Hinduism was the state religion, and the number of Buddhists was very small.
They are Hindus, but their Hinduism is held to be of a non-Aryan type.
But Hinduism, understood even in this wide sense, represents only one of many creeds and races found within Bengal.
Hinduism has now supplanted Buddhism, and the Brahman fills the place of the monk.
The transition from this crude form of religion to popular Hinduism is comparatively easy.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
Besides these matters which concerned Hinduism there was the problem of converting sixty million Mahommedans.
The next time (1014), he advanced to Thanesar, another noted stronghold of Hinduism,, between the Sutlej and the Jumna.
In Hinduism the various implements of sacrifice are similarly personified and worshipped, especially the sacrificial post to which the victim is bound, and which, under the name of vanaspall and svaru, is deified and invoked.
In the light of facts such as these, who could venture to say what the future of Hinduism is likely to be ?
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
In the islands of Bali and Lombok the people still profess a form of Hinduism, and Hindu remains are to be found in many other parts of the archipelago, though their traces do not extend to the peninsula.
The classes most receptive of Christianity are those who are outside the Hindu system, or whom Hinduism regards as degraded.
Its extinction is contemporaneous with the rise of Hinduism, and belongs to a subsequent part of this sketch.
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
A counter reformation can also be traced which attempts to revive Hinduism by purging it of its grossness and allegorizing its fables and legends.
The noblest survivals of Buddhism in India are to be found, not among any peculiar body, but in the religion of the people; in that principle of the brotherhood of man, with the reassertion of which each new revival of Hinduism starts; in the asylum which the great Hindu sects afford to women who have fallen victims to caste rules, to the widow and the out-caste; in the gentleness and charity to all men, which takes the place of a poor-law in India, and gives a high significance to the half satirical epithet of the " mild " Hindu.
excrescence upon Hinduism, in so far as the bands of secret assassins were sworn together by an oath based on the rites of the bloody goddess Kali.
The prevailing religion is Hinduism, 84% of the people being Hindus and only 6% Mahommedans.
Buddhism 800) and modern Hinduism is the joint product of and Brahma both.
Hinduism first made its encroachments among their kings and.
Hinduism has also impressed its language upon the province, and the vernacular Assamese possesses a close affinity to Bengali, with the substitution of s for the Bengali ch, of a guttural h for the Bengali h or sh, and a few other dialectic changes.
Further, it is probably in the mixture of Greek, Persian and Indian deities which characterizes the pantheon of the Kushan kings that are to be sought many of the features found in Mahayanist Buddhism and Hinduism (as distinguished from the earlier Brahmanism).
Wilkins, Modern Hinduism (London, 1887); J.
On the other hand there are various offshoots from orthodox Hinduism, the distinguishing feature of which, in their earlier history at least, is the obliteration of caste distinctions and the rejection of the Brahmanical hierarchy.
They are descended from Hindus of Sind and Kach, who were converted from Hinduism to the Ismaili form of the Shiah faith in the 15th century of the Christian era.
His cult survived the metamorphosis of the ancient Vedic nature-worship into modern Hinduism, and there still are in India fire-priests (agnihotri) whose duty is to superintend his worship. The sacred fire-drill for procuring the temple-fire by friction - symbolic of Agni's daily miraculous birth - is still used.
Impressed with the perversions and corruptions of popular Hinduism, Ram Mohan Roy investigated the Hindu Shastras, the Koran and the Bible, repudiated the polytheistic worship of the Shastras as false, and inculcated the reformed principles of monotheism as found in the ancient Upanishads of the Vedas.
In the Deccan their place is taken by Lingayats from the south, who again follow their own form of Hinduism, which is an heretical species of Siva worship. Throughout Mysore, and in the north of Madras, Lingayats are still found, but along the eastern sea-board the predominating classes of traders are those named Chetties and Komatis.
It seemed to meet the feeling of many educated natives whose faith in current Hinduism was undermined, but who were predisposed against any foreign religious influence.
It is doubtful if Buddhism, and still more so if Jainism and Sikhism, all of which are commonly recognized as distinct religions, ever differed from Hinduism to a greater extent than did the tenets of the earlier followers of Chaitanya in Bengal or those of the Lingayats in Mysore; and yet these latter two are regarded only as sects of Hinduism.
The bewildering diversity of religious beliefs collected under the name of Hinduism has no counterpart amongst the Mahommedans, who are limited as to their main tenets by the teaching of a single book, the Koran.
But, though one may at times find it convenient to speak of "Brahmanism and Hinduism," it must be clearly understood that the distinction implied in the combination of these terms is an extremely vague one, especially from the chronological point of view.
For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
In this way both Buddhism (q.v.) and Jains have almost been swallowed up by Hinduism; Sikhism (q.v.) is only preserved by the military requirements of the British, and even the antagonism between Hindu and Mahommedan is much less acute than it used to be.
18 79); Hinduism (London, 1877); Sir Alfred C. Lyall, Asiatic Studies '(2 series, London, 1899); "Hinduism" in Religious Systems of the World (London, 1904); "Brahminism" in Great Religions of the World (New York and London, 1902); W.
Robson, Hinduism and Christianity (Edinburgh and London, 3rd ed., 1905); J.
Murray Mitchell, Hinduism Past and Present (2nd ed., London, 1897); Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, Hindu Castes and Sects (Calcutta, 1896); A.
The conversion of their king Chuchengpha to Hinduism took place in the year A.D.
His name does not occur in the Vedas, but in later Hinduism he is an important divinity.
The origin of this form of Hinduism is lost in antiquity, but it is probable that it represents a pre-Aryan religion, more or less modified in various parts of south India by Brahmanical influence.
The headquarters of Hinduism, the Ganges valley, was occupied by the Baptists, the Church Missionary Society and the London Missionary Society, these entering Benares in 1816, 1818 and 1820 respectively.
In fact the whole Samaj movement is as distinct a product of the contest of Hinduism with Christianity in the 19th century, as the Panth movement was of its contest with Islam 300 years earlier.
But despite the artificial character of the Trimurti, it has retained to this day at least its theoretical validity in orthodox Hinduism, whilst it has also undoubtedly exercised considerable influence in shaping sectarian belief, in promoting feelings of toleration towards the claims of rival deities; and in a tendency towards identifying divine figures newly sprung into popular favour with one or other of the principal deities, and thus helping to bring into vogue that notion of avatars, or periodical descents or incarnations of the deity, which has become so prominent a feature of the later sectarian belief.
Nanak was born in the province which then formed the borderland between Hinduism and Islam.
As in India, after the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism.
HINDUISM, a term generally employed to comprehend the social institutions, past and present, of the Hindus who form the great majority of the people of India; as well as the multitudinous crop of their religious beliefs which has grown up, in the course of many centuries, on the foundation of the Brahmanical scriptures.
The Chinese travellers, Fa Hien in the 5th century, and Hsiian Tsang in the 7th century, found the Buddhist religion prevailing throughout Bengal, but already in a fierce struggle with Hinduism - a struggle which ended about the 9th or 10th century in the general establishment of the latter faith.
Not only are his sayings proverbial: his doctrine actually forms the most powerful religious influence in present-day Hinduism; and, though he founded no school and was never known as a guru or master, but professed himself the humble follower of his teacher, Narhari-Das, 2 from whom as a boy in Sukar-khet he heard the tale of Rama's doings, he is everywhere accepted as an inspired and authoritative guide in religion and conduct of life.
In the Atharvaveda he is lord of life and death, and in later Hinduism one of the Hindu trinity, the god Siva.
Cool, With the Dutch in the East (Amsterdam and London, 1897), in Dutch and English, is a narrative of the events sketched above, and contains many particulars about the folklore and dual religions of Lombok, which, with Bali, forms the last stronghold of Hinduism east of Java.
In Gujarat the predominant religion is Hinduism, though petty Mahommedan kingdoms have left their influence in many parts of the province.
Such traces, introduced with Hinduism, are present in all the cultivated languages of Malaysia at the present day.
MonierWilliams, Brahmanism and Hinduism, iii.
JAINS, the most numerous and influential sect of heretics, or nonconformists to the Brahmanical system of Hinduism, in India.
In Hinduism, truth is the highest dharma and the source of all other virtues.
(b) Indian influence may be defined as Buddhism, if it is understood that Buddhism is not at all periods clearly distinguishable from Hinduism.
The vitality of the movement, however, had left it, and its inconsistencies, combined with the lack of strong leadership, landed it in a position scarcely distinguishable from orthodox Hinduism.
A small community (about 130) in Bombay, known as the Prarthna (Prayer) Samaj, was founded in 1867 through Keshub Chunder's influence; they have a similar creed to that of the Brahma Samaj, but have broken less decisively with orthodox and ceremonial Hinduism.
No formal alteration has been made in the Sikh religion since Guru Govind Singh gave it his military organization, but certain modifications have taken place as the result of time and contact with Hinduism.
See further Brahmanism and Hinduism.
The prevailing religion in Bundelkhand is Hinduism.
Mahmud again entered the Punjab in 1008, this time for the express purpose of chastising Sewah Pal, who, having become a Mussulman, and been left by Mahmud in charge of Multan, had relapsed to Hinduism.
These copies are invaluable as being the only evidence we now have of pictorial art in India before the rise of Hinduism.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Hinduism.
drawn between Brahmanism and Hinduism.
But, on the other hand, the same process of racial intermixture also tended to gradually draw the lower race more or less under the influence of the Brahmanical forms of worship, and thus contributed towards the shaping of the religious system of modern Hinduism.
About the middle of the 17th century the chief became a convert to Hinduism.
In the presence of a perceived crisis, the dominant castes see themselves as the representatives of Hinduism.
Hinduism has a rigid caste system which often results in pressure on the young to ensure they don't marry into the wrong caste system which often results in pressure on the young to ensure they don't marry into the wrong caste.
Where do some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism come from?
devout followers of Hinduism whose faith is embodied in their lavish temples.
Hinduism for Guru Nanak was deficient in that it taught social disunity and religious segregation and gave no hope of liberation to the underclasses.
fundamental concepts of Hinduism come from?
A unique blend of western occultism with authentic magical Hinduism.
Hinduism recognizes four varnas ('castes ', literally 'colours ') based on occupation (jati or jat) and ancestry.
Hinduism and Jainism advocate vegetarianism out of respect for all life.
For Greece and Rome, where the instructions as to ritual were not embodied in the elaborate codes handed down in Hinduism or Judaism, our material is far less complete.
Also John Robson, Hinduism and Christianity; and the Theistic Quarterly Review (the organ of the Society since 1880).
The establishment of Singh Sabhas, of Sikh newspapers, and the spread of education have largely tended in the same direction, but the strict ethical code of Sikhism and the number of its obligatory divine services have caused many to fall away from the faith: nor does the austere Sikh ritual appeal to women, who generally prefer Hinduism with its picturesque material worship and the brightness of its innumerable festivals.
But the ancient Buddhism, the party of reform, was overwhelmed also in its fall; and modern Hinduism arose on the ruins of both.
The most obvious characteristics of the ordinary Hindu are that he worships a plurality of gods, looks upon the cow as a sacred animal, and accepts the Brahmanical supremacy (see Brahmanism) and the caste system; and when it is a question whether one of the animistic tribes has or has not entered the fold of Hinduism, these two latter points seem to be the proper test to apply.
The bewildering diversity of religious beliefs collected under the name of Hinduism has no counterpart amongst the Mahommedans (see Mahommedan Religion), who are limited as to their main tenets by the teaching of a single book, the Koran.
But whilst, in its more comprehensive acceptation, the term Hinduism would thus range over the entire historical development of Brahmanical India, it is also not infrequently used in a narrower sense, as denoting more especially the modern phase of Indian social and religious institutions - from the earlier centuries of the Christian era down to our own days - as distinguished from the period dominated by the authoritative doctrine of pantheistic belief, formulated by the speculative theologians during the centuries immediately succeeding the Vedic period (see Brahmanism).
In his character as preserver of men Vishnu has from time to time become incarnate to rid the world of some great evil (see also Brahmanism and Hinduism).
Even among Muslim ulema who had not been to India, we find interestingly positive appraisals of Hinduism.
Judaism, Hinduism, and other religious beliefs are well-represented when it comes to Italian gold jewelry.
Other prominent religions there include Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.
Even though the general ideas of reincarnation have spread around the globe for centuries, for the most part, historians agree that the concept of rebirth into a new life originated with Hinduism.
According to Hinduism, each lifetime is an opportunity to experience situations and events that bring you to a higher astral level where your soul moves closer to the nirvana of enlightenment and oneness with God.
In Hinduism (and many other beliefs of reincarnation), the act of suicide is a failure of the soul to resolve a karmic entanglement and learn the lessons that would achieve an evolved spiritual state of being.
People who teach OBE travel cover a wide range of beliefs and practices, including Reiki, Hinduism, Gnostics, Taoism and many Native American rituals.
To be brought up by Christians from Iowa in a Moslem country that was traditionally part of India gave me a remarkable experience of Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.
Yoga origins predate Hinduism by literally thousands of years.
They understand that although yoga has been changed significantly over thousands of years, its foundation stems from the polytheistic deities of Hinduism.
Practicing hand yoga poses is a rich tradition in Hinduism and Buddhist cultures, where it continues to be used symbolically through meditation to attain spiritual growth.
Tantra is a collection of techniques culled from esoteric schools of Buddhism and Hinduism.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.