I'll record the facts from my personal point of view, and my observation.
It is a matter of common observation that the blue of the sky is highly variable.
One scout meant observation; the second, danger.
There was helpful information for us to improve observation techniques.
This led Hooker to the striking observation already quoted.
She realized that those noticing her liked her, and this observation helped to calm her.
The observation of the facts of geographical distribution.
Observation of germinating seedlings makes it clear that somehow they have a perception of direction.
The observation mirrored Dean's thoughts precisely.
Besides what he learnt from his own observation, he collected much information from others concerning countries which he did not visit.
Aristotle, Haller, Harvey, Kielmeyer, Autenrieth, and many others have either made this observation incidentally, or, especially the latter, have drawn particular attention to it, and drawn therefrom results of permanent importance for physiology."
It results that besides a horizontal distribution of plants, there is also an altitudinal: a fact of cardinal importance, the first observation of which has been attributed to Tournefort.
If we have a large range of examples, if our observation is constantly directed to seeking the correlation of cause and effect in people's actions, their actions appear to us more under compulsion and less free the more correctly we connect the effects with the causes.
They have made this observation the basis of a practical method of separating helium from the other inert gases.
If we examined simple actions and had a vast number of such actions under observation, our conception of their inevitability would be still greater.
The distinction between the old and new method of observation may thus, in one sense, be described as the difference between shooting at a moving object and in shooting at one at rest.
The observation of the gradations of structure, from extreme simplicity to very great complexity, presented by living things, and of the relation of these graduated forms to one another.
The contrast between a campaign of Cromwell's and one of Turenne's is far more than remarkable, and the observation of a military critic who maintains that Cromwell's art of war was two centuries in advance of its time, finds universal acceptance.
The observation of the existence of an analogy between the series of gradations presented by the species which compose any great group of animals or plants, and the series of embryonic conditions of the highest members of that group.
Aside from our personal observation that he was a first class son of a bitch, everything else about him came from Edith.
The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.
Nicholas noticed this, as he noticed every shade of Princess Mary's character with an observation unusual to him, and everything confirmed his conviction that she was a quite unusual and extraordinary being.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
The observation of the effects of varying conditions in modifying living organisms.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
The "wisdom" personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astrology in which the observation of the moon's phases is so important a factor.
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
His own observation, and the reports of Mersenne, furnished his data.
From the nature of the case, this view is not, and could not be, based upon actual observation, nor is it universally accepted; however, it seems to correspond more closely than any other to the facts of comparative morphology.
The conception of work and of energy was originally derived from observation of purely mechanical phenomena, that is to say, phenomena in which the relative positions and motions of visible portions of matter were all that were taken into consideration.
This observation led him to further work, and he succeeded in showing that in vascular organs the presence of cells in inflammatory exudates is not the result of exudation but of multiplication of pre-existing cells.
Twitter.com is unquestionably the most efficient way in the history of humanity to send a single idea, invitation, complaint, or observation to the world.
The danger lies not in forming such hypotheses, but in regarding them as final, or as more than an attempt to throw light upon our observation of the phenomena.
But neither temperament nor training allowed her to make her pupil the object of any experiment or observation which did not help in the child's development.
They examined the rest of the garments and each, upon careful observation, was identified in a like fashion, although some of the markings were so faded they were no longer legible.
In person Madame Roland was attractive though not beautiful; her ideas were clear and far-reaching, her manner calm, and her power of observation extremely acute.
The observation of the facts of the geological succession of the forms of life.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) observed in 1863 3 that when a condenser is charged or discharged, a sharp click is heard, and a similar observation was made by Cromwell F.
And Penny's final observation about a second climber opened a whole new perspective.
It has been a feature of great promise in recent contributions to the theory of evolution, that such contributions have received attention almost directly in proportion to the new methods of observation and the new series of facts with which they have come.
The farther back in history the object of our observation lies, the more doubtful does the free will of those concerned in the event become and the more manifest the law of inevitability.
Ordinary observation of the landscape shows that there is another part, highly variable from day to day, and due to suspended matter, much of which is fine enough to scatter light of blue quality.
To study the laws of history we must completely change the subject of our observation, must leave aside kings, ministers, and generals, and study the common, infinitesimally small elements by which the masses are moved.
Not letting the abbe and Pierre escape, Anna Pavlovna, the more conveniently to keep them under observation, brought them into the larger circle.
Pierre wished to make a remark, for the conversation interested him, but Anna Pavlovna, who had him under observation, interrupted:
You can be a subsistence farmer and perhaps produce some excess, but given the prior observation about the fundamental volatility of farming, you will always be at risk of not producing enough.
(With this method of observation it often happens that the observer, influenced by the direction he himself prefers, regards those as leaders who, owing to the people's change of direction, are no longer in front, but on one side, or even in the rear.)
In the latter part of the 17th century the doctrine of epigenesis thus advocated by Harvey was controverted on the ground of direct observation by M.
It is merely necessary to select some larger or smaller unit as the subject of observation--as criticism has every right to do, seeing that whatever unit history observes must always be arbitrarily selected.
That was my observation.
Of the author nothing is known beyond the obvious fact that he was a man of wide observation and philosophic thought, of the Sadducean type in religion, but non-Jewish in his attitude toward life.
The same firm is also constructing a micrometer in which the readings of the head are printed on a band of paper instead of being read off at the time of observation.
Napoleon now hastened to rejoin the group of corps he had left under Bernadotte in observation towards the Russians, for the latter were nearer at hand than even Mack had assumed.
The allies, aware of the gradual strengthening of their enemy's forces but themselves as yet unable to put more than 200,000 in the field, had left a small corps of observation opposite Magdeburg and along the Elbe to give timely notice of an advance towards Berlin; and with the bulk of their forces had taken up a position about Dresden, whence they had determined to march down the course of the Elbe and roll up the French from right to left.
These constitute the winter residence of the family, reception rooms, &c. The roofs of the houses are all flat, surrounded by parapets of sufficient height to protect them from the observation of the dwellers opposite, and separate them from their neighbours.
In one considerable comic fragment attributed to him - the description of a coquette - there is great truth and shrewdness of observation.
But these interesting phenomena have not hitherto been subject to systematic observation, and our knowledge of them is therefore uncertain.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
at several points of observation in the western half of the state.
A very large amount of local detailed observation in the various sea-areas must be the next important work to be undertaken: this means currentobservations b y direct readings of metres, by the employment of drift-bottles and numerous determinations of temperature and salinity at all seasons.
The Works of John Home were collected and published by Henry Mackenzie in 1822 with "An Account of the Life and Writings of Mr John Home," which also appeared separately in the same year, but several of his smaller poems seem to have escaped the editor's observation.
Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.
This observation showed that nascent hydrogen was not, as had been supposed, the primary cause of the separation of metals from their solutions, but that the action consisted in a direct decomposition into metal and acid.
The details of the calculation are given in the article Electric conduction, § where also will be found an account of the methods which have been used to measure the velocities of many ions by direct visual observation.
Ostwald has confirmed the equation by observation on an enormous number of weak acids (Zeits.
This " replacement " of a " weak " acid by a " strong " one is a matter of common observation in the chemical laboratory.
The heats of formation thus obtained may be either positive or negative, and by using them to supplement the heat of formation of water, Arrhenius calculated the total heats of neutralization of soda by different acids, some of them only slightly dissociated, and found values agreeing well with observation (Zeus.
The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.
Though not uncommonly frequenting gardens and orchards, in which as well as in woods it builds its nest, it is exceedingly shy in its habits, so as seldom to afford opportunities for observation.
It is only in the present day that there are noticeable signs of dissatisfaction with current morality itself, and a tendency to substitute or advocate a new morality based ostensibly upon conclusions derived from the facts of scientific observation.
Astronomy is of necessity a science of observation in the pursuit of which experiment can directly play no part.
One characteristic of astronomy which tends to make its progress slow and continuous arises out of the general fact that, except in the case of motions to or from us, which can be determined by a single observation with the spectroscope, the motion of a heavenly body can be determined only by comparing its position at two different epochs.
Even in the case of the planets, the variations in the form and position of the orbits are so slow that long periods of observation are required for their correct determination.
When an astronomer has made an observation, it still has to be " reduced," and this commonly requires more labour than that involved in making it.
Theoretical Astronomy,which may be considered as an extension of geometrical astronomy and includes the determination of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies by combining mathematical theory with observation.
Practical Astronomy, which comprises a description of the instruments used in astronomical observation, and of the principles and methods underlying their application.
The points most generally taken for this purpose in astronomical practice are the following :- (I) The position of a point of observation on the earth's surface.
It is content to explain the origin and course of development of the world, the solar or, at most, the sidereal system which falls under our own observation.
earth by three arguments, two of which could be tested by observation.
They are all marked by arrogant dogmatism, violence of language, a constant tendency to selfglorification, strangely combined with extensive real knowledge, with acute reasoning, with an observation of facts and details almost unparalleled.
I didn't have a good come-back to that observation.
The rest was accomplished by stealthy observation.
Absent these most general distinctions, color was her only detailed observation.
We kept her overnight for observation.
This last part contains some contingent of personal observation.
Our knowledge of the salinity of waters below the surface is as yet very defective, large areas being still unrepresented by a single observation.
von Barensprung (1822-1865) and Ludwig Traube (1818-1876) did the same service; but it is to the work of Karl August Wunderlich (1815-1877) that we owe the establishment of this means of precision as a method of regular observation both in pathology and in clinical medicine.
Two corps were left in the open in observation, one at St Ninian's to watch the lower course of the burn, one to guard the point at which the Falkirk-Stirling road crosses the burn.
An early observation of the diffusion of gases was recorded by him in 1823 when he noticed the escape of hydrogen from a cracked jar, attributing it to the capillary action of fissures.
Hancock, but has in many cases escaped the observation of later zoologists.
The existence of such forms seems to have been brought to Sylvester's notice by observation of the fact that the resultant of of and b must be a factor of the resultant of Xax+ 12 by and X'a +tA2 for a common factor of the first pair must be also a common factor so we obtain P: = of the second pair; so that the condition for the existence of such common factor must be the same in the two cases.
This result was soon apparently confirmed by several other researches founded both on theory and observation, and so strong did the evidence appear to be that the value 8.95" was used in the Nautical Almanac from 1870 to 1881.
No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.
The three bodies chosen for observation were: Victoria (June 10 to Aug.
The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
On the whole it is probable that the value exceeds 20.50"; and so far as the results of direct observation are concerned may, for the present, be fixed at 20.52".
The determination of the solar parallax through the parallactic inequality of the moon's motion also involves two elements - one of observation, the other of purely mathematical theory.
For the practical observation of this phenomenon it is usual to employ a needle which can turn freely in the plane of the magnetic meridian upon a horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of the needle.
The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.
The short-circuit key F is kept closed except when an observation is about to be made; its object is to arrest the swing of the d'Arsonval galvano 1 E.
4 Nagaoka' has described the remarkable influence of combined torsion and 'tension upon the magnetic susceptibility of nickel, and has made the extraordinary observation that, under certain conditions of stress, the magnetization of a nickel wire may have a direction opposite to that of the magnetizing force.
As regards the higher temperatures, the chief point of interest is the observation that the curve of magnetization for annealed cobalt shows a small depression at about 450°, the temperature at which they had found the sign of the length-change to be reversed for all fields.
Hartmann of Nuremberg in 1544, but his observation was not published till much later.
Careful experiment and observation, not the inner consciousness, are, he insists, the only foundations of true science.
The greatest of Gilbert's discoveries was that the globe of the earth was magnetic and a magnet; the evidence by which he supported this view was derived chiefly from ingenious experiments made with a spherical lodestone or lerrella, as he termed it, and from his original observation that an iron bar could be magnetized by the earth's force.
The stories of a scorpion stinging itself to death when placed in a circle of burning coals are due to erroneous observation.
9 in the observation that the daily meat and drink offering are cut off, and the token of new blessing is the restoration of this service, ch.
It is, however, exceedingly difficult in this respect to draw an absolute distinction between men and animals, observation of which undoubtedly suggests that the latter have a certain power of making inferences.
It is worthy of observation, that Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive attraction.
It is a spirit which distrusts abstractions, which makes for direct observation, for inductive research.
The second class of Hungarian modern novelists is led by the well-known Koloman Mikszath, a poet endowed with originality, a charming naiveté, and a freshness of observation from life.
The declared aim of the author 1 was to offer a complete solution of the great mechanical problem presented by the solar system, and to bring theory to coincide so closely with observation that empirical equations should no longer find a place in astronomical tables.
The possibility of in the verification established verification as a habit; and the -collecting of things, instead of the accumulating of reports, developed a new faculty of minute observation.
Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration, but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology.
The active search for knowledge by means of observation and experiment found its natural home in the universities.
In the 17th century the lovers of the new philosophy, the investigators of nature by means of observation and experiment, banded themselves into academies or societies for mutual support and intercourse.
Outside the scientific world an immense mass of observation and experiment had grown up in relation to this subject.
It was Wotton's merit that he rejected the legendary and fantastic accretions, and returned to Aristotle and the observation of nature.
Between Linnaeus and Cuvier there are no very great names; but under the stimulus given by the admirable method and system of Linnaeus observation and description of new forms from all parts of the world, both recent and fossil, accumulated.
1 The anatomical error in reference to the auricles of Reptiles and Batrachians on the part of Linnaeus is extremely interesting, since it shows to what an extent the most patent facts may escape the observation of even the greatest observers, and what an amount of repeated dissection and unprejudiced attention has been necessary before the structure of the commonest animals has become known.
His power of rapid and exhaustive observation and of accurate pictorial reproduction was phenomenal.
In each set of experiments he concentrated his attention on the one character selected for observation.
In the first hybrid generation formed by the union of the reproductive germs of the positive variety (that possessing the structural character selected for observation) with those of the negative variety, it is not surprising that all or nearly all the individuals were found to exhibit, as a result of the mixture, the positive character.
Whatever value is to be attached to Mendel's observation of the breaking up of self-fertilized hybrids of cultivated varieties into the two original parent forms according to the formula " 'PP, 2PN, INN," it cannot be considered as more than a contribution to the extensive investigation of heredity which still remains to be carried out.
The attempt to connect Mendel's observation with the structure of the spermcells and egg-cells of plants and animals has already been made.
It was not proved by Lamarck that they can be, and, indeed, never has been proved by actual observation.
By varying the distance the point is easily found at which resolution ceases; and the observation is as sharp as with a telescope.
The importance of the general conclusions above formulated, as imposing a limit upon our powers of direct observation, can hardly be overestimated; but there has been in some quarters a tendency to ascribe to it a more precise character than it can bear, or even to mistake its meaning altogether.
Verdet has, however, pointed out that the observation in this form is essentially different from that in which homogeneous red light is employed, and that the position of the red rings would correspond to the absence of blue-green light rather than to the greatest abundance of red light.
A comparison with the method of a material pointer, attached to the parts whose rotation is under observation, and viewed through a microscope, is of interest.
The limiting efficiency of the microscope is attained when the angular aperture amounts to 180°; and it is evident that a lateral displacement of the point under observation through -IX entails (at the old image) a phase-discrepancy B Q' of a whole period, one extreme ray FIG.
His recent discovery of the " fixed lines " allowed a precision of observation previously impossible.
Let us suppose that the light is incident perpendicularly, and that the grating interval increases from the centre towards that edge which lies nearest to the spectrum under observation, and decreases towards the hinder edge.
1, may be determined by direct integration of (12), or from the observation that by their constitution G and H vanish when u= oo, coupled with the fact that C and S then assume the value 2.
It has long been known from observation that there are no bands on the interior side of the shadow of the O edge.
As his plays show, the spectacle struck Antonio's observation, but he had to criticize with caution.
Now, both the Korahite and Asaphic groups of psalms are remarkable that they hardly contain any recognition of present sin on the part of the community of Jewish faith - though they do confess the sin of Israel in the past - but are exercised with the observation that prosperity does not follow righteousness either in the case of the individual (xlix., lxxiii.) or in that of the nation, which suffers notwithstanding its loyalty to God, or even on account thereof (xliv., lxxix.).
The Letters are brilliantly written - full of elegant wisdom, of keen wit, of admirable portrait-painting, of exquisite observation and deduction.
He lays no claim to the position of an original artist painting from life or commenting on the results of his own observation.
Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.
Though the Hippocratic medicine was so largely founded on observation, it would be an error to suppose that dogma or theory had no place.
This false precision can have had no practical value, but may have enforced habits of minute observation.
The most striking peculiarity of the empirics was that they rejected anatomy, regarding it as useless to inquire into the causes of things, and thus, as they contended, being the more minute in their observation of the actual phenomena of disease.
Three sources, and three only, could experience draw from: observation, history (i.e.
recorded observation), and judgment by analogy.
Although it cannot be said that the science of medicine was advanced at Salerno, still its decline was arrested at a time when every other branch of learning was rapidly falling into decay; and there can be no doubt that the observation of patients in hospitals, and probably clinical instruction, were made use of in learning and teaching.
Certainly not pure empiricism, or habits of objective observation.
The standard of excellence in the ancient writers was indeed far above the level of the 16th century; but the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been acquired by direct observation retarded progress more than the possession of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental faults of medieval science remained uncorrected.
The great Morgagni, the founder of morbid anatomy, himself set the example of carrying on this study parallel with clinical observation; and always insisted that the clinical story of the case should be brought side by side with the revelations of the necropsy.
In the subject of diseases of the skin much has been done, in the minuter observation of their forms, in the description of forms previously unrecognized, and in respect of bacterial and other causation and of treatment.
It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
But much the greater mass of the illustrations of his philosophy indicate that, while engaged on his poem he must have passed much of his time in the open air, exercising at once the keen observation of a naturalist and the contemplative vision of a poet.
On the other hand, they are constantly impressed by his power of reasoning both deductively and inductively, by the subtlety and fertility of invention with which he applies analogies, by the clearness and keenness of his observation, by the fulness of matter with which his mind is stored, and by the consecutive force, the precision and distinctness of his style, when employed in the processes of scientific exposition.
The third and fourth books give evidence of acuteness in psychological analysis; the fourth and sixth of the most active and varied observation of natural phenomena; the fifth of original insight and strong common sense in conceiving the origin of society and the progressive advance of man to civilization.
He was put on half pay by the new authorities and ordered to live under police observation at Pamplona.
He afterwards made many journeys through the ancient Campania to illustrate its geology, and published in 1798 his Topografia fisica della Campania, which contains the results of much accurate observation.
His pages abound in symbols representing unknown functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as bases for deduction.
A crystal lens, turned on the lathe, was discovered by Layard at Nimrud along with glass vases bearing the name of Sargon; this will explain the excessive minuteness of some of the writing on the Assyrian tablets, and a lens may also have been used in the observation of the heavens.
It is a matter of common observation that stones of monuments, walls or buildings which are exposed to the air sooner or later become eaten away or broken up into small fragments under the influence of the weather.
He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.
Muqaddasi (Mokaddasi) at the end of the aoth century was one of the early travellers whose works were founded on their own observation.
- Humboldt's " Iberian theory " depended partly on linguistic comparisons, but partly on his observation of widespread similarity of physical type among the population of south-western Europe.
The question whether this cause modifies gravitation admits of an easy test from observation.
But this proves nothing because, in the case of distances so great, centuries or even thousands of years of accurate observation will be required to show any action.
His pupil, Rainer Gemma-Frisius, used it for the observation of the solar eclipse of January 1544 at Louvain, and fully described the methods he adopted for making measurements and drawings of the eclipsed sun, in his De Radio Astronomico et Geometrico (1545).
He says they can be used for observation of the moon and stars and also for longitudes.
Moestlin and his pupil Kepler - the latter applying it in 1607 to the observation of a transit of Mercury - also by Johann Fabricius, in 1611, for the first observations of sun-spots.
- The general observation that under a constant pressure a pure substance boils at a constant temperature leads to the conclusion that the distillate which comes over while the thermometer records only a small variation is of practically constant composition.
Meteoric observation has depended upon rough and hurried eye estimates in past years, but the importance of attaining greater accuracy by means of photography has been recognized.
His descriptions of his native county reveal close observation and a vivid perception of natural beauty.
18), quotes the grammarian Verrius Flaccus, to the effect that history, according to its etymology (icrrop€iv, inspicere, to inquire in person), is a record of events that have come under the author's own observation, while annals are a record of the events of earlier times arranged according to years.
- (Dr Bridges.) The first and greatest aim of the Positive Philosophy is to advance the study of society into the third of the three stages, - to remove social phenomena from the sphere of theological and metaphysical conceptions, and to introduce among them the same scientific observation of their laws which has given us physics, chemistry, physiology.
logical Of course the first step was to approach the phenomena of human character and social existence with the expectation of finding them as reducible to general laws as the other phenomena of the universe, and with the hope of exploring these laws by the same instruments of observation and verification as had done such triumphant work in the case of the latter.
After a careful survey of Mr Gladstone's life, enlightened by personal observation, it is inevitable to attempt some analysis.
It is often depicted with a flowing tail, which appendix attests close observation of nature; for the mino-game, as it is called, represents a tortoise to which, in the course of many scores of years, confcrvae have attached themselves so as to form an appendage of long green locks as the creature swims about.
Thus though neither botanically nor ornithologically correct, their flowers and their birds show a ttuth to nature, and a habit of minute observation in the artist, which cannot be too much admired.
During the long apprenticeship that educated Japanese serve to acquire the power of writing with the brush the complicated characters borrowed from Chinese, they unconsciously cultivate the habit of minute observation and the power of accurate imitation, and with these the delicacy of touch and freedom of hand which only long practice can give.
The style was applied only to the representations of sacred personages and scenes, and as the traditional forms and attributes of the Brahmanic and Buddhist divinities were mutable only within narrow limits, the subjects seldom afforded scope for originality of design or observation of nature.
The sculptures attributed to Jocho, the founder of the Nara school, although powerful in pose and masterly in execution, lack the truth of observation seen in some of the earlier and later masterpieces.
He and the craftsmen of the school he established completely refute the theory that the anatomical solecisms commonly seen in the works of Japanese sculptors are due to faulty observation.
to fill the professorship of natural history in the Imperial Academy of Science, St Petersburg, and in the same year he was appointed naturalist to a scientific expedition through Russia and Siberia, the immediate object of which was the observation of the transit of Venus in 1769.
It cannot be said, however, that Ramus's innovations mark any epoch in the history of logic. His rhetorical leaning is seen in the definition of logic as the "ars disserendi"; he maintains that the rules of logic may be better learned from observation of the way in which Cicero persuaded his hearers than from a study of the Organon.
This principle more or less prevailed until it was overthrown by Lavoisier's doctrine that oxygen was the acid-producing element; Lavoisier being led to this conclusion by the almost general observation that acids were produced when non-metallic elements were burnt.
The greatest size to which some species attain, according to positive observation, is about 12 ft., and therefore far short of the statements as to the length of the so-called sea-serpents (q.v.).
They let us into the secret of his most serious thoughts and cares, and they give a natural outlet to his vivacity of observation, his wit and humour, his kindliness of nature.
Although the treatises IIEpi Kpwviuwv cannot be accepted as authentic, we find in the Ilpoyvwvr,KOV evidence of the acuteness of observation in the manner in which the occurrence of critical days in disease is enunciated.
It is of the same order as the probable errors of observation, and may be neglected in.
Corps, being left in observation of the troops visible on their front and of the garrison of Metz itself.
In order to obtain observation and jumping-off ground for the attack on the main Hindenburg system it was necessary to clear the enemy from the positions still held by him forward of this line.
The capture of these defences, which would afford observation over the greater part of the main Hindenburg line proper, was of course an essential preliminary to any operation against the latter.
Corps of observation were formed in Roussillon and Lorraine.
The resources of the French government were almost intact for the coming campaign; the corps of observation in Roussillon was continued, and its commander, Marshal Schomberg, made a successful campaign against the Spaniards, and the war was carried even into Sicily.
To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.
Two typical forms are in use; in one a liquid is prepared in which the crystal freely swims, the density of the liquid being ascertained by the pycnometer or other methods; in the other a liquid of variable density, the so-called "diffusion column," is prepared, and observation is made of the level at which the particle comes to rest.
They not only introduced him to the subtleties of Italian diplomacy, but'also extended his observation over races very different from the Italians.
Together with the Discorsi, the Principe contains the speculative fruits of his experience and observation combined with his deductions from Roman history.
In 1863 it was independently discovered by Westwood in an English vinery at Hammersmith; he was ignorant of Fitch's observation, and called it Peritymbia vitisana.
Probably the last example of its employment is an observation of the transit of Mercury (November 4, 1868) by Mann, at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope (Monthly Notices R.A.S.
This construction would give all the advantage of the younger Dollond's object-glass micrometer, and more than its sharpness of definition, without liability to the systematic errors which may be due to want of homogeneity of the object-glass; for the lenses will not be turned with respect to each other, but, in measurement, will always have the same relation in position angle to the line joining the objects under observation.
The third method is the most symmetrical of all, both in observation and reduction; but it was not employed by Bessel, on the ground that it involved the determination of the errors of two screws instead of one.
10 A screen of wire gauze, placed in front of the segment through which the fainter star is viewed, was, employed by Bessel to equalize the brilliancy of the images under observation.
(c) A button in the centre of the position-angle handle (74) connects with a chronograph which enables the observer to record the instant of observation.
and Dec. of the object to be observed, the scale divisions to be pointed upon, and thus, in measures of distance, with the aid of the chronograph and printing micrometer, enable the observer to adjust the instrument for observation and obtain a record of his observations without the aid of a hand-lamp or the necessity to make any records in his notebook.
(e) A position-micrometer is attached to the finder to enable the observer to select comparison stars for observation with some unexpected object.
Thus a comet may be encountered in the morning dawn or evening twilight, and without such an adjunct the astronomer may lose the whole available opportunity for observation in the vain endeavour to find a suitable comparison-star.
The disk 32 operates the wire gauze screens for equalizing the brightness of the two stars under observation.
Of course, for many purposes, mean conditions may be adopted and mean scale-values be found which are applicable with considerable pre cision to small angles or to comparatively crude observations of large distances; but the highest refinement is lost unless means are provided for determining the scale-value for each observer at each epoch of observation.
1542 fol.; printed by Caspar Trechsel at Vienne); on this work Tollin founds his high estimate of Servetus as a comparative geographer; the passage incriminated on his trial as attacking the verity of Moses is from Lorenz Friese; the accounts of the language and character of modern nations show original observation.
The Hydrographic Office of the United States had collected 3800 meteorological logs with 3,200,000 entries before 1888; but since that time the logs have contained only one observation daily (at Greenwich noon) and of these 2,380.000 entries had been received by 1904.
disk to depths of 31 and 36 fathoms in the Sargasso Sea, but in the cold currents of the north and also in the equatorial current the depth of visibility was only from zi to 162 fathoms. to the tropical parts of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans the depth of visibility increases again to from 20 to 27 fathoms. Some allowance should be made for the elevation of the sun at the time of observation.
Such current-meters as those used by Aime in 1841 and by Irminger since 1858 only gave the direction of the deeper current by comparison with the surface current at the time of observation.
an hour only 22 fathoms. It follows that a pure trade-wind drift cannot reach to any great depth, and this seems to be confirmed by observation, as when tow-nets are sunk to depths of 50 fathoms and more in the region of the equatorial current they always show a strong drift away from the side of the ship, the ship itself following the surface current.
The fungus was never found growing within the circle during the time the ring was under observation, the decaying vegetation necessary for its growth having become exhausted.
The observation that acetylene can be resolved into its constituents by detonation is due to Berthelot, who started an explosive wave in it by firing a charge of oï¿½i gram of mercury fulminate.
The ratio W/p increases very rapidly as 0 is increased,, and therefore, by making 0 sufficiently large, p may conveniently be made a small fraction of W, thereby rendering errors of observation of the spring balance negligible.
A third pencil traces an observation line in which a kick can be made at will by pressing any one of the electrical pushes placed about the car, and a fourth draws a datum line.
That the distances traversed by the molecules of a solid are very small in extent is shown by innumerable facts of everyday observation, as for instance, the fact that the surface of a finely-carved metal (such as a plate used for steel engraving) will retain its exact shape for centuries, or again, the fact that when a metal body is coated with gold-leaf the molecules of the gold remain on its surface indefinitely: if they moved through.
Though his researches were not conducted on any definite scientific plan, his powers of careful observation enabled him to make many interesting discoveries in the minute anatomy of man, the higher animals and insects.
He even noted the fact that the pupa of the flea is sometimes attacked and fed upon by a mite - an observation which suggested the well.
His pictures are magnificent in their composition and their draughtsmanship; and his keen observation and insight into character are evident, especially in his portraits, notably of Madame Recamier, of the Conventional Gerard and of Boissy d'Anglas.
Having in his mind the scheme of his great work, he gave ample time to the elaboration of all its parts, and took care to obtain by personal observation a full knowledge of the various countries.
This was a work for which his experience, habits of observation, and scientific training peculiarly fitted him, and in which his popularity as a teacher, no less than his power as a practical physician, became more than ever conspicuous.
With the exception of what the South-Arabian Hamdani relates of his own observation or from authentic tradition, the Mahommedan Arabic accounts of South Arabia and Sabaea are of little worth.
Uo=33,150 cm./sec., which is closely in accordance with observation.
142) showed that a very small departure from the adiabatic condition would lead to a stifling of the sound quite out of accord with observation.
(9) The velocity then should be independent of the barometric pressure, a result confirmed by observation.
For two different gases with the same value of y, but with densities at the same pressure and temperature respectively p i and p2, we should have U1/U2 =1 1 (P2/P1), (Io) another result confirmed by observation.
A very curious observation is recorded by the Rev. G.
It is, of course, a matter of common observation that the wind increases in velocity from the surface upwards.
How came Adam by the requisite insight and power of observation?
The same observation applies as to the requisites of an award, the mode of its enforcement and the grounds on which it will be set aside.
The acute observation that 2 Sam.
In these works he shows how the numbers representing the individual qualities of man are grouped round the numbers referring to the "average man" in a manner exactly corresponding to that in which single results of observation are grouped round the mean result, so that the principles of the theory of probabilities may be applied to statistical researches on the subjects.
In citing a Chaldaean observation of Mercury dating from 235 B.C. (Almagest, ii.
The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.
The old monk's keen observation makes the book a far more valuable contribution to history than his professed chronicle.
The active movement of his spirit spent itself, not in following out its own trains of thought, but in outward observation.
Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.
Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each other, they always combine in equal volumes.
The views of Adler as to the alternation of generations of numerous gall-flies have been fully confirmed, it having been ascertained by direct observation that the galls and the insects produced from them in one generation are entirely different from the next generation; and it has also been rendered certain that frequently one of the alternate generations is parthenogenetic, no males being produced.
His prominent use of Roman law and the wide range of his observation have made his works as intelligible abroad as at home, and thereby much valuable information - for example, concerning the nature of British supremacy in India, and the position of native institutions there - has been made the property of the world of letters instead of the peculiar and obscure possession of a limited class of British public servants.
An observation is then taken of the reading of the amperemeter and of the fall of resistance down the low resistance when a certain steady current is passing through the strip and amperemeter.
It was only after a fresh and keener observation of facts that the new theory made rapid progress.
This sketch of the critical movement has now been brought down to the point at which the comprehensive conclusions which still dominate Old Testament study gained clear expression and were shown to be drawn from the observation of a large body of facts.
Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.
Yet in spite of his business cares he found time for an extraordinary amount of original research, and every year he published two or three papers, most of which contained some discovery or observation of importance.
Whether the will of the gods is determined through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal, through observing the action of oil bubbles in a basin of water or through the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, it is Shamash and Adad who, in the ritual connected with divination, are invariably invoked.
Magic, astrology and alchemy - all the outgrowth of Neoplatonism - gave the first effectual stimulus to the observation of nature, and consequently to natural science, and in this way finally extinguished barren rationalism.
What strikes us most in his book is his wide and keen observation of social facts, and his perpetual tendency to dwell on these and elicit their significance, instead of drawing conclusions from abstract principles by elaborate chains of reasoning.
But there is another species of deduction which, as Cliffe Leslie has shown, seriously tainted the philosophy of Smith - in which the premises are not facts ascertained by observation, but the a priori assumptions which we found in the physiocrats.
The dawn of the science covers the first observation of facts and the rudiments of true interpretation.
It appears from comparison of the work in the two great divisions of vertebrate and invertebrate palaeontology made for the first time in this article that in accuracy of observation and in close philosophical analysis of facts the students of invertebrate palaeontology led the way.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
It should be remembered that palaeontology is the most unfavourable field of all for observation and demonstration of sudden saltations or mutations of character, because of the limited materials available for comparison and the rarity of genetic series.
The net result of observation is not favourable to the essentially Darwinian view that the adaptive arises out of the fortuitous by selection, but is rather favourable to the hypothesis of the existence of some quite unknown intrinsic law of life which we are at present totally unable to comprehend or even conceive.
We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.
He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.
(15) Besides the said directors before mentioned, three or four of the most ancient and grave divines in either of the universities, not employed in translating, to be assigned by the vicechancellor upon conference with [the] rest of the heads to be overseers of the translations, as well Hebrew as Greek, for the better observation of the fourth rule above specified."
The first observation of a trypanosome is usually ascribed to Valentin (55), who in 1841 announced his discovery of certain amoeboid parasites in the blood of a trout.
Considering them first in a tolerant host, the trend of observation is to show that they are never abundant, but on the contrary usually somewhat scarce.
Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid.
Notwithstanding the rude character of the apparatus at his disposal, Horrocks was enabled by his observation of it to introduce some important corrections into the elements of the planet's, orbit, and to reduce to its exact value the received estimate of its apparent diameter.
(I) Tertullian was a man of great originality and genius, characterized by the deepest pathos, the liveliest fancy, and the most penetrating keenness, and was endowed with ability to appropriate and make use of all the methods of observation and speculation, and with the readiest wit.
But Supposing The Instant Of The Sun'S Entering Into The Sign Libra To Be Very Near Midnight, The Small Errors Of The Solar Tables Might Render It Doubtful To Which Day The Equinox Really Belonged; And It Would Be In Vain To Have Recourse To Observation To Obviate The Difficulty.
Two Lunar Years Would Thus Contain 25 Months, Or 738 Days, While Two Solar Years, Of 3654 Days Each, Contain 7302 Days.V The `, Difference Of 72 Days Was Still Too Great To Escape Observation; It Was Accordingly Proposed By Cleostratus Of Tenedos, Who Flourished Shortly After The Time Of Thales, To Omit The Biennary Intercalation Every Eighth Year.
Its principal, though perhaps least obvious advantage, consists in its being entirely independent of astronomical tables, or indeed of any celestial phenomena whatever; so that all chances of disagreement arising from the inevitable errors of tables, or the uncertainty of observation, are avoided, and Easter determined without the possibility of mistake.
His true place in the history of speculation may be seen from the simple observation that the difficulties or obscurities in his scheme are really the points on which later philosophy has turned.
Beyond sending a corps of observation to follow his movements, the new government did nothing to arrest his escape.
Here Wellington supported the proposal for the immediate evacuation of France, and it was owing to his common-sense criticism that the proposal of Prussia, supported by the emperor Alexander and Metternich, to establish an "army of observation" at Brussels, was nipped in the bud.
In this theory there can strictly be no "causation"; one thing is observed to succeed another, but observations cannot assert that it is "caused" by that thing; it is post hoc, but not propter hoc. The idea of necessary connexion is a purely mental idea, an a priori conception, in which observation of empirical data takes no part; empiricism in ethics likewise does away with the idea of the absolute authority of the moral law as conceived by the intuitionalists.
In medicine, the term is applied to a school of physicians who, in the time of Celsus and Galen, advocated accurate observation of the phenomena of health and disease in the belief that only by the collection of a vast mass of instances would a true science of medicine be attained.
The child was brought up under a rigid system of nursing, physical, moral and intellectual; kept without toys, not seldom whipped, watched day and night, but trained from infancy in music, drawing, reading aloud and observation of natural objects.
2 No official observation on the subject, however, was made on the part of any Baltic power.
One such star, however, with a right ascension nearly equal to that of -y Draconis, but in the opposite sense, was selected and kept under observation.
Two hundred stars in the British Catalogue of Flamsteed traversed its field of view; and, of these, about fifty were kept under close observation.
The application of this observation to the phenomenon which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in 1727, he published his theory of the aberration of light - a corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.
Lord Rayleigh, to whom we owe the first general discussion of the theory of the spectroscope, found by observation that if two spectroscopic lines of frequencies n1 and n, are observed in an instrument, they are just seen as two separate lines when the centre of the central diffraction band of one coincides with the first minimum intensity of the other.
Methods of Observation and Range of Wave-Lengths.
- Visual observation is limited to the range of frequencies to which our eyes are sensitive.
In importance next to visual observation, and in the opinion of some, surpassing it, is the photographic method.
We are enabled by means of it to extend materially the range of our observation, especially if the ordinary kinds of glass, which strongly absorb ultraviolet light, are avoided, and, when necessary, replaced by quartz.
This is confirmed by observation.
would lead to systems of periods not unlike those of a series of lines such as is given by observation.
Ekman quotes in support an observation due to C. A.
The interpretation of spectroscopic observation seemed very simple when Kirchhoff and 1 Phil.
Chromic acid itself showed the bands, but less distinctly, and Soret does not consider the purity of the acid sufficiently proved to allow him to draw any certain conclusions from this observation.
In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae - either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air - combined with the material burnt; as he inferred from his observation that antimony, strongly heated with a burning glass, undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles.
In connexion with his psychological studies, it is interesting that in 1884 the French Anthropological Society reproduced his instructions for the observation of primitive peoples, and modern students of the beginnings of speech in children and the cases of deaf-mutes have found useful matter in his works.
He refers to Hume as recognizing no causality but only a customary and habitual succession, but adds that Kant rightly recognizes that mere observation cannot teach the necessity of the conjunction.
He thirdly assumes an appendix to the second assumption: he assumes that sense perceives mental sensations with succession but without causality, because no kind of cause is open to observation.
The magnet is protected from draughts by the box A, which is closed at the sides by two shutters when an observation is being taken.
The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude, of the place of observation are given.
In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian.
Hence the above observation gives us a means of obtaining the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle' b to the value of the earth's total force.
In an actual observation the deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while different weights would be used to deflect the needle b..
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
Some vessels are more liable to become sub-permanently magnetized than others, and as no corrector has been found for this source of deviation the navigator must determine its amount by observation.
"The sphere of Chinese navigation," he tells us (p. 447), "is too limited to have afforded experience and observation for forming any system of laws supposed to govern the variation of the needle..
Gyraldus, writing in 1540 (Libellus de re nautica), misunderstanding this reference, declared that this observation of the direction of the magnet to the poles had been handed down as discovered "by a certain Flavius."
Such results may be tested by direct observation.
The Visitation is the personal inspection of institutions, churches, religious establishments and their personnel, to correct abuses The Visit- p and enforce the observation of rules.
in 1563, and reorganized by Sixtus V.; its mission is to promote the observation of these disciplinary decrees, to give authoritative interpretations of them, and to reconcile disputes arising out of them.
It is a vast mine of experimental observation on the symptoms of poisoning of all kinds, on the appearances which poisons leave in the dead body, on their physiological action, and on the means of detecting them.
84), but much of his information as to the position of such works in Rome is due to books, and not to personal observation.
observation of the phenomena of nature.
In the North Sea, and usually, it might be said that once the boat is submerged, direct observation through the water is impossible.
The periscope when installed in the submarine is used for two purposes: (a) general observation for submerged navigation; (b) for correctly aligning the submarine when firing a torpedo at a target.
Although two periscopes are provided when attacking, one only would be shown for short periods to get check observation so as to prevent the wash of the upper tube revealing the proximity of the submarine.
By observation and experiment it was discovered independently by Messrs Bates, Wallace and Bell that they are not attacked by birds nor by many other enemies that prey upon unprotected Lepidoptera.
This theory, however superficial from the standpoint of observation, indicates considerable knowledge of geometry and gave a great impulse to the study of the science.
For the germination of the spermatia in nature there is only the observation of Hedlund, that in Catillaria denigrata and C. prasena a thallus may be derived from the spermatia under natural conditions.
In May 1844 he had another stroke; on the 26th of July he recorded with trembling hand his last meteorological observation, and on the 27th he fell from his bed and was found lifeless by his attendant.
Aristotle's suggestion that Thales was led to his fundamental dogma by observation of the part which moisture plays in the production and the maintenance of life, and Simplicius's, that the impressibility and the binding power of water were perhaps also in his thoughts, are by admission purely conjectural..
Experience, coupled with observation and reflection, as well as the more indirect teachings of tradition, are therefore of primary importance to the practical gardener.
It is a matter of familiar observation that the ends of the shoots of brambles take root when bent down to the ground.
The reciprocal adaptations of insects and flowers demand attentive observation on the part of the gardener concerned with the growing of grapes, cucumbers, melons and strawberries, or with the raising of new and improved varieties of plants.
Returning to Beaune for a vacation, he made, on a large scale, a plan of the town, inventing the methods of observation and constructing the necessary instruments; the plan was presented to the town, and preserved in their library.
Apart from this observation there is no other trace of sexuality in the group.
De Bary brought forward very strong evidence for the origin of the ascocarp in Sphaerotheca and Erysiphe by a sexual process, but Harper in 1895 was the first to prove conclusively, by the observation of the nuclear fusion, that there was a definite fertilization in Sphaerotheca Humuli by the fusion of a male (antheridial) nucleus with a female, ascogonial (oogonial) nucleus.
In all cognition, strictly so-called, there is involved a certain synthesis or relation of parts of a characteristic nature, and if we attempt to discuss this synthesis as though it were in itself but one of the facts forming the matter of knowledge, we are driven to regard this relation as being of the quite external kind discovered by observation among matters of knowledge.
If the relations involved in the fact of cognition are only those discoverable by observation of any particular portion of known experience, then such relations are quite external and contingent.
The first part of the first book contains a brief statement of the contents of mind, a description of all that observation can discover in conscious experience.
The fourth part is virtually a consideration of the ultimate significance of this conscious experience, of the place it is supposed to occupy in the universe of existence, in other words, of the relations between the conscious experience of an individual mind as disclosed to observation and the supposed realities of self and external things.
The foundations of cognition must be discovered by observation or analysis of experience so conceived.
With regard to geometry, he holds emphatically that it is an empirical doctrine, a science founded on observation of concrete facts.
The rough appearances of physical facts, their outlines, surfaces and so on, are the data of observation, and only by a method of approximation do we gradually come near to such propositions as are laid down in pure geometry.
The properties of this individual subject, the idea of the triangle, are, according to him, discovered by observation, and as observation, whether actual or ideal, never presents us with more than the rough or general appearances of geometrical quantities, the relations so discovered have only approximate exactness.
For in the latter case we possess, according to Hume, no standard of equivalence other than that supplied by immediate observation, and consequently transition from one premise to another by way of reasoning must be, in geometrical matters, a purely verbal process.
of ideas are accepted as facts of immediate observation, as being themselves perceptions or individual elements of conscious experience, and to all appearance they are regarded by Hume as being in a sense analytical, because the formal criterion of identity is applicable to them.
If there is nothing in conscious experience save what observation can disclose, while each act of observation is itself an isolated feeling (an impression or idea), it is manifest that a permanent identical thing can never be an object of experience.
The struggle with nature before the precious metals could be made of use impressed upon him more and more the importance of actual personal observation.
This observation is closely related to the above-mentioned resistivity of the carbon-link, and corroborates it in a special case.
Becquerel's observation in 1896 that certain uranium preparations emitted a radiation resembling the X rays observed by Rntgen in 1895.
- Observation of the steady distribution of temperature along a bar heated at one end was very early employed by Fourier, Despretz and others for the comparison of conductivities.
The heat Q transmitted in a given time T may be deduced from an observation of the rise of temperature of the water, and the amount which passes in the interval.
Lorenz and others have employed similar methods, depending on the observation of the rate of change of temperature at certain points of bars, rings, cylinders, cubes or spheres.
Both methods depend on the observation of the steady distribution of temperature in a bar or wire heated by an electric current.
C. i treats of the finding of good water; c. 2 of rainwater and rivers - rivers in various countries; c. 3 of hot springs, mineral waters, with an account of the chief medicinal springs of the world; c. 4 of selection of water by observation and experiment; c. 5 of instruments for levelling used by aqueduct engineers; c. 6 of construction of aqueducts, pipes of lead, clay, &c., and other matter on the subject of water-supply.
An apparatus of great value in measuring slight changes in the vertical which have a bearing upon seismometrical observation is the Darwin bifilar pendulum.
In these remains of the tragedies of Ennius we can trace indications of strong sympathy with the nobler and bolder elements of character, of vivid realization of impassioned situations, and of sagacious observation of life.
it seems that for fixing the hours of the night a man seated on the ground faced the horoscopus in such a position that the line of observation of the Pole-star passed over the middle of his head.
Michaelis says, it renders the race type with astounding keenness, and shows an excellent power of observation in the exact representation of the eyes.
24, 25) often grotesquely crowded; but there is much observation shown and the figures are expressive.
48) shows no life or observation; and only occasionally the artist triumphed over the stone-worker, as in the portrait of Bantanta at Memphis, which is precisely like another head of her found in Sinai.
The Saitic heads in basalt show a school of close observation, with fair power of rendering the personal character; and even in Roman times there still were provincial artists who could model a face very truthfully, as is shown in one case in.
After this peace was made, and for the next five years the Danes were occupied in other parts of England, Alfred merely keeping a force of observation on the frontier.
Berzelius as to their composition; and his observation that corresponding phosphates and arsenates crystallize in the same form was the germ from which grew the theory of isomorphism which he communicated to the Berlin Academy in December 1819.
The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.
It must, however, be remembered that so important a generalization is as yet supported upon a somewhat narrow base of observation.
He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.
Mottier's observation has been confirmed by Lloyd Williams, who has shown, moreover, that the single number occurs in germlings from the tetraspore, and also in the adult stages of all sexual plants, while the double number occurs in germlings from the oospore, and in adult stages of all asexual plants.
Senn, pursuing the methods described by Klebs, has confirmed Chodat's observation of the passage of Raphidium into a Dactylococcus-stage, although he was unable to observe further metamorphosis.
But until the conditions under which a particular transformation takes place have been ascertained and described, so that the observation may be repeated by other investigators, scant credence is likely to be given to the more extreme polymorphistic views.
Bokorny, moreover, it appears that such filaments will yield :starch from formaldehyde when they are supplied with sodium -oxymethyl sulphonate, a salt which readily decomposes into formaldehyde and hydrogen sodium sulphite, an observation which has been taken to mean that formaldehyde is always a stage in the synthesis of starch.
On this observation rests the whole of the present enormous employment of hydraulic cements.
In the second place, it has been urged, particularly by de Vries, that experiment and observation have shown that the possible range of fluctuating variation is strictly limited.
At Langar Kisht, a little to the east of the Oxus bend, there is a small Russian post of observation.
At a very early age he distinguished himself by keen powers of observation and interest in all that was curious and beautiful.
Those who deny the possibility of all non-empirical knowledge naturally hold that every axiom is ultimately based on observation.
It is possible that Solomon uttered or collected a number of such sayings, based in part on observation of the habits of beasts and plants (I Kings iv.
The axis F of the instrument is set at an angle equal to the latitude of the place of observation and in the meridian by means of the screw K, and rotated by clockwork contained in the barrel H.
The wettest month, as indicated by meteorological observation, is January; February is second to it, and December third; March is also a very wet month.
He was worthily followed by Titus Tobler, who in 1853 and later years published volumes abounding in exact observation; and by V.
Prior to Young, halos and coronae had not been clearly differentiated; they were both regarded as caused by the refraction of light by atmospheric moisture and ice, although observation had shown that important distinctions existed between these phenomena.
Duges's statement that there is a second species of Amblystoma, which is normal in its metamorphosis, near Mexico but at a higher altitude, which may explain Velasco's observation that regularly transforming Amblystomas occur near that city; and thirdly, he made a careful examination of the two lakes, Chalco and Xochimilco, where the axolotls occur in abundance and are procured for the market.
Reed worked from the observation of Dr H.
an observation of this truth should render honest republican governors so mild in their punishment of rebellions as not to discourage them too much.
There is no reason to believe that any transfer of air takes place across the Himalayas in a southerly direction, unless indeed in those most elevated regions of the atmosphere which lie beyond the range of observation; but a nocturnal flow of cooled air, from the southern slopes, is felt as a strong wind where the rivers debouch on the plains, more especially in the early morning hours; and this probably contributes in some degree to lower the mean temperature of that belt of the plains which fringes the mountain zone.
Soon afterwards Megasthenes, as Greek ambassador resident at a court in Bengal (306-298 B.C.), had opportunities for the closest observation.
Where accurate differential observations or photographs involving other than instantaneous exposures have to be made, the additional condition is required that the optical axis of the telescope shall accurately and automatically follow the object under observation in spite of the apparent diurnal motion of the heavens, or in some cases even of the apparent motion of the object relative to neighbouring fixed stars.
A vertical plane passing through A A is therefore in the meridian, and the polar axis is inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to that of the latitude of the place of observation.
If we now attach to the polar axis a graduated circle D D, called the" hour circle,"of which the microscope or vernier R reads o h when the declination axis is horizontal, we can obviously read off the hour angle from the meridian of any star to which the telescope may be directed at the instant of observation.
If the local sidereal time of the observation is known, the right ascension of the star becomes known by adding the observed hour angle to the sidereal time if the star is west of the meridian, or subtracting it if east of the meridian.
- In all the previously described types of telescope mounting the axis of the instrument is either pointed directly at the object or to the pole; in the latter case the rays from the star under observation are reflected along the polar axis by a mirror or mirrors attached to or revolving with it.
The readings of the levels k and 1 and the reading of the micrometer-drum are then entered, and the observation of the northern star is complete.
If between the north and south observation there is a change in the level readings of the levels k and 1, this indicates a change in the zenith distance of the axis of the telescope.
This observation applies in particular to the general theory of the meteorology of the South Polar area, as expounded for the Gauss expedition by Prof. Meinardus and for Scott's last expedition by Dr. G.
In the year ending August 1903 the amounts of rainfall at 41 observation stations widely distributed throughout the archipelago varied from 16.2 in.
The most noteworthy outcome of this system in the realm of religious practice was, as already intimated, the growth of an elaborate and complicated method of divining the future by the observation of the phenomena in the heavens.
The methods of measurement, founded on rise of temperature, may be classed as thermometric methods, since they depend on the observation of change of temperature with a thermometer.
The Specific Heat Itself Can Be Deduced Only By Differentiating The Curve Of Observation, Which Greatly Increases The Uncertainty.
The movements of the atmosphere, however, are upon a scale large enough to make this observation easy, and the simplest evidence is obtained from a study of the direction of the air movements in the great wind systems of the globe.
Although the periodic outbursts of light have taken place without intermission during the two and a half centuries that the star has been under observation, they are somewhat irregular.
Spectroscopic observation shows that the increased light accompanies an actual physical change or conflagration in the star.
Halley was the first to suspect from observation the proper motions of the stars.
The velocity in the line of sight can be determined by spectroscopic observation, so that in a few cases the motion of the star is completely known.
His plan was to keep every inmate of every cell under constant close observation, and all were to be reformed by solitude and seclusion while constantly employed in remunerative labour, in the profits of which they were to share.
Speaking of St Albans from his personal observation Mr (afterwards Sir T.
The ministration to sense, aided by observation and experiment.
The ministration to memory, aided by registering and arranging the data, of observation and experiment in tables of instances of agreement, difference and concomitant variations.
When A, B and C are objects of sense, their relative positions are matters, not of inference, but of observation; when they are not, there is an inference, but a syllogistic inference with a major premise, induced from previous observations, " whenever of three things the first is to the right of the second, and the second to the right of the third, the first is to the right of the third."
Knowledge of the implications of it does not depend on observation of all members of the class.
In other words, the increase of pressure per degree (dp/d0) divided by p should be constant and equal to B; but observation shows that this ratio decreases, e.g.
It was employed as a purely empirical formula by Bertrand and Barus, who calculated the values of the coefficients for several substances, so as to obtain the best general agreement with the results of observation over a wide range, at high as well as low pressures.
It is unnecessary to refer more fully to the evidence for former human sacrifice or to the popular stories and grim superstitions which indicate its persistence; the grisly custom of our ancestors has been attested by comparatively recent observation in Mexico, Peru, Fiji and W.
The observation of isolated particulars gives not necessity, but merely strong probability; necessity is purely intellectual or "transcendental."
It is not come " with observation," so that men shall say " to here and to there " (Luke xvii.
To have recorded it in writing at all shows considerable progress in the observation of sounds.
It did not fully gather way till 1896, when plague appeared in Bombay, but our modern knowledge of the disease dates from 1894, when it attacked Hong Kong and first presented itself to accurate observation.
One of the results of recent observation is the classification of plague cases under three heads, which have already been mentioned several times: (1) bubonic, (2) pneumonic, (3) septicaemic. (The word " pesti-caemic " is also used instead of " septi-caemic," and though etymologically objectionable, it is otherwise better, as " septicaemic " already has a specific and quite different meaning.) It should be understood that this classification is a clinical one, and that the second and third varieties are just as much plague as the first.
" Contacts " should be kept under observation.
But verses 30, 31 are an appended observation.
His work has the value that attaches to a record written by one chronicling the events of his own times, gifted with ordinary powers of observation, indubitable candour and independence of view.
It is a matter of ordinary observation that different bodies acted on by the same force, or what is judged to be the same force, undergo different changes of velocity in equal times.
Alcock (1901) describes from his own observation the newly hatched Phyllosoma larva of Thenus orientalis, Fabricius.
It is necessary, therefore, to eliminate the difference in the age-constitution of the countries in question by excluding from the field of observation, as before, all except possible mothers, basing the rate upon the respective numbers of women of the conceptive age, that is between 15 and 45.
Observation has demonstrated that the two rates are generally found to move along parallel lines.
A study of his works reveals an unusual combination of skill and originality in the mathematical treatment of many of the most difficult problems of astronomy, an unfailing patience and sagacity in dealing with immense masses of numerical results, and a talent for observation of the highest order.
With the view of examining this question, he undertook the reduction of every observation made before 1750 which appeared to be worthy of confidence.
This general classification, which was made by a conference of brokers in 1855 as a result of many years of observation dating back to the 18th century, is still very fairly descriptive of the average merit of the wines classified.
Watson carried out elaborate experiments to discover how far the electric discharge of the jar could be conveyed along metallic wires and was able to accomplish it for a distance of 2 m., making the important observation that the electricity appeared to be transmitted instantaneously.
The observation that certain animals could give shocks resembling the shock of a Leyden jar induced a closer examination of these powers.
For a long time Faraday's observation on the rotation of the plane of polarized light by heavy glass in a 1 H.
The proposition that our knowledge of nature necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning.
What he really meant by observation was a competent natural history or collection of facts.
Experience and observation are the only remedies against prejudice and error.
The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.
Elements of race-consciousness help to shape the outlook on nature or life: and slight differences of linguistic use in the coining of descriptive terms sometimes lead to the multiplication of divine forms. Exacter observation of nature; closer attention to its contrasts of life and death, or light and darkness, or male and 9 Cf.
The following observation is therefore of interest: At Guayaquil for a lady of good family - married or unmarried - to be of loose morals is so uncommon, that when it does happen it is felt as a calamity by the whole community.
The following example of divergent acclimatization of the same race to hot and cold zones is very interesting, and will conclude our extracts from Spruce's valuable notes: One of the most singular cases connected with this subject that have fallen under my own observation, is the difficulty, or apparent impossibility, of acclimatizing the Red Indian in a certain zone of the Andes.
Observation of 0 with measurement of the value of 1 and r reckoned in centimetres and W in grammes gives us the potential difference of the balls in absolute C.G.S.
Barium and its salts can be readily detected by the yellowishgreen colour they give when moistened with hydrochloric acid and heated in the Bunsenflame, or by observation of their spectra, when two characteristic green lines are seen.
The testing of ideas by observation and experiment which was begun in anatomy by Vesalius.