Madame Denis had time to join her uncle.
References to the domestic use of incense occur in Cant.
The slighting references to it by the Christian fathers are no more an argument against its existence in the primitive church than the similar denunciations by the Jewish prophets of burnt-offerings and sacrifices are any proof that there were no such rites as the offering of incense, and of the blood of bulls and fat of rams, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem.
pp. 191-193), which contains many other references to Aubrey.
- FOr the history and references to the original memoirs see Report to the British Association, by G.
In addition to the Kings' List, other important chronological data consist of references in the classical authorities to the chronological system of Berossus; chronological references to earlier kings occurring in the later native inscriptions, such as Nabonidus's estimate of the period of Khammurabi (or Hammuribi); synchronisms, also furnished by the inscriptions, between kings of Babylon and of Assyria; and the early Babylonian date-lists.
2), is not connected explicitly with Hittites, a fact which is not surprising, since that city was no longer under a Hatti dynasty at the epoch of the Old Testament references.
- These psalms, in all eighteen, enjoyed but small consideration in early times, for only six direct references to them are found in early literature.
With this "Testament" the "Assumption," to which almost all the patristic references and that of Jude are made, was subsequently edited.
One of the earliest references to sugar in Great Britain is that of 100,000 lb of sugar being shipped to London in 1319 by Tomasso Loredano, merchant of Venice, to be exchanged for wool.
Full references to further literature will be found in Braun's works.
The capitularies of 805 and 821 also contain vague references to sworn unions of some sort, and a capitulary of 884 prohibits villeins from forming associations "vulgarly called gilds" against those who have despoiled them.
Many writers believe that the earliest references to gilds come from England.
For references to memoirs descriptive of the Chilian nitrate deposits, see G.
(2nd ed., 1901), which contains references to many other works; Hermann Collitz, Zum Dialekte des Heliand (1901).
The Old Testament references to Arabs were obscure.
There are references to the Ghassanid Nu'man in the poems of Nabigha.
Full references will be found in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie, vol.
the evidence tabulated in The New Testament in the Apostolic 6 To the details furnished in the present writer's Historical New Testament (2nd ed., 1901, pp. 6 346 35) may be added references to Volter's Paulus u.
On the other hand, Marti assigns the whole to 160 B.C. (Maccabean period; a little later than Wellhausen) and sees a number of references to historical personages of that age.
The second chapter of that book sets forth the various forms of the doctrine with admirable lucidity and precision, and gives many references to other writers.
For further references see the article by Eduard Reuss and A.
(For illustrations see America, Plate V.) The story of the conquest has been told by Prescott and Helps, who give ample references to original authorities; it will be sufficient here to enumerate the dates of the conquest by leading events.
There is a great deal of practical information on lenses in connexion with the camera and other optical instruments, and the book is valuable as a repertory of early practical optics, also for the numerous references to and extracts from previous writers.
Historical records were searched for references to past meteoric displays, and these were tabulated and compared.
References to important works on the species of marine Polyzoa by Busk, Hincks, Jullien, Levinsen, MacGillivray, Nordgaard, Norman, Waters and others are given in the Memoir (22) by Nickles and Bassler.
From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, as they are still, the vineyards being of extraordinary fertility.
- The chief modern commentaries are those of Nowack (Die Kleinen Propheten, 1897; 2nd ed., 1904) and Marti (Dodekapropheton, 1904), where detailed references to the older literature may be found; cf.
Later, however, stories which certainly derive from an early non-Grail tradition are introduced, and there are references which imply a knowledge of the prose Lancelot and of Chretien's poem.
- Classical references to Axum are collected by Pietschmann in Pauly's Realencyclopiidie (2nd ed.); for the history as derived from the inscriptions see D.
On the other Old Testament references to creation, and on the prophetic doctrine of creation, see Ency.
In the foregoing account only those particulars which bear directly on Villehardouin himself have been detailed; but the chronicle is as far as possible from being an autobiography, and the displays of the writer's personality, numerous as they are, are quite involuntary, and consist merely in his way of handling the subject, not in the references (as brief as his functions as chronicler will admit) to his own proceedings.
Elsewhere, 2 we only find references to certain passages of Scripture, viz., the stories of Reuben and Tamar (Gen.
5, and see the preceding references.
21), and the references to Esau and Ishmael as representative world-powers (Gen.
and references there given.
There are many references in Tertullian to the teaching of the Gnostic Marcion, whose breach with the Roman Church may be dated A.D.
The references to Enoch (principally ver.
Working with some inscriptions from Persepolis which were found to contain references to Darius and Xerxes, Grotefend had established the phonetic values of certain of the Persian characters, and his successors were perfecting the discovery just about the time when the new Assyrian finds were made.
Considering the important part played by the Egyptian sojourn of the Hebrews, as narrated in the Scriptures, it was certainly not an overenthusiastic prediction that the Egyptian monuments when fully investigated would divulge important references to Joseph, to Moses, and to the all-important incidents of the Exodus; but half a century of expectant attention in this direction has led only to disappointment.
The records of kings whose names hitherto were known to us only through Bible references have been found in the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, and personages hitherto but shadowy now step forth as clearly into the light of history as an Alexander or a Caesar.
and Sennacherib, kings of Assyria, of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, and of Cyrus, king of Persia, all contain direct references to Hebrew history.
The individuality of great authors is thus dissipated except when it has been preserved by an occasional sacrifice of the arrangement - and this defect, if it is to be esteemed a defect, is increased by the very sparing references to personal history and character with which Hallam was obliged to content himself.
Who but Mary herself could have written about this unknown affair of the Bishop, and what had the supposed forger to gain by inventing and adding these references to affairs unconnected with the case?
For bibliographical references see PERSIA: Ancient History.
There are numerous references to Lenthall in his official capacity, and letters written by and to him, in the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, and in various MSS.
Exhaustive references to general systematic works will be found in de Dalla Torre's Catalogue mentioned above.
(For the ancient Athenian Xetrovpyiat, as forms of taxation, see Finance.) In order to understand terms and references it will be convenient to give the tabular form the chief component parts of a liturgy, selecting the Liturgy of Rome as characteristic of Western, and that of Constantinople as characteristic of Eastern, Christendom; at the same time appending an explanation of some of the technical words which must be employed in enumerating those parts.
3, 1899) contains numerous references to older literature.
Forneron (Paris, 1881), contains many references to authorities and is exhaustive, but the author has some violent prejudices.
Aroused by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah the building was then resumed, and despite fresh attempts to hinder the work it was completed, consecrated and dedicated 1 References to I Esdras in this article are to the book discussed above as Ezra, Third Book Of.
1-3 to Ammon and Moab is possibly intended as an introduction to the references to Tobiah and Sanballat respectively (vv.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
pp. 1-172, and references mentioned in the text.
From these possible and highly probable references we pass on to the clear testimony of Justin Martyr, who is the first to declare that Revelation is by "John, one of the Apostles of Christ" (Dial.
In Carthage its currency is proven by the references of Tertullian, and the phraseology of the Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas (§§ 4, 12); in Alexandria by the citations of Clement (Paed.
6-21, together with some isolated expressions and all references to the Lamb.
He criticizes sharply (pp. 173 sqq., 233 sqq.) former methods of interpretation, and with the ardour of a discoverer of a new truth seeks to establish its currency throughout the entire field of apocalyptic. To such an extreme does he carry his theory that he denies obvious references to historical personages in the Apocalypse, when these are clothed in apocalyptic language.
references are inserted to the beast and his worshippers (ver.
(e) Primitive tradition and its confirmation through the discovery of references in the text to certain edicts of Domitian.
Again, while the Gospel and the Epistle of John show marks of agreement which suggest a common authorship, the Apocalypse differs widely from both in its ideas and in its way of expressing them; we miss in it the frequent references to ` life,' ` light,' ` truth,' ` grace ' and ` love ' which are characteristic of the Apostle and find ourselves in a totally different region of thought..
2, 566 seq.; and for numerous references upon Gregory's relation to the massacre of St Bartholomew, Cambridge Mod.
ISAAC (Hebrew for "he laughs," on explanatory references to the name, see Abraham), the only child of Abraham and Sarah, was born when his parents were respectively a hundred and ninety years of age (Gen.
The relevant statements in the letter, moreover, are supported by the references to Polycarp which we find in the body of Irenaeus's great work.
seit Kant, § 29, seems to give full references to justify his opinion, and even he, in his later work, Grundriss der Gesch.
Count Nesselrode's letters to Speranski and many references are published in vol.
(For further references to this reign see especially JEREMIAH; see also JEWS: History, § 17.) (S.
He was also a patron of letters: he collected a library and lived on terms of intimate friendship with the poet Anacreon, whose verses were full of references to his patron.
An abridged story of his life will be found in Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, on the 21st of October, and a critical sketch with full references in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (ed.
Examples have been found at Tiryns and Mycenae, and references are made to it in the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The history of the Philistine district goes back long before the time of the Purasati (c. 1200 B.C.), and if the references to Philistines in pre-Mosaic times are treated as anachronisms, those which can be applied to the 12th-11th century do not at once acquire an historical value.'
The references of the time of the Exodus, the Invasion and the " Judges " - whatever chronological scheme be adopted - must be taken in connexion with a careful examination of all the evidence.
3); but if early references to iron are treated as unhistorical (Gen.
For an attempt to treat the pre-Mosaic references as historical, see A.
A useful sketch, with references to the best literature, is in Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1896), i.
In architecture the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the Biblical references in Exodus vii.
(New York, 1904), with copious references; J.
The story is doubtless based on ancient traditions, current in various forms; the Old Testament references are not wholly consistant.
The references to portions the origin of which is especially uncertain are placed in brackets ().
These references indicate that the hymn was used in private devotions; as it does not appear in any of the earliest liturgies, whether Eastern or Western, its introduction into the public services of the church was probably of a later date than has often been supposed.
Dicuil's knowledge of the islands north and west of Britain is evidently intimate; his references to Irish exploration and colonization, and to (more recent) Scandinavian devastation of the same, as far as the Faeroes, are noteworthy, like his notice of the elephant sent by Harun al-Rashid (in 801) to Charles the Great, the most curious item in a political and diplomatic intercourse of high importance.
He probably did not know Greek; his references to Greek authors do not imply this.
Though certainly Irish by birth, it has been conjectured (from his references to Sedulius and the caliph's elephant) that he was in later life in an Irish monastery in the Frankish empire.
Other references to the literature may be found by consulting Harnack's Altchristl.
There can be no question of confining even orthodox " dogma " to conciliar decisions in an age when definition is so incomplete; still, we do meet with references to the Nicene.
Occasional references to the celebrated musician in the works of his contemporaries are, however, by no means rare, and from these it may be conjectured with all but absolute certainty that Guido was born in the last decade of the 10th century.
For the methods involving finite differences, see references under DIFFERENCES, CALCULUS OF; and INTERPOLATION.
Thomas Blackwell' has collected some Homeric references: a work by Melampus of Alexandria is extant in several versions.
From references which can be gathered from patristic writings it is abundantly evident that the belief in the mystical meaning of marks on the "organ of organs" was a part of the popular philosophy of their times.
Considering, then, his other differences from Anabaptist theories, and the absence of any hint to the contrary in his own autobiographical references, " it is safe to affirm that he had no conscious indebtedness to the Anabaptists " (Williston Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congreg., New York, 1893, p. 16).
10 The identificaton of the Mal'akh Yahweh with the Logos, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish persons within the unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree.
l5 Nevertheless we may well suppose that the popular religion of ancient Israel had much to say of superhuman beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying.
23 Occasional references to " angels " occur in the Psalter"; they appear as ministers of God.
(1896), §§ 54-60, where copious references to the literature of the subject are supplied.
Not only do the many intimate y y references to Egyptian history and customs support this position, but it is clear that the Jews of Celsus are not Western or Roman Jews, but belong to the Orient, and especially to that circle of Judaism which had received and assimilated the idea of the Logos.
The above analysis is rough, since even distantly placed sections, indeed the two parts themselves, are interrelated by delicate complex references on and back.
The references to places and the descriptions of natural features (the lake-shore, i.
The pair of references (vi.
It looks as if they were insertions in the passage as it originally stood, and that the references to parables in the plural, together with the statement at vv.
References to Judaean idolatry are omitted (I Kings xiv.
The references to such a fountain in Proverbs (xiii.
Biblical References to the Adam-story.-It is remarkable how little influence the Adam-story has had on the earlier parts of the Old Testament.
References by consent out of court; II.
References under order of court.
Judicial References have been long known to the law of Scotland.
In addition to voluntary submissions and references by rules of court there are in America, as in the United Kingdom, various statutes which provide for arbitration in particular o cases.
(with illustration and references).
Frequent references to the parish church of Stoke are found during the 14th and 15th centuries.
25 seq., 31, references which cannot be explained away.
See the separate articles on the states, and also the following references: - Topographic maps and Geologic Folios of the United States Geological Survey; Bailey Willis, "The Northern Appalachians," and C. W.
Votsch, Marius als Reformator des romischen Heerwesens (with notes and references to ancient authorities, 1886); A.
For further references see the bibliography appended to W.
Wright, London, 1910), which gives references to the principal English and Dutch authorities.
(For references see J.
18 94-95-97, and a treatise, Aether and Matter (1900), where full references are given.
But there are references which suggest its previous award in Piers Plowman and Chaucer.
Owing to the once prevalent desire of the adherents of one or another polity to find support in primitive precept or practice, the question has assumed a prominence out of proportion to its real importance, and the few and scattered references in early Christian writings have been made the basis for various elaborate theories.
The documents comprise imperial edicts, rescripts, &c., liturgies, acts of councils, decretals and letters of bishops, references in contemporary heathen writings, and above all the works of the Church Fathers.
Medieval literature abounds in references to Tristan and Iseult, and their adventures were translated into many tongues and are found depicted in carvings and tapestries.
To the Latin transla tions of Aristotle and to his interpreters he refers in more than three hundred passages, while the number of his references to the Latin translation of the Timaeus of Plato is less than ten.
Dr Richard (1895, 1896) gives a Cladoceran bibliography of 60 1 references.
It comprises the chronological details, references to authorities, and judgments on the character of the various kings, especially as regards their attitude to the worship at the high places, all cast in the same literary mould, and marked by the same characteristic phraseology.
But the quotations and references in Aphraates, Ephraem and the Acts of Judas Thomas show that it was known, even if not often used.
At the congress of Erfurt, Daru had the privilege of being present at the interview between Goethe and Napoleon, and interposed tactful references to the works of the great poet.
Now, it is subjective history which we find in the earliest references to Midrash.
13-15 and interesting Messianic references.
Hume's Great Lord Burghley (1898) is largely a piecing together of the references to Burghley in the same author's Calendar of Simancas MSS.
The notes were generally compiled from original documents, references to which are usually given, so that they remain useful to the present day.
Personal references are to be found in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, iii.
Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1901), in which references to earlier literature will be found.
Very noteworthy references to Gnosticism are also to be found scattered up and down the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria.
Various editions of the New Version have been published, the most complete being the edition of the whole Bible with marginal references.
The marginal references given in the original edition of the Authorized Version of 1611 have been retained as far as possible.
- For a fuller discussion and full references to these and other cults, that of the serpent excepted, see N.
Such is the account of the Saga of Eric the Red, supported by a number of briefer references in early Icelandic and other literature.
Sordini, Vetulonia (Spoleto, 1894) and references.
(Freiburg, 1893), for Municipal Laws and references to Mommsen's commentary in C.I.L.; E.
Copious references to these mentions are collected in Tuch, De Nino Urbe (Leipzig, 1845).
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
' The post-Pauline atmosphere of the ecclesiastical regulations is felt most plainly in the references to such sub-apostolic features as the organized register of "widows."
Though the office is found at Carthage, and St Cyprian (200?-258) makes many references to acolytes, whom he used to carry his letters, this seems to be the only place in Africa where they were known.
22 seq., and on the Talmudic custom of applying to the Romans the references to Edom or Esau, see Jewish Ency.
The different works are more or less connected by a system of references, which give rise to difficulties, especially when they are cross-references: for example, the Analytics and Topics quote one another: so do the Physics and the Metaphysics; the De Vita and De Respiratione and the De Partibus Animalium; this latter treatise and the De Animalium Incessu; the De Interpretatione and the De Anima.
from 335-334 to 322; and from the references of one work to another Zeller has further suggested a chronological order of composition during this period of twelve years, beginning with the treatises on Logic and Physics, and ending with that on Metaphysics.
Finally, having a great number of discourses and treatises, containing all those small blemishes, around him in his library, and determined to collect, consolidate and connect them into a philosophical system, he would naturally be often taking them down from their places to consult and compare one with another, and as naturally enter in them references one to the other, and cross-references between one another.
On the other hand he gives too much weight to the references from one book to another, which Aristotle could have entered into his manuscripts at any time before his death.
So generally, the references backwards and forwards, and the cross-references, are really evidences that Aristotle mainly wrote his works not successively but simultaneously, and entered references as and when he pleased, because he had not published them.
(2) Where under any enactment Sykes's (sic) Hydrometer is directed to be used or may be used for the purpose of ascertaining the strength or weight of spirits, any means so authorized by regulations may be used instead of Sykes's Hydrometer and references to Sykes's Hydrometer in any enactment shall be construed accordingly.
The work of lecturing was an intense strain to him, but its influence was immense: to attend one of Westcott's lectures - even to watch him lecturing - was an experience which lifted and solemnized many a man to whom the references to Origen or Rupert of Deutz were almost ludicrously unintelligible.
In addition to the references already given, see J.
Orients 2 (pp. 402 sqq., on later references in Manetho, &c., with which cf.
Of these references the most important are, perhaps, Strabo v.
It was occupied in very early times, though the references in Judges xvii., xix., and Ruth' are of doubtful date.
3), supply, full references to the literature.
Further references in Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques (Paris, 1903).
Guppy, The Solomon Islands (London, 1887), where full references to earlier works are given; C. Ribbe, Zwei Jahre unter den Kannibalen der Salomon-Inseln (Dresden, 1903).
How far he was above his contemporaries, how little appreciated or understood by them, is shown by the absence of references to him in other Greek writers, and by the fact that his work had no effect in arresting the decay of mathematical science.
There is a lack of explicit references to the Gospels; 1, and many of the quotations which may be taken from them are not exact.
The references in the New Testament to baptism " in the name of Jesus " (or the Lord Jesus) (Acts ii.
For authorities see the works quoted above, and the references in the articles on philosophers and philosophical subjects.
In the i ith century every village of any size seems to have possessed one, while the earliest references go back to the 8th century.
It is clear from the frequent references to dogs and hawks in the charters that hunting and falconry were keenly pursued by the kings and their retinues.
The whole Hellenistic culture of the epistle (let alone its language), and the personal references in it, notably that to Timothy in xiii.
For Alexandria little can be urged save a certain strain of "Alexandrine" idealism and allegorism, mingling with the more Palestinian realism which marks the references to Christ's sufferings, as well as the eschatology, and recalling many a passage in Philo.
For Rome there is more to be said, in view of the references to Timothy and to "them of Italy" (xiii.
In the literatures of other Teutonic countries we have only occasional references to the religious rites of heathen times, and these are generally in no way comparable to the detailed accounts given in Icelandic writings.
The sanctuaries mentioned by Tacitus seem always to have been groves, and in later times we have references to such places in all Teutonic lands.
For further references see Britain (Anglo-Saxon), Germany (Ethnography and Early History), and Scandinavian Civilization.
It is possible to learn from them more regarding the social and political condition of the period than perhaps from any other source, for they abound, not only in exposures of religious abuses, and of the prevailing corruptions of society, but in references to many varieties of social injustice and unwise customs, in racy sketches of character, and in vivid pictures of special features of the time, occasionally illustrated by interesting incidents in his own life.
The Egyptian references are too contemptuous to name the rulers; but Shaushatar may have begun his reign during the lifetime of Tethmosis III., and from cuneiform sources we know the names of six other Mitanni rulers.
The references to these people, who practically make their first appearance in the Amarna correspondence, 2 show that they were unsettled bands who took advantage of the loosening of authority to introduce themselves into various parts of the country, in this case Mesopotamia.
219-222, and references given there.
Authorities - Land and People: full references to Greek, Latin,.
For further references and illustrations see the article VESTMENTS.
See article "Hesychasten" in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie (3rd ed., 1900), where further references are given.
Little's Grey Friars in Oxford (Oxford, 1892), where all the references are collected.
The chief references in ancient writers are Iliad i.
She represented the principle of fertility and generation; references to her cult at Gebal, Sidon, Ashkelon, in Cyprus at Kition and Paphos, in Sicily at Eryx, in Gaulus, at Carthage, are frequent in the inscriptions and elsewhere.
Other references exist to physiognomy in Cassiodorus, Isidorus, Meietius and Nemesius, but none of any great importance.
Ragel wrote a book on naevi; Rhazes (1040) devoted several chapters to it; and Averroes (1165) made many references to it in his De sanitate, p. 82 (Leiden, 1537).
He does not enter into the animal comparisons of his predecessors, but occupies himself chiefly with simple descriptive physiognomy as indicative of character; and the same is true of the scattered references in the writings of Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas.
Other classical references are contained in the Prooemium to the 1593 edition of the works of Baptista Portae.
iii.), in articles "Monchtum," "Orientalische Kirche," and "Athosberg," where copious references will be found.
There are references to the legendary escape of Nero to Parthia (119-124) and the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D.
For references to modern literature see Schiirer, Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes, iii.
p. 1086; for other references to the general tradition see De Rubeis, Monum.
The festival is of great antiquity; and though there is no discoverable trace of it before the middle of the 4th century, subsequent references to it assume its long establishment.
As these two references suggest, the festival was associated with a professional pilgrimage, in commemoration of the passing of Christ and his apostles to the Mount of Olives; such a procession is described by Adamnan, abbot of Iona, as taking place at Jerusalem in the 7th century, when the feast was celebrated in the church on Mount Olivet (de loc. sand.
In the Old Testament the chief references may be classified as follows: - primitive inhabitants generally, Is.
P. Thompson's valuable paper on influence machines (to which this article is much indebted) and other references given, see J.
pp. 50-58 (contains a large number of references to original papers); J.
In the few references to the legend in Spanish writings the Wandering Jew is called Juan Espera en Dios, which gives a more hopeful turn to the legend.
These two works give abundant references to the literature of the subject.
There is little material for its earlier history outside the Old Testament, and the various references in the latter are often of disputed reference and date.
But the obscure historical background of the references makes it uncertain whether the exclusiveness of orthodox Judaism (Neh.
Buhl) with their references; also the popular description by W.
(11th century A.D.) as it is to-day, judging by the references in the sacred books of the Druses.
We are left to affirm, on account of definite references in various sagas and annals to Leif Ericsson and the discovery of Vinland, that the saga as preserved in Hank's Book (and also in No.
Scholars of such opposite schools of thought as Schmiedel 3 and Lindsay 4 maintain that the epistle contains the most explicit references to presbyters of the official type.
Cyprian bestows the highest sacerdotal terms upon the bishops of course, but his references to the priestly character of the office of presbyter are also most definite.
From the 2nd century onwards references multiply, though the earlier references do not prove the existence of a fixed lectionary or order of lessons, but rather point the other way.
Borneo has possessed a diamond industry since the island was first settled by the Malays; the references in the works of Garcia de Orta, Linschoten, De Boot, De Laet and others, to Malacca as a locality relate to Borneo.
The relevant separate articles in these two great dictionaries, Protestant and Catholic respectively, will supply adequate information and ample references on most points.
For a general account of deserts see Professor Johannes Walther, Das Gesetz der Wiistenbildung (Berlin, 1900), in which many references to other original authorities will be found.
Owing to the mutilation of the Hebrew by the accidents of time the Greek version retains its place as the chief authority for the text, and references by chapter and verse are usually made to it.
22 (where the Targum and late rabbinical exegesis discover references to the story of Ruth), and is more explicitly suggested by the isolated I Sam.
Further references will be found in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, s.
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
In this case an inscription records the repair and restoration of the edifice after the The interest taken by the Pompeians in the sports of the amphitheatre is shown by the contents of the numerous painted and scratched inscriptions relating to them which have been found in Pompeii - notices of combats, laudatory inscriptions, including even references to the admiration which gladiators won from the fair sex, &c.
Kelsey, 2nd ed., New York and London, 1902; 2nd revised edition of the German original, Pompeii in Leben and Kunst, Leipzig, 1908), the best general account written by the greatest authority on the subject, to which our description owes much, with full references to other sources of information; and, for later excavations, Notizie degli Scavi and Romische Mitteilungen (in the latter, articles by Mau), passim.
112), makes two incidental references to Bacon's writings, but never mentions Bacon as he mentions Galileo, Kepler, Harvey, and others (De corpore, ep. ded.), among the lights of the century.
In this first public edition (12mo), the title was changed to Elementa philosophica de cive, the references in the text to the previous sections being omitted.
i.) to appear in 1656, take care to remove some of the worst mistakes exposed by Wallis, and, while leaving out all the references to Vindex, now profess to make, in altered form, a series of mere " attempts " at quadrature; but he was far from yielding the ground to the enemy.
The inscriptions, which contain altogether about five thousand words, are entirely of religious import, and their references to worldly affairs are incidental.
References to events of mythical and later times are introduced, and the poem ends with a reference to Alexander the Great, who was to unite Asia and Europe in his world-wide empire.
(1886-1893), collects all the ancient references, which are almost all brief.
In the meantime knowledge on the subject is mingled with much that is obviously mythical and with gleanings from the casual references of travellers and authors.
Other important references to this tradition are found in Eus.
The reign of Gallienus (260-268) would suit the tone of its references to the Roman emperor (Waitz, P. 74), and also any polemic against the Neoplatonic philosophy of revelation by visions and dreams which it may contain.
7-21, gives an account of the movement in 1853, with references to contemporary pamphlets and newspaper articles.
The numerous references to the privateering exploits of its ships in the Patent and Close Rolls and the extraordinary number of them at the siege of Calais in 1346 alike testify to its importance.
AuTHoRITIEs.-The following works are numbered according to the references in the text :- (1) A.
Berlin, 1876-1879), with copious references, Gesch.
And the close connexion between Sicily and England leads to many occasional references to Sicilian matters in English writers.
The plants, 626 in number, are enumerated alphabetically, but a system of classification differing little from Caspar Bauhin's is sketched at the end of the book; and the notes contain many curious references to other parts of natural history.
271 ff., where references to other writers may be found.
Macdonell, History of Sanskrit Literature (1900) p. 411 f., and the references on p. 452; V.
The occasional references to Roman history in Lucretius are evidently reminiscences of the Annales.
For the history of the Paeligni after go B.C. see the references given in C. ix.
There are also a few references to Egypt of later date down to the reign of Darius.
Gesellschaft, 1892), and in I894 he was able to write a little manual of Egyptian for beginners (Agyplische Grammatik, 2nd ed., 1902), centring on the language of the standard inscriptions of the Middle and New Kingdoms, but accompanying the main sketch with references to earlier and later forms. Of the work of Ermans pupils we may mention G Steindorifs ~ttle Koptische Grammatik (1894, ed 1904), improving greatly on Sterns standard work in regard to phonology and the relationship of Coptic forms to Egyptian, and K.
materials (for references to Egypt); also PYRAMIDS;
- Apart from the scattered references in the published and unpublished diplomatic correspondence of the period, contemporary journals and books of travel contain much interesting material for the life of Ali.
(1904), with full references; Cambridge Modern History, i.
II, where he is introduced as a young man and Moses' minister; and (c) the references elsewhere to the home of the Amalekites: according to Num.
But the document from which the chapter, as a whole, is derived, is certainly J, while the previous references to tables of stone and to Moses' breaking them belong to the parallel narrative of E.
- The reader will find in the following works details of the subject and references to the literature: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Bluthendiagramme (Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899) Engler, Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 3rd ed.
2 pp. 189-210; see also the references under Exodus.
(1886), which contains bibliographical references; Rosier, Die Aralseefrage (1873); Wood, The Shores of the Aral Lake (1876); and Berg in Izvestia, Turkestan Branch of Russian Geog.
Boswell's Life of Johnson gives an account of the lexicographer's visit to Burnett at Monboddo, and is full of references to the natural contemporary view of a man who thought that the human race could be descended from monkeys.
This last contains much valuable information, but the references in footnotes are often wanting in precision, and it has no index.
There are references in Rumanian, Slavonic, Armenian, Arabic and Syriac literature to a legend, of which the hero is Ahikar (for Armenian, Arabic and Syriac, see The Story of Ahikar, F.
While in gaol at Rochester he published the Caroline Almanac, the tone of which may be judged from its references to "Victoria Guelph, the bloody queen of England," and by the title given to the British cabinet of "Victoria Melbourne's bloody divan."
Early in 1905 this impression gained such strength and such polite references were made to one another in public by Lord Rosebery and Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, that his assumption of office in a Liberal ministry, possibly presided over by Earl Spencer, was confidently anticipated.
Our knowledge of this non-Chaucerian material, as of the Chaucerian, is chiefly derived from the MS. collections of Asloan, Bannatyne (q.v.) and Maitland (q.v.), supplemented by the references to " fugitive " and " popular " literature in Dunbar, Douglas, Lyndsay and, in especial, the prose Complaynt of Scotlande.
The discoveries of1888-1889(with references to previous works) are described by E.
Julg, Vita Aelii Sejani (1882), with notes giving full references to authorities; J.
The sporting tastes of the ancient Greeks, as may be gathered from many references in Homer (Il.
References will be found in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities - art.
Figs cannot be grown in the country, and the ancient references to Phrygian figs are either erroneous or due to a loose use of the term Phrygia.
upwards from Persepolis; and all the other references in the historians of Cyrus and Alexander indicate the same place.
References to the Viking Age in a general way are to be found in a vast number of books, especially histories of the Scandinavian countries, of which Munch's Det Norske Folks Historie (1852, &c.) is the most distinguished; J.
The facts of Owen's life must be pieced together from scattered references in contemporary chronicles and documents; perhaps the most important are Adam of Usk's Chronicle and Ellis's Original Letters.
The: precise date of this work cannot be ascertained, but it contains references to the decisions of the Lateran council of 1139, and there is fair authority for believing that it was completed while Pope Alexander III.
Gerhard, Ober Ursprung, Wesen and Geltung des Poseidon (1851), with references to authorities in conveniently arranged notes; Preller-Robert, Griechische Mythologie (1894); O.
First, because earliest in point of time, the references to the Lord Jesus Christ in the earliest Epistles of St Paul.
Yet, apart from the references to cultic prostitution (which was adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanites), the mention of the vice in question is not frequent; in a polygamous society and in a country without great cities it was not likely to grow to great proportions.
No separate history of the congress exists, but innumerable references are to be found in general histories and in memoirs, correspondence, &c., of the time.
For the later Constantines references to general authorities will be found under Later Roman Empire; see also Caliphate and SELJUxs for the wars of the period.
Most of the other references relate to the strife of Michael and Satan about the body of Moses, and ascribe it to the Ascensio Mosis, i.e.
With this " Testament " the " Assumption," to which almost all the patristic references and that of Jude are made, was subsequently edited.
Peoples (apparently Iranian) of Hittite connexion from the powerful state of Mitanni (Northern Syria and Mesopotamia) had already left their mark as far south as Jerusalem, as may be inferred from the personal names, 4 and to the intercourse with (apparently) Aegean culture revealed by excavation, the letters add references to mercenaries and bands from Meluhlia (viz.
The diminutive cities of this cosmopolitan Palestine were ruled by kings, not necessarily of the native stock; some were appointed - and even anointed - by the Egyptian king, and the small extent of these city-states is obvious from the references to the kings of such near-lying sites as Jerusalem, Gezer, Ashkelon and Lachish.
As regards Egypt, apart from a few references in biblical history (e.g.
in references to Ammon, Damascus and Hamath, and in Judaean relations with Philistia, Moab and Edom.
16 sqq., 23, 25, and other references to idolatry, are the outcome of a reaction against images.
It is in keeping with the old conceptions of the divine kingship, which, though they survive only in isolated biblical references, live on in the ideals of the Messianic king and his kingdom and in the post-exilic high priest. ?
References to authorities other than Josephus are given in the course of the article; his Antiquities and War are the chief source for the period.
The two dialogues occasionally make interesting references to personages of the epoch.
Shoobridge, Herculaneum, Past, Present and Future (London, 1908); it contains full references to the history and the explorations, and to the buildings and objects found (with illustrations).
P. C. Griffin, A List of Books on the Philippine Islands in the Library of Congress (Washington, 1903), with references to periodicals; T.
Darwin Swift (Clarendon Press, 1894), in which are many references to authorities.
He was also criticized for his vanity and perpetual references to his own achievements.
Clerke's The System of the Stars (2nd ed., 1905), which contains full references to original papers; Problems in Astrophysics, by the same author,, may also be consulted.
These and like developments, which are to be divined from references in the Aristotelian writings, jejune, and, for the most part, of probable interpretation only, complete the material which Aristotle could utilize when he seceded from the Platonic school and embarked upon his own course of logical inquiry.
These are combinatory of parts, attaching or detaching predicates, and so involving 9 References such as are the result of subsequent editing and prove nothing.
As an algebraic 1 It appears from Joly's and Macfarlane's references that J.
The labours of the publicist would also be much lightened were it possible to consolidate the various general collections of diplomatic acts into a new Corps diplomatique universel, well furnished with cross references, and with brief annotations showing how far each treaty is supposed to be still in force.
For further references see Ulysse Chevalier, Repertoire des sources.
Smith, Religion of the Semites, 2nd ed., pp. 168 seq., with references.
2 (with references); cf.
The references in this article furnish fuller information and are usually made to works suitable for pursuing the subject more thoroughly.
But the boundaries are not definite and the references to its territory are obscure.
Thus too the belief in a kingdom of demons held a large place in the mind of the people, though the references to such evil beings are almost absent from the sacred writings of the Old Testament.
Because the Old Testament contained references to the origin and the objects of the universe, a certain amount of natural science was necessary, but it was only in this connexion that it had any value.
1903 (with references), and from an American point of view, in T.
ii., 1906 (references to American sources).
4 For further details and references to literature see the introduction to Leskien's Grammatik (not to be confused with his Handbuch), from which this is abbreviated.
The best general accounts, though already somewhat antiquated, are: (I) The Alphabet (2 vols., with references to earlier works), by Canon Isaac Taylor (1883), reprinted from the stereotyped plates with small necessary corrections (1899); and (2) Histoire de l'e'criture dans l'antiquite, by M.