A red brick municipal building stood at the far end of the street ahead of us.
municipal jealousy of church power.
In Paris the municipal police are divided among the twenty arrondissements, which the uniform police patrol.
Communal Finances.The budget of the commune is prepared by the mayor, voted by the municipal council and approved by the prefect.
The municipal police is divided into two principal branchesthe service in uniform of the agents de police and the service out of uniform of ins pecteurs de police.
It was felt to be a political necessity that he should return, and in 1541, somewhat reluctantly, he returned on his own terms. These were the recognition of the Church's spiritual independence, the division of the town into parishes, and the appointment (by the municipal authority) of a consistory or council of elders in each parish for the exercise of discipline.
The municipal authority in those times claimed the right to exercise a censorship over the citizens' private life.
There are municipal technical schools.
The local affairs of the commune are decided by the municipal council, and its decisions become operative after the expiration of a month, save in matters which involve interests transcending those of the commune.
A fine bridge over the Trent, and the municipal buildings, were provided by Lord Burton.
Although under the sway of the dukes of Pomerania, the city was able to maintain a marked degree of independence, which is still apparent in its municipal privileges.
Patrons may have to pay to park at a municipal garage.
In the local and municipal politics of Berlin again he took a leading part, and as a member of the municipal council was largely responsible for the transformation which came over the city in the last thirty years of the 19th century.
Both mayors and deputy mayors are elected by and from among members of the municipal council for four years.
A proportion of the sums payable in return for concessions of land in municipal cemeteries.
the coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
The principal structures include the municipal buildings, corn exchange, library, public hall, and the market cross.
In the early municipal constitution ex-magistrates passed automatically into the senate of their town; but at a later date this order was reversed, and membership of the senate became a qualification for the magistracy.
The existing system of taxation also presses heavily upon the provinces, as may be seen from the fact that the national, provincial and municipal exactions together amount to £7 per head of population, while the total value of the exports in 1898 was only L6 in round numbers.
In 1832 he was knighted, and after serving as one of the municipal corporations commissioners, became deputykeeper of the public records in 1838, holding this office until his death at Hampstead on the 6th of July 1861.
This change was largely due to the heavy financial burdens which the Roman government laid on the municipal senates.
It was endowed by its founder with a cabildo (corporation) and full Spanish municipal privileges.
In the commune an official known as the receveur municipal receives all moneys due to it, and, subject to the authorization of the mayor, makes all payments due from it.
But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
DUFFTOWN, a municipal and police burgh of Banffshire, Scotland, on the Fiddich, 64 m.
The town was the seat of the counts of Cleves as early as the 11th century, but it did not receive municipal rights until 1242.
Primary courses for adults are instituted by the prefect on the recommendation of the municipal council and academy inspector.
LANARK, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and county town of Lanarkshire, Scotland, standing on high ground about half a mile from the right bank of the Clyde, 31 m.
Ecclesiastical affairs were, as a matter of course, wholly under the management of the cantonal and municipal authorities, and Zwingli was content that it should be so.
ALBANY, a municipal town in the county of Plantagenet, West Australia, on Princess Royal Harbour, a branch of King George Sound, 352 m.
The last houses the provincial antiquarian museum and the municipal library of 70,000 volumes.
In 1 9 05 he was Democratic candidate for mayor of New York on the Municipal Ownership ticket, and four years later on the Independence League ticket; in 1906 he was candidate for governor of New York on the Democratic and Independence League tickets, in every instance being defeated.
HUMACAO, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, in Porto Rico, 46 m.
Pop. (1899) of the city, 4428; and of the municipal district, 14,313.
The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors, and has an area of 2751 acres.
On his return to Lyons, Chalier was the first to be named member of the municipal bureau.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
The hospices and hpitaux and Guadeloupe the bureaux de bienfaisance, the founda- Martinique tion of which is optional for the commune, St Pierre and Miquel are managed by committees consisting of the mayor of the municipality and six Total in Am members, two elected by the municipal council and four nominated by the prefect.
The municipal government is housed in an ancient tobacco factory converted to public uses, and a fine old Capuchin convent now serves as a public hospital.
from Kemp Town on the east to Hove (a separate municipal borough) on the west.
New municipal buildings adjoining the " Rimer " on the north side were erected in 1900-1903 in German Renaissance style, with a handsome tower 220 ft.
supervision of markets,policing,land-transfer, &c., are carried on by a mayor and two assistants, to whom the municipal council delegates its powers.
It is evident from the fact of thirteen inhabitants being allowed to hold the manor that the town had some kind of incorporation in the 17th century, although its incorporation charter was not granted until 1899, when it was created a municipal borough.
THORNABY-ON-TEES, a municipal borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 3 m.
The town was formerly known as South Stockton, and is still included in the parliamentary borough of Stockton (it is within the Cleveland division of the county), but was incorporated as a separate municipal borough in 1892.
GALASHIELS, a municipal and police burgh of Selkirkshire, Scotland.
for each man, woman, and child in the republic. About 71% of this charge was on account of national expenditures, and 29% provincial and municipal expenditures.
The non-incorporated members are within the municipal jurisdiction of the ports to which they are attached; but the corporate members are as free within their own liberties as the individual ports themselves.
The so-called "Gothenburg System" of municipal control over the sale of spirits was actually devised at Falun as early as 1850.
There are municipal schools of science, technology and art.
There is no municipal water-supply, and the main drain of the city discharges into the lower pool of Siloam, which has become an open cesspit.
In the north also the 13th century was rich in municipal charters.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
ASTON MANOR, a municipal and parliamentary borough of Warwickshire, England, adjoining Birmingham on the north-east.
At the southern end of the boulevard de la Republique is the square de la Republique, formerly the place Bresson, in which is the municipal theatre; at the other extremity of the boulevard is the place du Gouvernement, which is planted on three sides with a double row of plane trees and is the fashionable resort for evening promenade.
HOVE, a municipal borough of Sussex, England, adjoining the watering-place of Brighton on the west, on the London, Brighton, & South Coast railway.
The municipal borough, incorporated in 1898, includes the parishes of Hove and Aldrington, of which the first is within the parliamentary borough of Brighton, but the second is in the Lewes division of the county.
PUDSEY, a municipal borough in the Pudsey parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 6 m.
Carro, Santerre general de la republique francaise (Paris, 1847), compiled from Santerre's MS. notes; P. Robiquet, Le Personnel municipal de Paris pendant la Revolution (Paris, 1890); C. L.
CHATHAM, a port and municipal and parliamentary borough of Kent, England, on the right bank of the Medway, 34 m.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
The Tunbridge Wells and Swansea municipal undertakings were subsequently sold to the National Telephone Company, and the Glasgow and Brighton undertakings to the Post Office.
Hull and Portsmouth were the only municipal telephone systems working in 1907.
The Association of Municipal Corporations and the London County Council, on the other hand, considered the terms of purchase to be too favourable to the company.
FRANCIS OF ASSISI (1181 or 1182-1226), founder of the Franciscans, was born in 1181 or 1182 at Assisi, one of the independent municipal towns of Umbria.
In Congress he was a consistent defender of sound money and civil service reform; in municipal politics he was in favour of business administrations and opposed to partisan nominations.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
The provincial council elects a provincial commission and the communal council a municipal council from among its own members; these smaller bodies carry on the business of the larger while they are not sitting.
The law considers as charitable institutions (opere pie) all poorhouses, almshouses and institutes which partly or wholly give help to able-bodied or infirm paupers, or seek to improve their moral and economic condition; and also the Congregazioni di caritd (municipal charity boards existing in every commune, and composed of ~embers elected by the municipal council), which administer funds destined for the poor in general.
The syndic (sindaco) or chief magistrate of the commune was appointed by the king for three years, and he was assisted by a municipal junta.
the so-called guardie di pubblica sicurezza, the carabinieri being really a military force; only the largest towns maintain a municipal police force), charities, education, &c., in case such expenditure is neglected by the communal authorities.
Among the centrifugal forces which determined the future of the Italian race must be reckoned, first and foremost, the new spirit of municipal independence.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
All they claim is municipal autonomy; the right to manage their own affairs within the city walls, to fight their battles as they choose, and to follow their several ends unchecked.
The civil wars may be regarded as a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles.
The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.
The French authorities, under whose eyes the massacre was perpetrated, did nothing to prevent or repress it, and the mayor of Marseilles even refused to admit the wounded Italian workmen to the municipal hospital.
Here and there it was based upon a bastard Socialism, ~ in other places it was made a means of municipal ~ party warfare under the guidance of the local mafia, and in some districts it was simply popular effervescence against the local octrois on.
The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.
At the elections for the local bodies the Catholics had already been permitted to vote, and, availing themselves of the privilege, they gained seats in many municipal councils and obtained the majority in some.
MUSSELBURGH, a municipal and police burgh of Midlothian, Scotland, 52 m.
Auckland is under municipal government.
STRATFORD-ON-AVON, a market town and municipal borough in the Stratford-on-Avon parliamentary division of Warwickshire, England; on a branch line of the Great Western railway and on the East & West Junction railway, in connexion with which it is served from London by the Great Central (922 m.) and the London & North-Western railways.
A large municipal electric-lighting plant was completed in 1908.
of Cologne and contiguous to the Belgian and Dutch frontiers, to which its municipal boundaries extend.
It was restored in 1889 to accommodate the municipal archives.
In 1450 an insurrection led to the admission of the gilds to a share in the municipal government.
ABINGDON, a market town and municipal borough in the Abingdon parliamentary division of Berkshire, England, 6 m.
The town-hall contains the municipal library, collec tions of tapestry, portraits and antiquities, and valuable archives relating to the town and province.
Kampen is the seat of a Christian Reformed theological school, a gymnasium, a higher burgher school, a municipal school of design, and a large orphanage.
There are few or no local taxes, the municipal chest being filled by the revenues derived from the fertile delta-land, the Kampeneiland, which is always being built up at the mouth of the Ysel.
It is administered by an elective municipal council with a civil service administrator as mayor.
Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.
Chieti, q.v.], the chief town of the Marrucini, the whole of whose territory was placed under its municipal jurisdiction by the Romans, after the "Social War."
The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
LERWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Shetland, Scotland, the most northerly town in the British Isles.
LOCHGILPHEAD, a municipal and police burgh of Argyllshire, Scotland, at the head of Loch Gilp, a small arm on the western side of Loch Fyne.
(2) the zemstvos in the 34 governments of Russia proper, (3) the municipal dumas.
The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma.
Under Alexander III., however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos.
In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
Indeed, it was not so much a principality as a municipal republic of the Venetian type.
cessor Basil followed in his footsteps, and dealt with 1505the municipal republic of Pskov was Ivan had dealt 1533.
Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.
Even municipal institutions, which had never shown much vitality, were subjected to similar restrictions.
carried the scheme a step further by the creation of elected provincial assemblies (zemstvos), to which in 1870 elected municipal councils (dumas) were added.
Kammin is of Wendish origin, and obtained municipal privileges in 1274.
A.) Financial Organization The methods of financing railway enterprises, both new projects and existing lines, have been influenced very largely by the attitude of the state and of municipal authorities.
Hadersleben is first mentioned in 1228, and received municipal rights from Duke Waldemar II.
The archiepiscopal palace and Museo Civico, as well as the municipal buildings, have some valuable paintings.
The Michaelskirche, 12th-century Romanesque (restored), on the Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of a Benedictine monastery secularized in 1803, which now contains the Biirgerspital, or alms-house, and the museum and municipal art collections.
In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.
MOSSLEY, a market town and municipal borough in the Prestwich parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 102 m.
The town, though frequently the centre for medieval assizes and inquisitions, never became a municipal or parliamentary borough, but was governed by two constables, elected in the manorial court.
HARWICH, a municipal borough and seaport in the Harwich parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the extremity of a small peninsula projecting into the estuary of the Stour and Orwell, 70 m.
The system of municipal and communal government remains practically unchanged.
LYMINGTON, a municipal borough and seaport in the New Forest parliamentary division of Hampshire, England, 98 m.
HONITON, a market town and municipal borough in the Honiton parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, pleasantly situated on rising ground on the left bank of the Otter, 162 m.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.
The municipal borough includes the western and part of the Bermondsey divisions of the parliamentary borough of Southwark, and the borough of Newington, divided into the western and Walworth divisions; each division returning one member.
He became a member of the municipal council of Paris in 1882, and vice-president in 1888-1889.
BECCLES, a market town and municipal borough, in the Lowestoft parliamentary division of Suffolk, England; on the right bank of the river Waveney, 109 m.
GRIMSBY, or Great Grimsby, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lincolnshire, England; an important seaport near the mouth of the Humber on the south shore.
The Order only imposed customs duties: it levied no tolls within the land; and though its consent was necessary to any change in municipal ordinances, it allowed the towns a large amount of self-government.
There were also elementary schools, and municipal foundations in which Latin was taught, in the dominions of the Order.
There is a theatre, an orphanage and a municipal library.
The municipal boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston (2 5,384).
The city owns its gas works, water works and an electric-lighting plant (1910) for municipal lighting.
In modern times the artisan, however well trained, efficient and painstaking he may be, does not, in virtue of these qualities, enjoy any municipal or political privileges.
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
We can show, for example: (1) that the Statute of Apprenticeship did not stand alone; it was one of a long series of similar measures, beginning more than two centuries before, which in their turn join on to the municipal and gild regulations of the middle ages; one of an important group of statutes, more or less closely interwoven throughout their history, administered by local authorities whose functions had grown largely in connexion with this legislation and the gradual differentiation of the trades and callings to which it related.
BEWDLEY, a market town and municipal borough in the Bewdley parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England; 137 m.
PEMBROKE (Penfro), an ancient municipal borough, a contributory parliamentary borough and county-town of Pembrokeshire, Wales, situated on a narrow peninsula at the head of the Pennar tidal inlet or "pill" of Milford Haven.
The municipal councils had slightly larger powers, relating to loans, octrois, &c. But the chief municipal officer, the mayor, was chosen by the prefect.
WAREHAM, a market town and municipal borough in the eastern parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 1212 m.
Green's teaching was, directly and indirectly, the most potent philosophical influence in England during the last quarter of the 19th century, while his enthusiasm for a common citizenship, and his personal example in practical municipal life, inspired much of the effort made, in the years succeeding his death, to bring the universities more into touch with the people, and to break down the rigour of class distinctions.
Biagio and the municipal picture gallery also contain works by him.
WEST HAM, a municipal, county, and parliamentary borough of Essex, England, forming an eastward suburb of London.
The town received a municipal charter in 1860, and during the governorship of Lord Lamington (1896-1897) became the summer residence of the governor and his staff.
HALIFAX, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 194 m.
Since 1880 services of omnibus steamers (now municipal) have also been introduced.
Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti - if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque - and the splendid Ca' da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal.
The municipal bulletin of the 31st of December 1906 gives a total of 169,563, not including 4835 soldiers.
of three judges each, ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile courts (established in 1904), justice of the peace courts and municipal courts.
Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.
The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States.
The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional.
See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities.
The code was replaced by the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (something like that under the "federal plan" in Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (appointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments - public service and public safety, the former including public works and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and buildings.
A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.
There are state, county and municipal boards of equalization.
For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904).
Wilcox, Municipal Government in Michigan and Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, v.
Fairlie, "The Municipal Crisis in Ohio," in the Michigan Law Review for February 1903; and Thomas L.
Sidlo, "Centralization in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Review for November 1909.
There was a public municipal library in Boston before 1674 - probably in 1653; but it was burned in 1747 and was apparently never replaced.
The library is supported almost entirely by municipal appropriations, though holding also considerable trust funds ($388,742 in 1905).
It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
On a referendum in 1895 on the expediency of granting municipal suffrage to women only 59.08% of the women who were registered voted, and probably less than 10% of those entitled to be registered.
There are no municipal lighting-plants; but the companies upon which the city depends for its service are (with all others) subject to the control of a state commission.
The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'
Boston (2 vols., Boston, 1854; and later editions), and Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston (Boston, 1873, and later editions); Josiah Quincy, A Municipal History of.
The technical terms of municipal government are mostly Greek, transliterated into Palmyrene; a few Latin words occur, of course in Aramaic forms. For further characteristics of the dialect see Nuldeke, ZDMG.
Powers of granting building and other leases have been conferred by modern legislation on municipal corporations and other local authorites.
MARGATE, a municipal borough and seaside resort in the Isle of Thanet parliamentary division of Kent, England, 74 m.
In the decade of1890-1900the increase in the value of manufactures (165.9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and meat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside the municipal limits.
The industry is conducted upon a basis of recognized standards of quality, and testing is necessary in the interests of both refiner and consumer, as well as compulsory in connexion with the various statutory and municipal regulations.
The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
Provincial governors were kept under strict supervision; extortion was practically unheard of; the jus Latii was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were instituted for the control of the finances; and the emperor's interest in provincial affairs was shown by his personal assumption of various municipal offices.
The administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the burden of maintaining the imperial posts.
Of its municipal constitution little is known, indeed in an inscription of the end of the Republic it is spoken of both as a colonic and a municipium.
PENZANCE, a municipal borough, market town and seaport in the St Ives parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, the terminus of the Great Western railway, 3251 m.
The town now possesses an exchange, a large theatre, a gymnasium, a naval school, municipal buildings and several hospitals and charitable institutions erected by private munificence.
Harburg belonged originally to the bishopric of Bremen, and received municipal rights in 1297.
DUNSTABLE, a municipal borough and market town in the southern parliamentary division of Bedfordshire, England, 37 m.
In 1864 the town was made a municipal borough by royal charter.
The administration of justice is vested in a United States district court and a supreme court, district courts, municipal courts and justice of the peace courts of Porto Rico.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
Each municipal district elects biennially a mayor and a municipal council, the membership of which varies from five to nine according to the population of the district.
The mayor appoints practically all municipal employes and may veto any ordinance of the council; his veto, however, may be overridden by two-thirds of the council.
The police force of each municipality, or rather of each of 66 police districts, is maintained and controlled by the insular government; justice in each municipality is also administered by the insular government; the building, maintenance and repair of public roads are under the management of a board of three road supervisors in each of the seven insular election districts; and matters pertaining to education are for the most part under the insular commissioner of education and a school board of three members elected biennially in each municipality; nearly all other local affairs are within the jurisdiction of the mayor and municipal council.
He controls the expenditure of public money for school purposes, the examination and the appointment of teachers, whose nominations by the municipal school boards are referred to the commissioner.
Willoughby, Insular and Municipal Finances in Porto Rico for the Fiscal Year 1902-1903, issued by the Bureau of the United States Census (ibid., 190, 5); R.
Municipal departments and bureaus are grouped in the four divisions.
In 1919 the city's outstanding bonds amounted to $19,884,000, to which in 1920 was added $5,500,000 for removal of railway grade crossings, for a municipal farm to afford better treatment of the tubercular and insane, for new engine houses and reconstruction of streets and for municipal lighting equipment.
The tax rate for 1920-I was $2.55 per $loo assessed valuation, divided as follows: state purposes, $o.18; public schools, $0.78; municipal government, $1.51; public library, $0.04; art museum, $0.02; zoological park, $0.02.
A pageant and masque given by 2,000 participants before audiences of Ioo,000 led to the construction in 1917 of a municipal theatre in Forest Park, with accommodation for 9,270.
At a cost of $7,200,000, the city completed in 1917 a municipal bridge of massive steel construction, double track and double deck, across the Mississippi.
A municipal court building, a city jail and a children's detention house, all of stone, were erected, the first in 1912, the others in succeeding years, at a cost of $1,855,000.
The hÃ´tel-de-ville with a municipal museum and library occupy the remains of the abbey buildings (18th century).
HARTLEPOOL, a parliamentary borough of Durham, England, embracing the municipal borough of Hartlepool or East Hartlepool and the municipal and county borough of West Hartlepool.
West Hartlepool, a wholly modern town, has several handsome modern churches, municipal buildings, exchange, market hall, Athenaeum and public library.
The municipal area embraces the three townships of Seaton Carew, a seaside resort with good bathing, and golf links; Stranton, with its church of All Saints, of the 14th century, on a very early site; and Throston.
LOCKERBIE, a municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in the district of Annandale, 142 m.
HELSTON, a market town and municipal borough in the Truro parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 11 m.
Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
These, no doubt, possessed municipal autonomy with the ordinary organization of the Greek state; to what extent they were formally and regularly controlled by the provincial authorities we do not know; Pithon, the satrap of the Indian province is specially described as sent "in colonias in Indis conditas" (Just.
ALLOA, a municipal and police burgh and seaport of Clackmannanshire, Scotland.
Thomson Paton; the county and municipal buildings; handsome public baths and gymnasium, presented to the town by Mr David Thomson; the accident hospital; the fever hospital; the museum of the Natural Science and Archaeological Society; the academy, the burgh school and a secondary school with the finest technical equipment in Scotland, given by Mr A.
Lauban has a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a town hall, dating from 1541, a conventual house of the order of St Magdalene, dating from the 14th century, a municipal, library and museum, two hospitals, an orphanage and several schools.
PONTEFRACT (pronounced and sometimes written "Pomfret"), a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 21 m.
GUAYAMA, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, on the southern coast of Porto Rico, 53 m.
Pop. (1899) of the city, 5334; of the municipal district, 12,749.
The municipal district (156 sq.
Alberta has a system of municipal government similar to that of the other provinces.
This post he held for eighteen months only, but in that brief period he obtained a reputation as a social and municipal reformer.
In it are the Zizinia theatre and the municipal palace (containing the public library); the museum lies up a short street to the N.
These contain one 1 This municipality was superseded by a new municipal body, with extensive powers, created in 1890.
WENLOCK, a municipal borough in the Ludlow and Wellington parliamentary divisions of Shropshire, England, extending on both sides of the river Severn.
In 1879 it came into the possession of Cape Colony and was granted municipal government in 1893.
Another equally erroneous idea was that these vast burialplaces of the early Christians remained entirely concealed from the eyes of their pagan neighbours, and were constructed not only without the permission of the municipal authorities but without their cognizance.
YORK, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, the seat of an archbishop, and the county town of Yorkshire, England, 188 m.
Adjoining it are handsome municipal buildings (1891), and near it is the mansion house, built in 1725 from designs by the earl of Burlington.
The city within the municipal limits constitutes a separate division of the county.
The municipal city and the Ainsty (a district on the S.W.
See Francis Drake, Eboracum: or the History and Antiquities of the City of York, from its original to the present time (1736); Extracts from the Municipal Records of the City of York during the Reigns of Edward IV., Edward V.
The board has no administrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the institutions.
In the name of the state he exercises a certain administrative control over the local authorities, such as the conseil general, the mayors and the municipal councils.
This control, though considerably restricted by the law of the 10th of August 1871, on the conseils generaux, and that of the 5th of April 1884, on municipal organization, still holds good in some important respects.
He can suspend for a month a municipal council, mayor or deputy-mayor; certain decisions of the municipal councils require his approval; and he may annul such of their regulations as are extra vires.
Municipalities are administered by mayors (alcaldes) and assemblies elected by the people, and control strictly municipal affairs.
The " termino municipal " is the chief political and administrative civil division.
The six provinces were created, and had governors and assemblies (" diputaciones "); and a municipal law was provided that in many ways was a sound basis for local government.
Among the governors of the 19th century Miguel Tacon, governor in 1834-1839, a forceful and high-handed soldier, deserves mention, especially in the annals of Havana; he ruled as a tyrant, made many reforms as regarded law and order, and left Havana, in particular, full of municipal improvements.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
This bank brought out the Constantinople municipal loan of 1909 (£1,000,000).
Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.
The municipal water supply comes from a reservoir at Crystal Springs at the foot of Mill Mountain near the city limits.
The principal buildings are the town hall, with some ancient furniture, a large 15th century church with a notable square tower, a municipal orphanage, and the Nassau-Veluwe gymnasium.
Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.
The municipal electric-lighting plant was in 1907 producing arc lights for $34 per arc, per year.
The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 200 tons of garbage per day.
The municipal street cleaning department cleans all streets by the wet process.
In October 1908, at a special election, the security franchise was invalidated, and this seemed to have the effect of dissolving the lease held by the Municipal Traction Co., and of ending the city's experiment in operating (indirectly) the street car lines.
Then, from 1891 to 1903, by what was practically a new charter, that which is known as the "federal plan" of government was tried; this centred power in the mayor by making him almost the only elective officer, by giving to him the appointment of his cabinet of directors - one for the head of each of the six municipal departments - and to each director the appointment of his subordinates.
Few if any cities in the Union have, in recent years, been better governed than Cleveland, and this seems to be due largely to the keen interest in municipal affairs which has been shown by her citizens.
Especially has this been manifested by the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce and by the Municipal Association, an organization of influential professional and business men, which, by issuing bulletins concerning candidates at the primaries and at election time, has done much for the betterment of local politics.
There was a less violent street car strike in 1908, after the assumption of control by the Municipal Traction Company, which refused to raise wages according to promises made (so the employees said) by the former owner of the railway; the strikers were unsuccessful.
TUNBRIDGE WELLS, a municipal borough and inland watering-place of England, chiefly in the Tonbridge parliamentary division of Kent, but extending into the eastern division of Sussex, 341 m.
The municipal council has the disposal of 20% of the annual profits made on produce purchased within the confines of each district.
CARDIFF, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, seaport and market-town, and the county town of Glamorganshire, South Wales, situated on the Taff, 5 m.
Probably no town in the kingdom has a nobler group of public buildings than those in Cathays Park, which also commands a view of the castle ramparts and the old keep. On opposite sides of a fine avenue are the assize courts and new town hall (with municipal offices), which are both in the Renaissance style.
The corporation consists of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, and the area of the municipal borough is 8408 acres.
The town received its earliest known grant of municipal privileges sometime before 1147 from Fitz Hamon's successor and son-in-law Robert, earl of Gloucester.
The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
NELSON, a municipal borough in the Clitheroe parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 32 m.
Were it not for political and municipal boundaries Hamburg might be considered as forming with Altona and Ottensen (which lie within Prussian territory) one town.
It is the place of meeting of the municipal council and of the senate and contains the city archives.
BANGOR (formerly Bangor Fawr, as distinguished from several other towns of this name in Wales, Ireland, Brittany, &c.), a city, municipal (1883) and contributory parliamentary borough (Carnarvon district), seaport and market-town of Carnarvonshire, N.
In 1907 an act was passed by which the former county of Oahu, including the island of Oahu and the small islands adjacent, was made a municipal corporation under the name of the "city and county of Honolulu"; this act came into effect on the 1st of January 1909.
Under Venetian protection, freely accepted in 1401, the inhabitants maintained their municipal independence and commercial prosperity down to the destruction of the Venetian republic in 1797, though on two occasions, in 1500 and 1560, their city was burned by the Turks.
Ruppin received municipal rights in 1256.
BRECHIN, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Forfarshire, Scotland.
Besides these historical buildings the principal public structures include Smith's school, the municipal buildings, the free library, the episcopal library (founded by Bishop Forbes, who, as well as Bishop AbernethyDrummond, presented a large number of volumes).
The municipal picture gallery contains a collection of pictures, and among them are some primitive frescoes, attributable to the 12th century, which still retain traces of Byzantine influence.
DROITWICH, a market town and municipal borough in the Droitwich parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England, 5a m.
in 1625 granted another and fuller charter, which remained the governing charter until the Municipal Reform Act.
BACUP, a market town and municipal borough in the Rossendale parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, on the river Irwell, 203 m.
The long straight lines of works which stretched to the plateau of the Michelsberg and formed the outworks of the main fortress on the left bank of the Danube were purchased in 1900 by the municipal authorities, in order to be levelled and laid out in streets for the extension of the town in this direction.
The fortifications also of Neu-Ulm, on the Bavarian side of the Danube, were ordered to be razed and devoted to municipal purposes.
TOTNES, a market town and municipal borough in the Totnes parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the Dart, 2 9 m.
SOUTHPORT, a municipal and county borough and seaside resort in the Southport parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, immediately S.
DENILIQUIN, a municipal town of Townsend county, New South Wales, Australia, 534 m.
TORQUAY, a municipal borough, seaport and watering place, in the Torquay parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on Tor Bay of the English Channel, 26 m.
DONCASTER, a market-town and municipal borough in the Doncaster parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 156 m.
in 1684 by which the town was governed until the Municipal Corporation Act.
WEYMOUTH and Melcombe Regis, a seaport, wateringplace, market town and municipal borough in the Southern parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 142 m.
The municipal borough is under a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors.
BLACKPOOL, a municipal and county borough and seaside resort in the Blackpool parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 46 m.
In 1835 the corporation was remodelled under the Municipal Corporations Act.
In 1920 there were only 17,606 workers and employees in private industrial enterprises, 988 in municipal enterprises, and 2,880 in state enterprises; in Riga alone, 9,739 in private enterprises against 62,000 in 1914.
Pop. of the municipality (1900), 2 9,33 1, a large percentage being summer residents, as the census was taken late in December; (1902, municipal census), 18, 373.
Among the public buildings are the old imperial palace, a modern summer residence of the national executive and a municipal hall.
The nation has only a municipal organization with a priestly aristocracy, precisely the state of things that prevailed under the Persian empire.
Cicero was in friendly relations with it, and exerted influence that it might retain its property in Gaul, so that it is obvious that it had then recovered municipal rights.
CARMARTHEN (Caerfyrddin), a municipal borough, contributory parliamentary borough (united with Llanelly since 1832), and county town of Carmarthenshire, and a county of itself, finely situated on the right bank of the Towy, which is here tidal and navigable for small craft.
Amongst the principal buildings are a Gothic church of the 15th century, the town and county hall, a German gymnasium with a good collection of antiquities, and the municipal museum.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
The federal district, which has a municipal council instead of a legislature, has a system of municipal and higher courts peculiar to itself.
The chief cities received municipal constitutions, as in Portugal.
and the municipal council conferred upon the prince regent the title of Perpetual Defender of Brazil.
It was originally intended to form a shrine for Flaxman's marble statue of the poet (now in the National Portrait Gallery), but it proved to be too confined to afford a satisfactory view of the sculptor's work and was at length converted into a museum of Burnsiana (afterwards removed to the municipal buildings).
The municipal golf links are on the Braid Hills.
The area of the city has been enlarged by successive extensions of its municipal boundaries, especially towards the west and south.
By the Redistribution Act of 1885 the city was divided for parliamentary purposes into East, West, Central and South Edinburgh, each returning one member; the parliamentary and municipal boundaries are almost identical.
The town council, which has its headquarters in the Municipal Buildings in the Royal Exchange, consists of fifty members, a lord provost, seven baffles, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a convener of trades, seven judges of police, and thirty-two councillors.
side of the piazza is the Palazzo Pretorio, or della Podesta, begun in 1349 and now the municipal palace.
The neighbouring lords attacked and ravaged the municipal territories; grave injuries were inflicted by the mercenary bands, especially by the Bretons and Gascons.
The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.
In 1906 municipal disabilities were imposed upon Asiatics, and in 1907 a Dealers' Licences Act was passed with the object, and effect, of restricting the trading operations of Indians.
The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.
These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary has twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights.
In Croatia-Slavonia there are four urban counties or towns with municipal rights namely: Eszek, Varasd, Zagrab and Zimony.
Matthias laboured strenuously to develop and protect the towns, multiplied municipal charters, and materially improved the means of communication, especially in 1 We know actually of fifteen, but there may have been many more.
was at the Tower, but neither the king's councillors nor the municipal authorities had taken any measures to cope with the rising.
There are large and well-kept public parks, a common (17 acres) with a soldiers' monument, a free public library, with more than 50,000 volumes in 5907, a city hall, county and municipal court-houses, a county gaol and house of correction, a county industrial school and a state armoury.
All the municipal councils in Dalmatia (with the solitary exception of Zara, which had an Italian majority) were dissolved at an early stage in the war.
After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."
Pop. of the city (1899) 3954; of the municipal district 20,246, of whom 10,715 were of mixed races.
BROUGHTY FERRY, a municipal and police burgh, seaport and watering-place of Forfarshire, Scotland, on the Firth of Tay, 4 m.
FOLKESTONE, a municipal borough, seaport and wateringplace of Kent, England, within the parliamentary borough of Hythe, 71 m.
Johannesburg, the centre of the gold-mining industry, had a population, within the municipal boundary, of 155,642 (83,36 3 whites).
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
The municipal boards possess very ' The number of electors at the first registration (1907) was 105,368.
The basis of municipal qualification is ownership of real property of the value of £ioo, or the tenancy of premises of the value of £300, or annual value of £2 4.
Several of its churches are architecturally interesting, especially the Madonna delle Lacrime (1487) outside the town, the elegant early Renaissance architecture of which resembles that of the Madonna del Calcinaio at Cortona, and most of them (and also the municipal picture gallery) contain paintings by artists of the Umbrian school - notably Lo Spagna, a pupil of Perugino.
FAVERSHAM, a market town and river-port, member of the Cinque Port of Dover, and municipal borough in the Faversham parliamentary division of Kent, England, on a creek of the Swale, 9 m.
BANBURY, a market-town and municipal borough in the Banbury parliamentary division of Oxfordshire, England, on the river Cherwell and the Oxford canal, 86 m.
A school of science was erected in 1861, and there is a municipal secondary, and technical school.
granted a new charter, which held until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
QUEENBOROUGH, a municipal borough in the Faversham parliamentary division of Kent, England, in the Isle of Sheppey, close to the junction of the Swale and Medway, 2 m.
By an unscrupulous use of the dispensing power he introduced Dissenters and Catholics into all departments of state and into the municipal corporations, which were remodelled in their interests.
The judicial organization of the states includes in each a supreme court of three members, a superior court, courts of first instance, district courts and municipal courts.
In the territories there are civil and criminal courts of first instance, and municipal courts.
There is a municipal council of seven members in each district, elected by the municipios, and in each municipio a communal junta appointed by the municipal council.
WISBECH, a municipal borough, market town, and port in the Wisbech parliamentary division of Cambridgeshire, England, 38 m.
By the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 a mayor, aldermen and a council replaced the capital burgesses, the older governing body.
It probably acquired municipal rights in 90 B.C., but Augustus, owing to the fact that it did not support him, assigned a part of its territory to his veterans in 41 B.C., and henceforth it is once more called colonia.
The intelligent classes have become far better educated in the laws of health, and less disposed to quackery; the less intelligent are better cared for and protected by municipal and central authority.
The lectures at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, which he attended from its foundation in 1868, revealed his true bent; and henceforth he devoted himself almost entirely to scholarship. He began modestly by the study of the municipal charters of St Omer.
A minute knowledge of printed books and a methodical examination of departmental and communal archives furnished him with material for a long course of successful lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and significance of the urban communities in France.
In 1903 the Education (London) Act was passed in pursuance of the general system, put into operation by the Education Act (1902) of bringing education within the scope of municipal government.
Municipal provision of public libraries under acts of 1892 and 1893 is general throughout London, and these institutions are exceedingly popular for purposes both of reference and of loan.
Already in 1884 Sir William Harcourt had attempted to constitute the metropolis a municipal borough under the government of a single council.
The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.
Here at least the medieval system, in spite of any anomalies with respect to modern conditions, has resisted reform, and no other municipal body shares the traditions and peculiar dignity of the City Corporation.
The powers of the governing body of the City, moreover, are as peculiar in this direction as in that of municipal administration; and the act left the City as a county of a city practically unchanged.
In the 12th century there was a great municipal movement over Europe.
A striking point in this municipal revolution is that the new privileges extended to the city of London were entirely copied from those of continental cities, and Mr Round shows that there is conclusive proof of the assertion that the Commune of London derived its origin from that of Rouen.
When the Act for the reform of Municipal Corporations was passed in 1835 London was specially excepted from its provisions.
Firth, Municipal London (1876); Walter Delgray Birch, Historical Charters and Constitutional Documents of the City of London (1884, 1887); J.
TAMWORTH, a market town and municipal borough of England, in the Lichfield parliamentary division of Staffordshire and the Tamworth division of Warwickshire, on the river Tame, a southern tributary of the Trent.
There are forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in Upper Burma.
In 1324 a municipal edict was issued forbidding the erection of glass-furnaces within the city.
He worked as a designer in Paris, and became prominent as a member of the municipal council of Paris, rousing much angry discussion by a proposal to rename the Parisian streets which bore saints' names.
NEATH (Welsh, Castell-Nedd), a municipal and contributory parliamentary borough, seaport and market-town of Glamorganshire, south Wales, prettily situated near the mouth of the Neath or Nedd, on the Great Western and the Rhondda and Swansea Bay railways, 72 m.
KIRKWALL (Norse, Kirkjuvagr, " church bay"), a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport and capital of the Orkney Islands, county of Orkney, Scotland.
Other public buildings include the municipal buildings, the sheriff court and county buildings, Balfour hospital, and the fever hospital.
Some continental writers, in dealing with the origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, have, however, ascribed too much importance to the Anglo-Saxon gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they form the germ of medieval municipal government.
- The merchant and craft fraternities are particularly interesting to students of economic and municipal history.
It has often been asserted that the gild merchant and the borough were identical, and that the former was the basis of the whole municipal constitution.
Admission to the gild was not restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic body having control over the whole municipal polity.
No good evidence has, moreover, been advanced to prove that this or any other kind of gild was the germ of the municipal constitution.
While in most towns the name and the old organization of the gild merchant thus disappeared and the institution was displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of the middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15th century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions, or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole municipal corporation.
In Germany, France and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the local trade monopoly.
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.
Gonetta, Bibliografia delle corporazioni d'arti e mestieri (Rome, 1891); C. Gross, Bibliography of British Municipal History, including Gilds (New York, 1897); W.
The town hall, dating from the latter half of the 19th century, contains a municipal library and an interesting collection of pictures.
Kitzingen is still surrounded by its old walls and towers, and has an Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, two municipal museums, a town-hall, a grammar school, a richly endowed hospital and two old convents.
AIRDRIE, a municipal and police burgh of Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Stendal was founded in 11, 51 by Albert the Bear, on the site of a Wendish settlement, and soon afterwards acquired a municipal charter.
WELSHPOOL (or Welchpool, so called because Pool, its old name, led to confusion with Poole, in Dorsetshire; Welsh Trallwm), a market town and municipal and contributary parliamentary borough of Montgomeryshire, N.
Among the public buildings are several churches and hospitals (including the Jurujuba yellow-fever hospital and the Barreto isolation hospital), the government palace, a municipal theatre and a large Salesian college situated in the suburbs of Santa Rosa on an eminence overlooking the lower bay.
Alsergrund, with the enormous general hospital, the military hospital and the municipal asylum for the insane, is the medical quarter.
The municipal districts outside the Ring also contain numerous handsome modern buildings.
The municipal council is composed of 158 members elected for a period of six years.
The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration.
He was also, as he tells us himself, alderman of a London ward and an active partisan in municipal politics.
Though municipal in its outlook, it is valuable for the general history of the kingdom, owing to the important part which London played in the agitation against the misrule of Henry III.
KENNINGTON, a district in the south of London, England, within the municipal borough of Lambeth.
Munich is divided into twenty-four municipal districts, nineteen of which, including the old town, lie on the left bank of the Isar, while the suburban districts of Au, Haidhausen, Giesing, Bogenhausen and Ramersdorf are on the opposite bank.
In1882-1886he was mayor of the city of Brooklyn, being twice elected on an independent ticket; and by his administration of his office he demonstrated that a rigid "merit" civil-service system was practicable - in September 1884 the first municipal civil-service rules in the United Service were adopted in Brooklyn.
Under these governors the great and small councils continued to discharge municipal business and to administer the Paduan law, contained in the statutes of 1276 and 1362.
Among the most prominent secular buildings are: the Tergesteo, a huge edifice containing a cruciform arcade roofed with glass, where the exchange is established, besides numerous shops and offices; the town-hall, rebuilt in 1874, with the handsome hall of the local Diet; the imposing old exchange, now the seat of the chamber of commerce; the palatial offices of the Austrian Lloyd, the principal shipping company; the commercial and nautical academy, with its natural history museum, containing the complete fauna of the Adriatic Sea; and finally the municipal museum, Revoltella, are all worth mentioning.
The municipal council of Trieste constitutes at the same time the local Diet of the crown land, and is composed of S4 members.
BANFF, a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport and capital of Banffshire, Scotland.
Solingen received its municipal charter in 1374.
The municipal governments of Newport and Providence present interesting features, for which see the separate articles on these cities.
When parliament met they executed, for form's sake, some confused manoeuvres, and then they were beaten on an amendment to the address in favour of Municipal Allotments.
high; beneath it is a public wine-cellar, and on the first storey a grand municipal hall.
Of numerous other medieval buildings may be mentioned the Leinwandhaus (linendrapers' hall), a 15th century building reconstructed in 1892 as a municipal museum.
The municipal library, with 300,000 volumes, boasts among its rarer treasures a Gutenberg Bible printed at Mainz between 1450 and 1455, another on parchment dated 1462, the Institutiones Justiniani (Mainz, 1468), the Theuerdank, with woodcuts by Hans Schaufelein, and numerous valuable autographs.
Besides the municipal library (Stadtbibliothek) mentioned above there are three others of importance, the Rothschild, the Senckenberg and the Jewish library (with a well-appointed reading-room).
The present municipal constitution of the city dates from 1867 and presents some points of difference from the ordinary Prussian system.
With the beginning of the 13th century the municipal constitution appears to have taken definite shape.
About this time a body of Schoffen (scabini, jurats), fourteen in number, was formed to assist in the control of municipal affairs, and with their appointment the first step was taken towards civic representative government.
KEIGHLEY (locally Keithley), a municipal borough in the Keighley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 17 m.
BROSELEY, a market town in the municipal borough of Wenlock and the Wellington (Mid) parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, on the right bank of the Severn.
After the Civil War General Porter was engaged in business in New York, and later held successively many important municipal offices.
OSWESTRY, a market town and municipal borough in the Oswestry parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, on :the borders of Wales, 18 m.
The municipal buildings (1893) include a library, and a school of science and art.
in 1672 appointed a mayor, 12 aldermen and 15 common councilmen, and remained the governing charter until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 changed the corporation.;In 1228 John Fitzalan obtained the right of holding a market every week on Monday instead of Thursday.
Many remains from the Roman period have been excavated, such as traces of an amphitheatre, a triumphal arch, the old fortifications, an aqueduct, &c. The remains are preserved partly in the museum at Budapest, and partly in the municipal museum.
It attained municipal privileges in 1284, was frequently pillaged by the Swedes after 1643, and in 1848 became the capital, under Danish rule, of Schleswig.
The town was given municipal privileges by Gustavus Adolphus in 1620, but is modern in appearance, having been rebuilt after fires in 1860 and 1865.
Questions affecting the interests of the whole Fu come before the Fu-kwai, or prefectural assembly, made up of representatives from both Ku and Gun, and a prefectural council, of which „the governor is president; while matters concerning the city alone are discussed by a Shi-kwai, or municipal assembly, and administered by a municipal council, of which the Shicho or mayor is president.
ILKESTON, a market town and municipal borough, in the Ilkeston parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England, 9 m.
In Germany, the use of duty-free spirit is only allowed to state and municipal hospitals, and state scientific institutions, and for the manufacture of fulminates, fuzes and smokeless powders.
Here he endeavoured to satisfy his passion for activity, partly by sharing in the municipal government of the town and the regulation of itsc commons, woods and pastures, and partly by the composition of the apology he published under the title of El Nicandro, which was perhaps written by an agent, but was undeniably inspired by the fallen minister.
The mines within the municipal area produce nearly half the total gold output of the Transvaal.
The municipal boundary extends in every direction some 5 m.
The local government is carried on by an elected municipal council, the franchise being restricted to white British subjects (men and women) who rent or own property of a certain value.
At the census of April 1904 the inhabitants of the city proper numbered 99,022, the population within the municipal area being 155,642, of whom 83,363 were whites.
A municipal census taken in August 1908 gave the following result: whites 95,162; natives and coloured 78,781; Asiatics 6780 - total 180,687.
One result of this movement was a slight advance in municipal self-government.
After a period of military administration and of government by a nominated town council, an ordinance was passed in June 1903 providing for elective municipal councils, and in December following the first election to the new council took place.
In that year the number of municipal voters was 23,338.
social science (r900) - which offers courses in commerce, administration, modern history and practical philanthropy - and a school of education, first opened in 1907, to train secondary and college teachers and school principals and superintendents; a college of law (1868); a college of medicine (1870), including a training school for nurses (1897); a college of homoeopathic medicine (1877), including a nurses' training school (1894); a college of dentistry (1882); a college of pharmacy (1885); a graduate college; a college of applied science (1903), with courses in civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, municipal and sanitary engineering and courses in chemistry; a summer school for teachers and librarians and a university extension department.
MARLBOROUGH, a market town and municipal borough in the Devizes parliamentary division of Wiltshire, England, 754 m.
AYR, a royal, municipal and police burgh and seaport, and county town of Ayrshire, Scotland, at the mouth of the river Ayr, 41 m.
In 1873 the municipal boundary was extended northwards beyond the river so as to include Newton-upon-Ayr and Wallace Town, formerly separate.
LOSTWITHIEL, a market town and municipal borough in the Bodmin parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 302 m.
In 1690 he moved a famous amendment to the Corporation Bill, proposing the addition of a clause - the purport of which was misrepresented by Macaulay - for disqualifying for office for seven years municipal functionaries who in defiance of the majority of their colleagues had surrendered their charters to the Crown.
OAMARU, a municipal borough on the east coast of South Island, New Zealand, in the county of Waitaki and provincial district of Otago; on the main railway between Christchurch (152 m.
DUNBAR (Gaelic, "the fort on the point"), a royal, municipal and police burgh, and seaport of Haddingtonshire, Scotland.
Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.
An advanced and vehement Radical in politics and Progressive in municipal affairs, Mr Harrison in 1886 stood unsuccessfully for parliament against Sir John Lubbock for London University.
the legislative chambers, the municipal hall, the Baralt theatre, the prison, the market, a hospital and six churches.
The etiquette of the imperial circle, scenes from the law-courts and the recitationroom, the reunions of dilettanti and philosophers, the busy life of the capital or of the municipal town, the recreations of the seaside and of the country - all these he brings vividly before our eyes.
It was governed by a mayor and twelve aldermen, but by 1864 their privileges had become merely nominal, and the corporation was dissolved in 1885 under the Municipal Corporations Act.
Other educational establishments are Queen's University, replacing the old Queen's College (1849) under the Irish Universities Act 1908; the Presbyterian and the Methodist Colleges, occupying neighbouring sites close to the extensive botanical gardens, the Royal Academical Institution, and the Municipal Technical Institute.
In conformity with the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act of 1840 the constitution of the corporation was made to consist of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, under the style and title of " The Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Belfast."
EALING, a municipal borough in the Ealing parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, suburban to London, 9 m.
There are no municipal institutions.
The Normans, like the Arabs, were not numerically strong; the rule of both, in Sicily as well as Malta, was based on a recognition of municipal institutions under local officials; the Normans, however, exterminated the Mahommedans.
Under the Aragonese, Malta, as regards local affairs, was administered bya Universitd or municipal commonwealth with wide and indefinite powers, including the election of its officers, Capitan di Verga, Jurats, &c. The minutes of the " Consiglio Popolare " of this period are preserved, showing it had no legislative power; this was vested in the king, and was exercised despotically in the interests of the Crown.
Le Marchant, and considerable municipal improvements and embellishments were completed.
A new city charter, embodying what has become known as the "Des Moines Plan" of municipal government, was adopted in 1907.
After petition signed by a number of voters not less than 25% of the number voting at the preceding municipal election, any member of the council may be removed by popular vote, to which all public franchises must be submitted, and by which the council may be compelled to pass any law or ordinance.
The town enjoyed municipal rights.
In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.
The climate and the scenery in and about Biddeford attract summer visitors and there are two resorts, Biddeford Pool and Fortune Rocks within the municipal limits; but the city is chiefly a manufacturing centre (third in rank among the cities of the state in 1905) - good water-power being furnished by the river - and cotton goods, foundry and machine shop products and lumber are the principal products, the first being by far the most important.
The site of Oneida was purchased in1829-1830by Sands Higinbotham, in honour of whom one of the municipal parks (the other is Allen Park) is named.
Grain, wine, oil and fruit are produced in the district, and there is a municipal farm, founded in 1885, for experiments in viticulture.
The city has a Carnegie library, a municipal hospital, an aged women's home and a children's home.
Rheydt is an ancient place, but its industrial importar e is of very recent growth, and it only received municipal rights in 1856.
Re-elected in the municipal elections of the 2nd of December 1792, he was soon charged with the functions of procurator of the Commune, and contributed with success to the enrolments of volunteers by his appeals to the populace.
The municipal corporations are civil divisions quite independent of the county and township system.
Cities of the first class are those having a population of 15,000 or over; cities of the second class are those having a population of 2000 but less than 15,000; all other municipal corporations, except cities with special charters, are known as incorporated towns.
The state has no bonded debt, and the constitution forbids it to incur debts exceeding in the aggregate a quarter of a million dollars, except for warlike purposes or for some single work to which the people give their consent by vote; the constitution also forbids any county or municipal corporation from incurring an indebtedness exceeding 5% of the value of its taxable property.
EASTBOURNE, a municipal borough (1883) in the Eastbourne parliamentary division of Sussex, England, 61 m.
The principal buildings and institutions are the town hall and municipal buildings, the Princess Alice Memorial and other hospitals, a free library and, among many high-class schools, Eastbourne College for boys, founded in 1867.
He was immediately elected a member of the municipal council of Philadelphia, becoming its chairman; and was chosen president of the Supreme Executive Council (the chief executive officer) of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected in 1786 and 1787, serving from October 1785 to October 1788.
From 1801 to 1802 and from 1806 to 1807 he was a member of the Council of Appointment, and realizing the power this body possessed through its influence over the selection of a vast number of state, county and municipal officers, he secured in 1801, while his uncle was governor, the removal of a number of Federalist office-holders, in order to strengthen the Republican organization by new appointments.
Facing the north side of the Parade Ground are the handsome municipal buildings, completed in 1906.
The town was granted municipal institutions in 1836.
The municipal rating value was, in 1880 £2,054,204, in 1901 £9,475,260, in 1908 (when the rate levied was 3d.
It has been superseded for municipal business by a new building, and now contains the civic archives and museum.
PORT GLASGOW, a municipal and police burgh and seaport of Renfrewshire, Scotland, on the southern shore of the Firth of Clyde, 204 m.
ABERYSTWYTH, a municipal borough, market-town and seaport of Cardiganshire, Wales, near the confluence of the rivers Ystwyth and Rheidol, about the middle of Cardigan Bay.
SOUTHAMPTON, a municipal, county, and parliamentary borough of Hampshire, England, a seaport, and county in itself, 79 m.
In the municipal offices interesting ancient regalia and records are kept.
Important municipal docks have been built by the city.
Since 1896 there has been a strong independent movement in politics, marked by the organization of a League for Better City Government (1896) and a Municipal League (1900), and by the organization of postal primaries to secure the co-operation of electors pledged to independent voting.
The last of these provides that 25% of the voters choosing a municipal officer may, by signing a petition for his recall, force a new election during his term of office and thereby remove him if another candidate receives a greater number of votes.
Their petty punishments and their minute interferences with private life are only special instances of what was common to all municipal rule in the 16th century."
Boston has been a leader in the establishment of municipal baths.
Beginning in 1892 various townships and cities, numbering 18 in 1903, adopted municipal ownership and operation of lighting works.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
The extant imperial charter does not specify what were the municipal rights that were conceded, but it is certain that at this time they were very limited.
From this time, until the French Revolution, the ancient democratic institutions of the city remained nothing but a name; the rights of the community were exercised by a municipal aristocracy, who held all power in their own hands.
The municipal museum contains a library of over 85,000 volumes as well as 1800 MSS., and a fine collection of sculpture and paintings.
The political and commercial centre of the city is the Plaza Mayor, or Plaza de la Constituc16n, on which face the cathedral, national palace, and municipal palace.
During Spanish rule the only break in the ordinary course of events was the revolt of 1692, which resulted in the destruction of the municipal buildings.
The towns had municipal franchises, exercised by a governing body comprised of Spaniards, either immigrants from Old Spain, or Creoles, i.e.
The provisions of the Truce of God were often incorporated bodily in municipal and district statutes such as the laws of Barcelona (1067).
Besides the Gothic cathedral (1480-1511), with the tombs of the marquises, the churches of San Giovanni (formerly San Domenico), San Bernardo and the Casa Cavazza, now the municipal museum, are noteworthy.
There are numerous municipal and other parks.
The strongholds of these heretical opinions were the great towns, the centres of civilization, because there the growing sentiment of municipal independence, and the rise of a burgher class through commerce, created a spirit of criticism which was dissatisfied with the worldly lives of the clergy and their undue influence in affairs.
In the 13th century Hildesheim became a free city of the Empire; in 1249 it received municipal rights and about the same time it joined the Hanseatic league.
In an act of 1883 it is mentioned as one of the towns which had long ceased to be municipal.
BATHGATE, a municipal and police burgh of Linlithgowshire, Scotland, 19 m.
We find, indeed, two cases of men who held municipal honours at Puteoli and in the Rhone valley.
Irrespective of the large number of clerks, village scribes and state and municipal employes which can be drawn upon with but slight interruption of official routine, there is a fair supply of casual literary labour up to the moderate standard required.
The last asked for returns regarding valuation, taxation, educational and religious statistics, pauperism, crime and the prevailing rates of wages in each municipal division.
In the regions where census tables and interpretations are derived from registration records kept by the several states or cities they are often made more complete than those in the state or municipal documents.
HARROGATE, a municipal borough and watering-place in the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 203 m.
Congregationalists generally have been to the fore in attempts to apply Christian principles to matters of social, municipal, national and international importance.
The governor has the power, also, of filling vacancies in certain state offices and on the benches of the supreme court and county courts, and he may remove or suspend certain county and municipal officers on charges.
In cities the mayor is required to appoint a municipal civil service commission, with similar duties; not more than twothirds of the members may be of the same political party.
A state commissioner in lunacy was first appointed in 1874; this officer was replaced in 1889 by a commission in lunacy, which in 1894 was placed at the head of the Bills for " special " city laws, as opposed to " general," must be approved (within fifteen days after their passage by both houses of the legislature) by the mayor of the city in first-class cities (in which, however, the state legislature may provide for the concurrence of the municipal legislative body), and in other cities by the mayor and council, before it is laid before the governor: if it is passed by the state legislature over the mayor's veto it goes direct to the governor.
The revised charter also provided that any one who brought over five colonists and established them in a new settlement should receive 200 acres, and if such a settlement grew to be a town or village it should receive a grant of municipal government.
Local administration is vested in local elective bodies, such as municipal councils, county councils, road boards, harbour boards, charitable aid boards, and others, with power to levy rates.
In 1896 municipal and rural local bodies were allowed to levy rates upon unimproved land values if authorized to do so by a vote of their electors, and by the end of 1901 some sixty bodies, amongst them the city of Wellington, had made use:of this permission.
In 1898 also the municipal franchise, hitherto confined to ratepayers, was greatly widened; in 1900 the English system of compensation to workmen for accidents suffered in their trade was adopted with some changes, one of the chief being that contested claims are adjudicated upon cheaply and expeditiously by the same arbitration court that decides industrial disputes.
At the end of the latter year he returned to Brandenburg, where he was elected a member of the municipal council and in 1906 a member of the Reichstag.
OKEHAMPTON, a market town and municipal borough in the Tavistock parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the east and west Okement rivers, 22 m.
in 1684 continued to be the governing charter, the corporation consisting of a mayor, seven principal burgesses and eight assistant burgesses, until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1882.
BO'NESS, or Borrowstounness, a municipal and police burgh and seaport of Linlithgowshire, Scotland.
BATLEY, a municipal borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, within the parliamentary borough of Dewsbury, 8 m.
The supreme court has original jurisdiction in habeas corpus, quo warranto and mandamus proceedings against all state officers; and it has appellate jurisdiction except in civil actions for the recovery of money or personal property, in which the original amount in controversy does not exceed $200, and which at the same time do not involve the legality of a tax, impost, assessment, toll or municipal fine, or the validity of a statute.
They have original jurisdiction in all cases in equity, in all cases at law which involve the title or possession of real property, or the legality of a tax, impost, assessment, toll or municipal fine, and in all other cases at law in which the amount in controversy is $loo or more, in nearly all criminal cases, in matters of probate, in proceedings for divorce, and in various other cases; and they have appellate jurisdiction of cases originally tried before a justice of the peace or other inferior courts where the amount in controversy is more than $20.
The revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from a general property tax, a privilege tax levied on the gross receipts of express companies and private car companies, an inheritance tax and licence fees for the sale of intoxicating liquors.
The administration of justice is intrusted to a supreme court, an increasing number of district courts, and at least two justices' courts in each organized township, besides police and municipal courts.
Municipal corporations are classified according to population; those: having ro,000 inhabitants or more are cities of the first class;, those having less than io,000 but more than 5000 inhabitants, cities of the second class; those having less than 5000 but more than z000 inhabitants, cities of the third class, and those having less than z000 but more than 300 inhabitants towns.
The principal municipal officers hold office for two years.
Pierre Eyquem, Montaigne's father, had been engaged in commerce (a herring-merchant Scaliger calls him, and his grandfather Ramon had certainly followed that trade), had filled many municipal offices in Bordeaux, and had served under Francis I.
The municipal (or Murhard) library, in the Hanau park, contains 118,000 volumes.
The religious vocation of Israel was no longer national but ecclesiastical or municipal, and the historical continuity of the nation was vividly realized only within the walls of Jerusalem and the courts of the Temple, in the solemn assembly and stately ceremonial of a feast day.
It has a theatre, a municipal library, a gymnasium, and other educational establishments.
The present article is restricted to arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see Arbitration And Conciliation).
In 1794 he returned to St Etienne, where, but only for a short period, he filled a municipal office; and from 1797 to 1799 he devoted himself to strenuous study, more especially of the literature and history, both ancient and modern, of Greece and Italy.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.