I wish you all the happiness you so deserve.
Is being in control so important that you're willing to sacrifice the happiness of your only son?
Bubbling with happiness, she hummed as she strode through the corridors in search of Romas.
Didn't he realize that your happiness had value too?
Capable of happiness and sorrow and compassion.
Everyone deserves a chance at happiness, Deidre. Even rich girls running empires.
Since the first time I stepped inside I had a sense of all of the love and happiness and peace those walls have witnessed.
But when my teacher presented me with a canary, my cup of happiness overflowed.
I would give my life for the happiness of them both.
She is a thorough woman, but with none of the pettinesses, subterfuges, and mental reservations of her sex; she loves wide vistas and boundless horizons and instinctively seeks them out; she is concerned for universal happiness and takes thought for the improvement of mankind - thelastinfirmity and most innocent mania of generous souls.
Condorcet's statement that Turgot corresponded with Smith is disproved by a letter of Smith to the duc de la Rochefoucauld, published in the Economic Journal (March 1896), p. 165, in which he says, "But tho' I had the happiness of his acquaintance: Turgot owed his appointment to the ministry to Maurepas, the" Mentor "of Louis XVI., to whom he was warmly recommended by the abbe Very, a mutual friend.
They got out, and she lingered, sighing in happiness at the pleasure she was likely never to experience again after this week.
But he was no merely destructive critic. He was determined to find a solid foundation for both morality and law, and to raise upon it an edifice, no stone of which should be laid except in accordance with the deductions of the severest logic. This foundation is "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," a formula adopted from Priestly or perhaps first from Beccaria.
He caressed the tattoo with a thumb and smiled, feeling genuine happiness for the first time since Andre.s death.
To call it "pessimism" is merely to apply to it a characteristically Western principle according to which happiness is impossible without personality.
My vocation is to be happy with another kind of happiness, the happiness of love and self-sacrifice.
Well then, we're on our way to happiness ever after.
There was firmness in his tone that threatened to pull her happiness down a notch.
This happiness is for those who have not in them what there is in you.
Her happiness impressed all; nobody seemed to pity her.
In her thoughts of marriage Princess Mary dreamed of happiness and of children, but her strongest, most deeply hidden longing was for earthly love.
In the third book Philosophy promises to lead him to true happiness, which is to be found in God alone, for since God is the highest good, and the highest good is true happiness, God is true happiness.
After all, you must understand that besides your pleasure there is such a thing as other people's happiness and peace, and that you are ruining a whole life for the sake of amusing yourself!
Happiness, fear, awe … The gloves were off this night.
So, it sounds like the key to our happiness lies with Miriam Sidwell.
Suddenly a feeling of happiness seized him.
And cost what it may, I will arrange poor Amelie's happiness, she loves him so passionately, and so passionately repents.
My mother, and sister and little brother have been here five weeks, and our happiness knows no bounds.
Maria's level of happiness rose to ecstatic when he was around.
In 1781 Dohm pointed to the fact that a Jewish father could seldom hope to enjoy the happiness of living with his children.
They were cultured, not at all savages, and for the first time since his capture, he held a glimmer of hope that he might find some semblance of happiness again.
Happiness causes her pain, the tumor to grow and eventually, death.
"Hard as this year which delays my happiness will be," continued Prince Andrew, "it will give you time to be sure of yourself.
"Spring, love, happiness!" this oak seemed to say.
Prince Andrew had loved his wife, she died, but that was not enough: he wanted to bind his happiness to another woman.
Her own body burned with emotions she couldn't control: love, happiness, and a hunger so deep, she thought she'd die before he sated her.
Neither Alex nor children were the key to happiness - she was.
I hope too, that Bishop Brooks' whole life will be as rich in happiness as the month of May is full of blossoms and singing birds.
I buy something because I have certain assumptions about how much happiness it will bring me.
He was filled with happiness at his nearness to the Emperor.
And the main thing is," he continued, "that I know, and know for certain, that the enjoyment of doing this good is the only sure happiness in life."
But now, at the commencement of the campaign, I should feel dishonored, not only in my comrades' eyes but in my own, if I preferred my own happiness to my love and duty to the Fatherland.
"Yes, a new happiness was revealed to me of which man cannot be deprived," he thought as he lay in the semidarkness of the quiet hut, gazing fixedly before him with feverish wide open eyes.
She saw the possibility of love and happiness between Natasha and Pierre, and the first thought of this filled her heart with gladness.
Only remember that your life's happiness depends on your decision.
Share thy happiness with thy neighbor, and may envy never dim the purity of that bliss.
Dean smiled to himself at the difference between happiness and a Thursday night romp.
She exhaled happiness and love from the time Nicholas returned, and the faithful, unalterable love of this girl had a gladdening effect on him.
Her body sang in happiness at the closeness, and she felt herself relax.
The Healer's voice radiated happiness that made Darian sink lower into the black thoughts in his mind.
We must conceive nature as overruled by God not so much Later for the sake of man's happiness as for the sake of his form; moral development.
A second type of hedonism - less ignoble, but perhaps also less logical - calls men to seek the happiness of others.
And He is happier than any of us because He is greater than any of us, and also because He not merely SEES your happiness as we do, but He also MADE it.
Sidgwick holds that intuition must justify the claims of the general happiness upon the individual, though everything subsequent is hedonistic calculus.
There was an expression of carefree happiness on the faces of both father and daughter.
This was the pinnacle of my happiness, from which I was in a little while dashed to earth.
And then you will know the happiness of forgiving.
A happiness lying beyond material forces, outside the material influences that act on man--a happiness of the soul alone, the happiness of loving.
If there is a God and future life, there is truth and good, and man's highest happiness consists in striving to attain them.
Jackson pinched her cheek and hummed, "Apparently your happiness is more important to him than his own."
Katie laughed, happiness and hope bubbling within her. She took in Rhyn's strong profile. If anyone could save the world, it was him.
But what I consider my crown of success is the happiness and pleasure that my victory has brought dear Teacher.
And Rostov got up and went wandering among the campfires, dreaming of what happiness it would be to die--not in saving the Emperor's life (he did not even dare to dream of that), but simply to die before his eyes.
You lived for yourself and say you nearly ruined your life and only found happiness when you began living for others.
Or that a certain group of people who do a seemingly unrelated set of a dozen activities report levels of happiness higher than average?
The complicated plot is constructed with greater skill than is usual with this dramatist, and the pathos of particular situations, and of the entire character of Penthea - a woman doomed to hopeless misery, but capable of seeking to obtain for her brother a happiness which his cruelty has condemned her to forego - has an intensity and a depth which are all Ford's own.
The quiet home life and peaceful happiness of Bald Hills presented itself to him.
While imprisoned in the shed Pierre had learned not with his intellect but with his whole being, by life itself, that man is created for happiness, that happiness is within him, in the satisfaction of simple human needs, and that all unhappiness arises not from privation but from superfluity.
She vividly pictured herself as Prince Andrew's wife, and the scenes of happiness with him she had so often repeated in her imagination, and at the same time, aglow with excitement, recalled every detail of yesterday's interview with Anatole.
He did not even remember how formerly, on the strength of similar wretched logical arguments, it had seemed obvious that he would be degrading himself if he now, after the lessons he had had in life, allowed himself to believe in the possibility of being useful and in the possibility of happiness or love.
"This happiness is not for you," some inner voice whispered to him.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
Of course, it is a very brilliant match, but happiness, my dear...
In the fulfilment of this supposed mission he was not very successful, because his conception of national happiness and the means of obtaining it differed widely from that of the peoples whom he wished to benefit.
This is a good thing because it means that high degrees of utility (the economists' word for "happiness") can be achieved with a wide variety of goods.
"Strange and impossible as such happiness seems, I must do everything that she and I may be man and wife," he told himself.
The latter began to feel that it was in bad taste to speak of his enthusiasms, dreams, and hopes of happiness or goodness, in Prince Andrew's presence.
To be able to read for one's self what is being willed, thought and done in the world--the world in whose joys and sorrows, failures and successes one feels the keenest interest--that would indeed be a happiness too deep for words.
Kiera found she truly was happy for her, though her own happiness was clouded by a sense of sadness and yearning.
As if that money could add a hair's breadth to happiness or peace of mind.
He remembered that he had now a new source of happiness and that this happiness had something to do with the Gospels.
The advent of Christianity, with its categorical assertion of future happiness for the good, to a large extent did away with pessimism in the true sense.
Pierre was right when he said one must believe in the possibility of happiness in order to be happy, and now I do believe in it.
Human griefs seem little worth assuaging; human happiness too paltry (at the best) to be worth increasing.
When peace was finally concluded, he had obtained that predominant position in European politics which had been the object of his ambition since the commencement of his reign, and he now believed firmly that he had been chosen by Providence to secure the happiness of the world in general and of the European nations in particular.
Such deceivers, according to Josephus, did no less than the murderers to destroy the happiness of the city.
Such is the account which Josephus gives in the Antiquities; in the Jewish War he represents the rabbis and their disciples as looking forward to greater happiness for themselves after such a death.
It is your happiness I wish for, she added, feeling that she was telling an untruth and was becoming entangled.
"Health and happiness to her whose name day we are keeping and to her children," she said, in her loud, full-toned voice which drowned all others.
"What nonsense it is," Natasha suddenly exclaimed, "about honeymoons, and that the greatest happiness is at first!
Wynn said your happiness made it grow.
And the body, indeed, is subject to the powerful influence of death; but a shadow of vitality is still left alive, and this alone is of divine origin; while our limbs are in activity it sleeps; but, when we sleep, it discloses to the mind in many dreams the future judgment with regard to happiness and misery."
Religion alone can explain to us what without its help man cannot comprehend: why, for what cause, kind and noble beings able to find happiness in life--not merely harming no one but necessary to the happiness of others--are called away to God, while cruel, useless, harmful persons, or such as are a burden to themselves and to others, are left living.
He is not the body to be buried; he will not remain with his friends after he has drunk the poison, but he will go away to the happiness of the blessed.
The goal in life to be aimed at, according to him, is not happiness, but tranquillity, or equanimity.
My heart is too full of sadness to dwell upon the happiness the summer has brought me.
Sometimes when she recalled his looks, his sympathy, and his words, happiness did not appear impossible to her.
With Mademoiselle Bourienne's help the princess had maintained the conversation very well, but at the very last moment, just when he rose, she was so tired of talking of what did not interest her, and her mind was so full of the question why she alone was granted so little happiness in life, that in a fit of absent-mindedness she sat still, her luminous eyes gazing fixedly before her, not noticing that he had risen.
And this very absence of an aim gave him the complete, joyous sense of freedom which constituted his happiness at this time.
The height of happiness was reached--and so simply, without warning, or noise, or display, that Rostov could not believe his eyes and remained in doubt for over a second.
He was already enjoying that happiness when that little Napoleon had suddenly appeared with his unsympathizing look of shortsighted delight at the misery of others, and doubts and torments had followed, and only the heavens promised peace.
It was as if she feared this strange, unexpected happiness of meeting again the very man she had then chosen (she was firmly convinced she had done so) and of finding him, as it seemed, not indifferent to her.
Thoughts that had not entered her mind for years--thoughts of a life free from the fear of her father, and even the possibility of love and of family happiness--floated continually in her imagination like temptations of the devil.
To her own surprise a power of life and hope of happiness rose to the surface and demanded satisfaction.
It is safe to say that the man with seventeen puppies is creating more happiness by giving one each to sixteen friends than he is forgoing by his loss of puppies.
You know that for me there is nothing in life but you, and to suffer with you is the greatest happiness for me, and he took her hand and pressed it as he had pressed it that terrible evening four days before his death.
I have had so little happiness in life that every loss is hard for me to bear....
Because your happiness is more important to us than our own.
The cordial and gentle manners of Mrs Gibbon, however, and her unremitting care for his happiness, won him from his first prejudices, and gave her a permanent place in his esteem and.
"Yes, that was happiness," she then said in her quiet voice with its deep chest notes.
The happiness before him appeared so inconceivable that if only he could attain it, it would be the end of all things.
A future life for him is important, because our happiness in it may depend on our present conduct; and therefore our action here should take into account the reward or punishment that it may bring on us hereafter.
She could not help loving the countess and the whole Rostov family, but neither could she help loving Nicholas and knowing that his happiness depended on that love.
Whatever her father's feelings might be, she begged Natasha to believe that she could not help loving her as the one chosen by her brother, for whose happiness she was ready to sacrifice everything.
No wonder if they prove to involve happiness; that is their definition!
Wollaston starts with the assumption that religion and morality are identical, and labours to show that religion is "the pursuit of happiness by the practice of truth and reason."
Seize the moments of happiness, love and be loved!
I made romantic plans of love and happiness with her!
"Come, let's argue then," said Prince Andrew, "You talk of schools," he went on, crooking a finger, "education and so forth; that is, you want to raise him" (pointing to a peasant who passed by them taking off his cap) "from his animal condition and awaken in him spiritual needs, while it seems to me that animal happiness is the only happiness possible, and that is just what you want to deprive him of.
"You see he writes," said she, showing her son a letter of Prince Andrew's, with that latent grudge a mother always has in regard to a daughter's future married happiness, "he writes that he won't come before December.
Happiness and pleasure caused it to grow faster.
Each time we met, I couldn't bring myself to ruin the happiness.
We must not, we dare not, aim at happiness.
The subject was "What truths and sentiments is it most important to inculcate to men for their happiness?"
Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article of the ordinance; and the third article read: "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall for ever be encouraged."
Instead, therefore, of the criterion of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," Stephen has that of the "health of the organism."
It was a moment of supreme happiness.
We only need you, dear Mr. Hitz, to complete our happiness.
There was peace and happiness...
Reviewing his impressions of the recent battle, picturing pleasantly to himself the impression his news of a victory would create, or recalling the send-off given him by the commander-in-chief and his fellow officers, Prince Andrew was galloping along in a post chaise enjoying the feelings of a man who has at length begun to attain a long-desired happiness.
I should die of happiness!
Her eyes were smiling expectantly, her downy lip rose and remained lifted in childlike happiness.
There is no spring, no sun, no happiness!
Well, you will be coming," he was going to say, "to dine," but changed his mind and said "to take tea with us," and quickly doubling up his tongue he blew a small round ring of tobacco smoke, perfectly embodying his dream of happiness.
Her little feet in their white satin dancing shoes did their work swiftly, lightly, and independently of herself, while her face beamed with ecstatic happiness.
On her way home at an early hour when she met no one but bricklayers going to work or men sweeping the street, and everybody within the houses was still asleep, Natasha experienced a feeling new to her, a sense of the possibility of correcting her faults, the possibility of a new, clean life, and of happiness.
A French king, Charles V., is said to have been the first to invent a police, "to increase the happiness and security of his people."
His happiness was of paramount importance.
Now it is the ambition of man to affect an independency, to be a god to himself, sufficient for his own happiness.
Drugs, which directly trigger happiness in users, provoke irectly trigger happiness in users, provoke ire.
His love for Natasha, Antichrist, Napoleon, the invasion, the comet, 666, L'Empereur Napoleon, and L'russe Besuhof--all this had to mature and culminate, to lift him out of that spellbound, petty sphere of Moscow habits in which he felt himself held captive and lead him to a great achievement and great happiness.
While there is life there is happiness.
In every word and gesture he saw allusions to his happiness.
But there is nothing flimsy about the pursuit of happiness.
It was old Karl Marx that wrote: ' The first requisite for the people 's happiness is the abolition of religion '.
That was the moment her eyes lit up with recognition and her face became suffused with a sudden glow of happiness.
Please don't always feign happiness with me, I want you to be genuine.
Proper care of a new kitten is important to its health and happiness.
In the year of his marriage we find Comte writing to the most intimate of his correspondents: - " I have nothing left but to concentrate my whole moral existence in my intellectual work, a precious but inadequate compensation; and so I must give up, if not the most dazzling, still the sweetest part of my happiness."
Adoption, for example, as a practice for improving the happiness of families and the welfare of society, is capable of being weighed, and can in truth only be weighed, by utilitarian considerations, and has been commended 1 For Comte's place in the history of ethical theory see Ethics.
For if the pleasure of virtuous activity is a supervening end beyond the activity, it becomes a supervening end beyond the happiness of virtuous activity, which thus ceases to be the final end.
6-fin.) to the famous theory that the highest happiness is the speculative life of intellect or wisdom as divine, but that happiness as human also includes the practical life of combining prudence and moral virtue; and that, while both lives need external goods as necessaries, the practical life also requires them as instruments of moral action.
8), after recognizing the necessity of external goods to happiness, it denies that fortune is due to divine grace, and simply defines it as irrational nature (&Xoyos 060-Ls).
dappled with somber shades and sunlit patches of great happiness.
It is no dwelling of the dead nor part of the lower world, but distinguished heroes are translated thither without dying, to live a life of perfect happiness.
The individual's happiness is indeed unattainable either here and now or hereafter and in the future, but he does not despair of ultimately releasing the Unconscious from its sufferings.
We must provisionally affirm life and devote ourselves to social evolution, instead of striving after a happiness which is impossible; in so doing we shall find that morality renders life less unhappy than it would otherwise be.
As regards domestic morality, the system offered constant facilities for libertinism, and tended to subvert domestic peace by compromising the dignity and ruining the happiness of the wife.
The happiness of his mind beamed forth in his countenance.
Cosimo employed almost the last hours of his life in listening to Ficino's reading of a treatise on the highest good; while Lorenzo, in a poem on true happiness, described him as the mirror of the world, the nursling of sacred muses, the harmonizer of wisdom and beauty in complete accord.
benedictio, from benedicere, to bless), generally, the utterance of a blessing or of a devout wish for the prosperity and happiness of a person or enterprise.
The tragedians used her story to point the moral of the instability of human happiness; Niobe became the representative of human nature, liable to pride in prosperity and forgetfulness of the respect and submission due to the gods.
Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.
The second article says that the Tribonian to whom it refers was of Side (in Pamphylia), was also Core) Suo ybpwv Twv uirap X wv, was a man of learning and wrote various books, among which are mentioned certain astronomical treatises, a dialogue On Happiness, and two addresses to Justinian.
The universe, renewed, was to enjoy eternal happiness.
He held that happiness includes not merely present enjoyment and prosperity, but also a reasonable expectation of their continuance.
Such considerations have the very greatest importance for the guidance of the action of civilized man in seeking the health and happiness of the community.
A daughter was born to them in 1734, but the years of their happiness and of Silva's dramatic career were few, for on the 5th of October 1737 husband and wife were both imprisoned on the charge of "judaizing."
In ancient inscriptions it often means those souls who are enjoying eternal happiness, or the martyrs.
But, further, the happiness and the dignity of life are regarded by him as absolutely dependent on the acceptance of the true and the rejection of the false doctrine.
With the conquest over these nature herself supplies all that is needed for happiness.
A much more solid gain to his happiness was the adoption, or practical adoption, in 1776 of Reine Philiberte de Varicourt, a young girl of noble but poor family, whom Voltaire rescued from the convent, installed in his house as an adopted daughter, and married to the marquis de Villette.
Her pet name was "Belle et Bonne," and nobody had more to do with the happiness of the last years of the "patriarch" than she had.
Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.
The public was at first greatly mystified by the nature and object of this poem, which was not merely a chronicle of Tennyson's emotions under bereavement, nor even a statement of his philosophical and religious beliefs, but, as he long afterwards explained, a sort of Divina Commedia, ending with happiness in the marriage of his youngest sister, Cecilia Lushington.
A majority of the artists are content to copy old pictures of Buddhas sixteen disciples, the seven gods of happiness, and other similar assemblages of mythical or historical personages, not only because such work offers large opportunity for the use of striking colors and the production of meretricious effects, dear to the eye of the average Western householder and tourist, but also because a complicated design, as compared with a simple one, has the advantage of hiding the technical imperfections of the ware.
On the other hand, life must in the long run so conduce, whatever its present value may appear to be, because a constant process of adjustment is going on which is bound sooner or later to lead to a complete adjustment which will be perfect happiness.
Bolingbroke's conversation, described by Lord Chesterfield as "such a flowing happiness of expression that even his most familiar conversations if taken down in writing would have borne the press without the least correction," his delightful companionship, his wit, good looks, and social qualities which charmed during his lifetime and made firm friendships with men of the most opposite character, can now only be faintly imagined.
(2) As a social being, man is part of a greater harmony, and, in order that he may contribute to the happiness of the whole, he must order his extra-regarding activities so that they shall not clash with his environs.
Here he resided three years, his happiness only marred by regret on account of his separation from his brother Daniel.
But Catherine had the happiness of bringing him grandchildren ere he died.
"I confess," he wrote to the marquis of Villamarina, in 1847, "that a war of national independence which should have for its object the defence of the pope would be the greatest happiness that could befall me."
On its southern banks, from east to west, dwell the "blameless Aethiopians" in, perfect happiness, and beyond it on the west, in the realms of eternal night, the "Cimmerians," wrapped in fogs and darkness.
The queen's second child, the prince of Wales (see Edward Vii.), was born on the 9th of November 1841; and this event "filled the measure of the queen's domestic Birth of happiness," as she said in her speech from the throne the prince at the opening of the session of 1842.
The happiness or satisfaction of the individual was the end which dominated this scepticism as well as the contemporary systems of Stoicism and Epicureanism, and all three philosophies place it in tranquillity or self-centred indifference.
Anniceris, in whose thought the school reached its highest perfection, declared that true pleasure consists sometimes in self-sacrifice and that sympathy in enjoyment is a real source of happiness.
Happiness is the end of mankind.
To Plato the "happiness" of all the members of a state, each according to his own capacity, was the final end of political development.
3, tells us that Seth was a virtuous man, and that his descendants lived in perfect harmony and happiness.
He was sent to travel in France, and allowed to occupy himself as he wished; and he had the happiness of spending some months in.
His philosophy consisted in an attempt to reconcile the doctrines of his teachers Philo of Larissa and Mnesarchus the Stoic. Against the scepticism of the former, he held that the intellect has in itself a sufficient test of truth; against Mnesarchus, that happiness, though its main factor is virtue, depends also on outward circumstances.
The true hedonist will aim at a life of enduring rational happiness; pleasure is the end of life, but true pleasure can be obtained only under the guidance of reason.
Practically speaking ancient hedonism advocated the happiness of the individual: the modern hedonism of Hume, Bentham and Mill is based on a wider conception of life.
The only real happiness is the happiness of the community, or at least of the majority: the criterion is society, not the individual.
Life is not "a series of detached acts, in each of which a man can calculate the sum of happiness or misery attainable by different courses."
Atheism is the only means of ensuring the happiness of the world, which has been rendered impossible by the wars brought about by theologians.
Happiness in this world consists proximately in virtue as a harmony between the three parts, rational, spirited and appetitive, of our souls, and ultimately in living according to the form of the good; but there is a far higher happiness, when the immortal soul, divesting itself of body and passions and senses, rises from earth to heaven and contemplates pure forms by pure reason.
In the Ethics to Eudemus, as Porphyry properly called the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle in the first four books successively investigates happiness, virtue, the voluntary and the particular moral virtues, in the same order and in the same letter and spirit as in his Ethics to Nicomachus.
On the other hand, nobody would have gone back afterwards on his masterly treatment of happiness, in the first book, or of virtue in the second, or of the voluntary in the third, or of the particular virtues in the third and fourth, to write the sketchy accounts of the Eudemian Ethics.
8): virtuous actions are gentlemanly actions, and happiness accordingly is being at our best and noblest and pleasantest (tipcarov Kai KaXXCaTOV Kai rjScarov).
While the Eudemian Ethics in a more theological vein emphasizes God, the object of wisdom as the end for which prudence gives its orders, the Nicomachean Ethics in a more humanizing spirit emphasizes wisdom itself, the speculative activity, as that end, and afterwards as the highest happiness, because activity of the divine power of intellect, because an imitation of the activity of God, because most dear to God.
Aristotle then wrote three moral treatises, which agree in the fundamental doctrines that happiness requires external fortune, but is activity of soul according to virtue, rising from morality through prudence to wisdom, or that science of the divine which constitutes the theology of his Metaphysics.
- In this natural world of real substances, human good is not an imitation of a supernatural universal form of the good, but is human happiness; and this good is the same both of the individual as a part and of the state as a whole.
But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.
Good fortune in moderation is also required as a condition of his happiness.
Or is this altogether absurd for us who say that happiness is an activity?
Virtuous activities determine happiness, and a virtuous man is happy in this life, in spite of misfortunes unless they be too great; while after death he will not feel the misfortunes of the living so much as to change his happiness.
Still, for perfect happiness a man should prefer the speculative life of divine intellect, and immortalize (CcOavarQ"ecv) as far as possible.
To turn from Ethics to Politics, the good of the individual on a small scale becomes on a large scale the good of the citizen and the state, whose end should be no far-off form of good, and no mere guarantee of rights, but the happiness of virtuous action, the life according to virtue, which is the general good of the citizen.
Finally, art is not morality, because its end is always a work of art, not virtuous action: on the other hand, art is subordinate to morality, because all the ends of art are but means to the end of life, and therefore a work of art which offends against morality is opposed to the happiness and the good of man.
In 1711 Berkeley delivered his Discourse on Passive Obedience, in which he deduces moral rules from the intention of God to promote the general happiness, thus working out a theological utilitarianism, which may be compared with the later expositions of Austin and J.
Villele's successor was the vicomte de Martignac, who took Decazes for his model; and in the speech from the throne Charles declared that the happiness of France depended on "the sincere union of the royal authority with the liberties consecrated by the charter."
It was evidently ill-assorted, and brought no happiness to either.
1 But More was too conspicuous to be long allowed to enjoy the happiness of a retired life.
But she only enjoyed one year of happiness, for in 1473 her husband died of fever, leaving his kingdom to his queen and their child as yet unborn.
Virtue tends always to happiness, and in the end must produce it in its perfect form.
a story describing how the domestic happiness of a young tutor, who marries the unacknowledged daughter of a Russian sensualist of the old type, dull, ignorant and genial, is troubled by a Russian sensualist of the new school, intelligent, accomplished and callous, without there being any possibility of saying who is most to be blamed for the tragic termination.
Not only his political hopes, but his domestic happiness had suffered shipwreck.
The doctrine of eternal punishment has been opposed on many grounds, such as the disproportion between the offence and the penalty, the moral world should prepare itself for the descent of the and religious immaturity of the majority of men at death, the diminution of the happiness of heaven involved in the knowledge of the endless suffering of others (Schleiermacher), the defeat of the divine purpose of righteousness and grace that the continued antagonism of any of God's creatures would imply, the dissatisfaction God as Father must feel until His whole family is restored.
In 1775 he travelled for nine months in Italy with Prince Leopold of Brunswick, and in the following year he married Eva KOnig, the widow of a Hamburg merchant, with whom he had been on terms of intimate friendship. But their happiness lasted only for a brief period; in 1778 she died in childbed.
He had, however, the happiness of living long enough to perfect his work.
In 1793 Godwin published his great work on political science, The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness.
Since both held the same views regarding the slavery of marriage, and since they only married at all for the sake of possible offspring, the marriage was concealed for some time, and the happiness of the avowed married life was very brief; his wife's death on the 10th of September left Godwin prostrated by affliction, and with a charge for which he was wholly unfit - his infant daughter Mary, and her stepsister, Fanny Imlay, who from that time bore the name of Godwin.
But it is clear that by the time this chapter was penned it was believed that no man could attain to happiness in the hereafter if he had not been upright, just and charitable in his earthly existence.
This revelation of disaffection, together with the fall of Constantinople, darkened the last years of Nicholas; "As Thomas of Sarzana," he said, "I had more happiness in a day than now in a whole year."
The doctrine thus afforded an explanation, quite complete to those who believed it, of the apparent anomalies and wrongs in the distribution here of happiness or woe.
Religion is conducive to our happiness and alone brings satisfaction.
It opens with a startling reversal of the common estimates of happiness and misery.
Proverbs does not offer the good of society as an aim of action, though it takes for granted that good conduct will promote the happiness of all.
Assuming human freedom it at the same time assumes that the ills of life may be overcome by a wise employment of man's resources, and it silently regards universal happiness on earth as the goal of human development.
The pilgrimage to Gangotri is considered efficacious in washing away the sins of the devotee, and ensuring him eternal happiness in the world to come.
Abu'l-Abbas inaugurated his Caliphate by a harangue in which he announced the era of concord and happiness which was to begin now that the House of the Prophet had been restored to its right.
Abdallah, after the Prophet, should fulfil the promises of peace and happiness that had been tendered to the believers, and therefore to have called him al-Mandi.
In 1822 he published in the Morning Chronicle (April) a letter against Canning's attack on Lord John Russell, and edited, or rather re-wrote, some discursive papers of Bentham, which he published under the title Analysis of the Influence of Natural Religion on the Temporal Happiness of Mankind by Philip Beauchamp (1822).
In good citizenship morality is practised out of regard to certain preconceived notions of the needs, the health and happiness of ourselves, our fellows and the community at large.
"happiness to the young couple," &c.
Thus the Church ever receives God and has a twofold nature; its sacraments through material and earthly elements impart a divine power; its teachings agree with the highest truths of philosophy and science, yet add to these the knowledge of mysteries which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive; it sanctifies human relationships, but the happiness of earth at purest and best is only a shadow of the divine bliss which belongs to the redeemed soul.
On the 28th of July 1683 she married Prince George of Denmark, brother of King Christian V., an unpopular union because of the French proclivities of the bridegroom's country, but one of great domestic happiness, the prince and princess being conformable in temper and both preferring retirement and quiet to life in the great world.
But Anne's happiness was soon troubled by quarrels with the king and queen.
The truth of this will be apparent if it is considered that the Moral and Political Philosophy admittedly embodies two presuppositions: (I) that "God Almighty wills and wishes the happiness of His creatures," and (2) that adequate motives must be supplied to virtue by a system of future rewards and punishments.
In the estimation of these people "Siva and Vishnu may be more dignified beings, but the village deity is regarded as a more present help in trouble, and more intimately concerned with the happiness and prosperity of the villagers.
Nirvana is constantly defined in them as supreme happiness.
utilis, useful), the form of ethical doctrine which teaches that conduct is morally good according as it promotes the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.
Their interest was to show that the gospel precept of universal benevolence, which owes nothing to civil enactment, was both agreeable to nature and conducive to happiness.
What he says comes to this: that virtue is benevolence, and that benevolence is incumbent upon each individual, because it leads to his individual happiness.
Happiness arises from the rewards of virtue.
His two most famous definitions are that of virtue as " the doing good to mankind, in obedience to the will of God and for the sake of everlasting happiness," and that of obligation as being urged by a violent motive resulting from the command of another ": both of which bring home to us acutely the limitations of 18th-century philosophizing in general and of theological utilitarianism in particular.
Hume, taking for granted that benevolence is the supreme virtue, points out that the essence of benevolence is to increase the happiness of others.
He took up the greatest happiness principle not as an attractive philosopheme, but as a criterion to distinguish good laws from bad.
This was the principle of utility, or, as he subsequently expressed it with more precision, the doctrine that the only test of goodness of moral precepts or legislative enactments is their tendency to promote the greatest possible happiness of the greatest possible number."
His reconciliation amounts to this, that the rule of conduct is to aim at universal happiness, but that we recognize the reasonableness of this rule by an intuition which cannot be further explained.
4 " Is there any such happiness as for a man's mind to be raised above the confusion of things, where he may have the prospect of the order of nature and error of man ?
Both she and her sister Maria (Mrs William Grey) took a keen interest in bettering women's equipment for educational work, and, in 1858, she published Intellectual Education and its Influence on the Character and Happiness of Women.
In Bacon's New Atlantis (1624-29) science is the key to universal happiness; Tommaso Campanella's Civitas Solis (1623) portrays a communistic society, and is largely inspired by the Republic of Plato; James Harrington's Oceana (1656), which had a profound influence upon political thought in America, is a practical treatise rather than a romance, and is founded on the ideas that property, especially in land, is the basis of political power, and that the executive should only be controlled for a short period by the same man or men.
We despair of saving the colony from those evils which threaten it by the turbulent and dishonest conduct of vagrants, who are allowed to infest the country in every part; nor do we see any prospect of peace or happiness for our children in a country thus distracted by internal commotions.
Now, whatever speculation may say as to God's purpose being necessarily universal benevolence, experience plainly shows us that our present happiness and misery depend upon our conduct, and are not distributed indiscriminately.
Therefore no argument can be brought from experience against the possibility of our future happiness and misery likewise depending upon conduct.
Further, we are not only under a government in which actions considered simply as such are rewarded and punished, but it is known from experience that virtue and vice are followed by their natural consequents - happiness and misery.
When the argument from analogy seems to go beyond this, a peculiar difficulty starts up. Let it be granted that our happiness and misery in this life depend upon our conduct - are, in fact, the rewards and punishments attached by God to certain modes of action, the natural conclusion from analogy would seem to be that our future happiness or the reverse will probably depend upon our actions in the future state.
The marriage proved a complete success; it was followed by twentynine years of almost uninterrupted happiness, and by the birth of fifteen children.
In 1594, in an evil hour for his happiness and his reputation, he published his Epistola de vetustate et splendore gentis Scaligerae et J.
And his happiness, since length of time cannot increase it, falls in nothing short of that of Zeus.
There will be a new law, dwelling specially upon the " external duties" required of all men, wise or unwise; and even the sufficiency of virtue for our happiness may be questioned.
Its internal resources were assiduously developed; trade, agriculture, civic justice and religion were fostered; while at no epoch in its post-exilic history did Israel enjoy an equal measure of social happiness (1 Macc. xiv.
Its members were to reach the limit of woo years in happiness and peace.
True happiness consists in taking advantage of what one has and being content with it (see Ethics).
Wenceslas, though only nineteen years of age, henceforth governed Bohemia himself, and his short reign was a period of great happiness for the country.
Homes as The Alchemy of Happiness (Albany, N.Y., 1873); the ethical work 0 Child, ed.
praedestinare, to determine beforehand; from the root sta, as in stare, stand), a theological term used in three senses: (I) God's unchangeable decision from eternity of all that is to be; (2) God's destination of men to everlasting happiness or misery; (3) God's appointment unto life or "election" (the appointment unto death being called "reprobation," and the term "foreordination" being preferred to "predestination" in regard to it).
The general statement that such doctrines refer all moral action to criteria of the individual's happiness, preservation, moral perfection, raises an obvious difficulty.
Again, we may contrast the early Greek hedonists, who bade each man seek the greatest happiness (of whatever kind), with modern utilitarian and social hedonists, who prefer the greatest good or the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
and of pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness."
As, according to the doctrine of virtue, God's virtue consists primarily in love to Himself, so His final end in creation is conceived to be, not as the Arminians held, the happiness of His creatures, but His own glory.
According to Walton, Donne spent some time in Italy and Spain, and intended to proceed to Palestine, "but at his being in the farthest parts of Italy, the disappointment of company,or of a safe convoy,or the uncertainty of returns of money into those remote parts, denied him that happiness."
She struggled long against her powerful kinsfolk, nor did she know happiness till near the end of her life, when she abandoned the unequal strife, and found repose with Francis of Borselen, Ruward of Holland, her fourth husband.
What he would have been as a poet, if, instead of visiting Europe in early life and drinking in the spirit of the middle ages under the shadows of cathedral towers, he had, like Whittier, grown old amid American scenery and life, we can only guess from his earlier poems, which are as naturalistic, fresh and unmystical as could be desired; but certain it is that, from his long familiarity with the medieval view of nature, and its semi-pagan offspring, the romantic view, he was brought, for the greater part of his life, to look upon the world of men and things either as the middle scene of a miracle play, with a heaven of rewarding happiness above and a purgatory of purifying pain below, or else as a garment concealing, while it revealed, spiritual forms of unfathomed mystery.
Happiness consists in the possession of virtue, and consequently is independent of personal and extraneous advantages.
In the Compensations he sought to prove that, on the whole, happiness and misery are equally balanced, and therefore that men should accept the government which is given them rather than risk the horrors of revolution.
But this period of happiness was destined to be short-lived.
In January the death of Catherine had rejoiced the hearts of Henry and Anne Boleyn, but Annes happiness was short-lived.
When Condorcet described the Tenth Epoch in the long development of human progress, he was sure not only that fulness of light and perfection of happiness would come to the sons of men, but that they were coming with all speed.
In a remarkable speech delivered in 1872, he spoke with great warmth of the slighting of the colonies, saying that "no minister in this country will do his duty who neglects any opportunity of reconstructing as much as possible our colonial empire, and of responding to those distant sympathies which may become the source of incalculable strength and happiness to this island."
(3) "He might have discovered a spring of happiness in susceptibilities of the heart; but this was a sealed fountain for Sidonia.
In each case the data rest on an ultimate basis, undemonstrable, indeed, to any one who denies them (even if he be called mad for doing so), except by the continuous process of working out their own proofs, and showing their consistency with, or necessity in, the scheme of things terrestrial on the one hand, or the mind and happiness of man on the other.
At the Seance Royale Louis made known his will that the Estates should deliberate apart, and declared that if they should refuse to help him he would do by his sole authority what was necessary for the happiness of his people.
We saw that Socrates, while not claiming to have found the abstract theory of good or wise conduct, practically understood by it the faithful performance of customary duties, maintaining always that his own happiness was therewith bound up. The Cynics more boldly discarded both pleasure and mere custom as alike irrational; but in so doing they left the freed reason with no definite aim but its own freedom.
1 This cardinal term is commonly translated " happiness "; and it must be allowed that it is the most natural term for what we (in English) agree to call " our being's end and aim."
But happiness so definitely signifies a state of feeling that it will not admit the interpretation that Aristotle (as well as Plato and the Stoics) expressly gives to eu5acuovia; the confusion is best avoided by rendering the word by the less familiar " well-being."
In this sense it may be fairly said that Stoics and Epicureans made rival offers to mankind of the same kind of happiness; and the philosophical peculiarities of either system may be traced to the desire of being undisturbed by the changes and chances of life.
This paradox is violent, but it is quite in harmony with the spirit of Stoicism; and we are more startled to find that the Epicurean sage, no less than the Stoic, is to be happy even on the rack; that his happiness, too, is unimpaired by being restricted in duration, when his mind has apprehended the natural limits of life; that, in short, Epicurus makes no less strenuous efforts than Zeno to eliminate imperfection from the conditions of human existence.
Hence we find that later thinkers of the Cyrenaic school felt themselves compelled to change their fundamental notion; thus Theodorus defined the good as" gladness " (Xapa) depending on wisdom, as distinct from mere pleasure, while Hegesias proclaimed that happiness was unattainable, and that the chief function of wisdom was to render life painless by producing indifference to all things that give pleasure.
When further he teaches that the attainment of happiness depends almost entirely upon insight and right calculation, fortune having very little to do with it; that the pleasures and pains of the mind are far more important than those of the body, owing to the accumulation of feeling caused by memory and anticipation; and that an indispensable condition of mental happiness lies in relieving the mind of all superstitions, which can be effected only by a thorough knowledge of the physical universe - he introduces an ample area for the exercise of the philosophic intellect.
Nay, further, he required that the Christian " love to God " should be regarded as pure only if purged from the self-regarding desire of the happiness which God gives.
Thus, Hugo of St Victor (1077-1141) argues that all love is necessarily so far " interested " that it involves a desire for union with the beloved; and since eternal happiness consists in this union, it cannot truly be desired apart from God; while Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153) more elaborately distinguishes four stages by which the soul is gradually led from (I) merely selfregarding desire for God's aid in distress, to (2) love him for his loving-kindness to it, then also (3) for his absolute goodness, until (4) in rare moments this love for himself alone becomes the sole all-absorbing affection.
Thus the summum bonum for man is objectively God, subjectively the happiness to be derived from loving vision of his perfections; although there is a lower kind of happiness to be realized here 1 Abelard afterwards retracted this view, at least in its extreme form; and in fact does not seem to have been fully conscious of the difference between (I) unfulfilled intention to do an act objectively right, and (2) intention to do what is merely believed by the agent to be right.
The higher happiness is given to man by free grace of God; but it is given to those only whose heart is right, and as a reward of virtuous actions.
Neither natural nor human law, moreover, takes into account that supernatural happiness which is man's highest end.
He explains that though absolute good is discerned by the intellect, the " sweetness and flavour " of it is apprehended, not by the intellect proper, but by what he calls a " boniform faculty "; and it is in this sweetness and flavour that the motive to virtuous conduct lies; ethics is the " art of living well and happily," and true happiness lies in " the pleasure which the soul derives from the sense of virtue."
His fundamental principle and supreme " Law of Nature " is thus stated: " The greatest possible benevolence of every rational agent towards all the rest constitutes the happiest state of each and all, so far as depends on their own power, and is necessarily required for their happiness; accordingly Common Good will be the Supreme Good."
It is, however, important to notice that in his " good " is included not merely happiness but " perfection "; and he does not even define perfection so as to exclude from it the notion of absolute moral perfection and save his theory from an obvious logical circle.
This principle, as was said, is conceived as strictly a law, and therefore referred to a lawgiver, God, and provided with a sanction in its effects on the agent's happiness.
As Locke cannot consistently mean by God's " goodness " anything but the disposition to give pleasure, it might be inferred that the ultimate standard of right rules of action ought to be the common happiness of the beings affected by the action; but Locke does not explicitly adopt this standard.
The only instances which he gives of intuitive moral truths are the purely formal propositions, " No government allows absolute liberty," and " Where there is no property there is no injustice," - neither of which has any evident connexion with the general happiness.
When we speak of a man as good, we mean that his dispositions or affections are such as tend of themselves to promote the good or happiness of human society.
Taking the different impulses in detail, he first shows how the individual's happiness is promoted by developing 1 It should be observed that, while Clarke is sincerely anxious to prove that most principles are binding independently of Divine appointment, he is no less concerned to show that morality requires the practical support of revealed religion.
In discussing this he distinguishes, with well-applied subtlety, between the pleasurableness of the benevolent emotions themselves, the sympathetic enjoyment of the happiness of others, and the pleasure arising from a consciousness of their love and esteem.
This immediate pleasure that we take in goodness (and displeasure in its opposite) is due to a susceptibility which he calls the " reflex " or " moral " sense, and compares with our susceptibility to beauty and deformity in external things; it furnishes both an additional direct impulse to good conduct, and an additional gratification to be taken into account in the reckoning which proves the coincidence of virtue and happiness.
We have, in fact, to distinguish self-love, the " general desire that every man hath of his own happiness " or pleasure, from the particular affections, passions, and appetites directed towards objects other than pleasure, in the satisfaction of which pleasure consists.
Thus the object of hunger is not the pleasure of eating but food; hunger is therefore, strictly speaking, no more " interested " than benevolence; granting that the pleasures of the table are an important element in the happiness at which self-love aims, the same at least may be said for the pleasures of love and sympathy.
Indeed, we may say that an egoist must be doubly self-regulative, since rational self-love ought to restrain not only other impulses, but itself also; for as happiness is made up of feelings that result from the satisfaction of impulses other than self-love, any over-development of the latter, enfeebling these other impulses, must proportionally diminish the happiness at which self-love aims. If, then, it be admitted that human impulses are naturally under government, the natural claim of conscience or the moral faculty to be the supreme governor will hardly be denied.
But to Butler's more cautious mind the completeness of this harmony did not seem sufficiently demonstrable to be taken as a basis of moral teaching; he has at least to contemplate the possibility of a man being convinced of the opposite; and he argues that unless we regard conscience as essentially authoritative - which is not implied in the term " moral sense " - such a man is really bound to be vicious; " since interest, one's own happiness, is a manifest obligation."
Here, for the first time, we find "moral good " and " natural good " or " happiness " treated separately as two essentially distinct objects of rational pursuit and investigation; the harmony between them being regarded as matter of religious faith, not moral knowledge.
Wollaston's theory of moral evil as consisting in the practical contradiction of a true proposition, closely resembles the most paradoxical part of Clarke's doctrine, and was not likely to approve itself to the strong common sense of Butler; but his statement of happiness or pleasure as a " justly desirable " end at which every rational being " ought " to aim corresponds exactly to Butler's conception of self-love as a naturally governing impulse; while' the " moral arithmetic " with which he compares pleasures and pains, and endeavours to make the notion of happiness quantitatively precise, is an anticipation of Benthamism.
In the Sermons, indeed (1729), Butler seems to treat conscience and calm benevolence as permanently allied though distinct principles, but in the Dissertation on Virtue, appended to the Analogy (1739), he maintains that the conduct dictated by conscience will often differ widely from that to which mere regard for the production of happiness would prompt.
Calm self-love Hutcheson regards as morally indifferent; though he enters into a careful analysis of the elements of happiness,' in order to show that a true regard for private interest always coincides with the moral sense and with benevolence.
As regards "material" goodness of actions, 'he adopts explicitly and unreservedly the formula afterwards taken as fundamental by Bentham; holding that " that action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers, and the worst which in a like manner occasions misery."
Accordingly his treatment of external rights and duties, though decidedly inferior in methodical clearness and precision, does not differ in principle from that of Paley or Bentham, except that he lays greater stress on the immediate conduciveness of actions to the happiness of individuals, and more often refers in a merely supplementary or restrictive way to their tendencies in respect of general happiness.
On the other hand, he does not seem to think that moral sentiment or " taste " can " become a motive to action," except as it " gives pleasure or pain, and thereby constitutes happiness or misery."
and recognizes - in his later treatise at least - no " obligation " to virtue, except that of the agent's interest or happiness.
He attempts, however, to show, in a summary way, that all the duties which his moral theory recommends are also " the true interest of the individual," - taking into account the importance to his happiness of " peaceful reflection on one's own conduct."
" There is not anything," he says, " of which we have more undeniably an intuitive perception, than that it is ` right to pursue and promote happiness,' whether for ourselves or for others."
He does not with Price object to its being called the " moral sense," provided we understand by 1 It is to be observed that whereas Price and Stewart (after Butler) identify the object of self-love with happiness or pleasure, Reid conceives this " good " more vaguely as including perfection and happiness; though he sometimes uses " good " and happiness as convertible terms, and seems practically to have the latter in view in all that he says of self-love.
in his rejection of self-love as an independent rational and governing principle, and his consequent refusal to admit happiness, apart from duty, as a reasonable end for 2 E.g.
This Paley and Bentham (after Locke) interpreted as merely the effect on the will of the pleasures or pains attached to the observance or violation of moral rules, combining with this the doctrine of Hutcheson that " general good " or " happiness " is the final end and standard of these rules; while they eliminated all vagueness from the notion of general happiness by defining it to consist in " excess of pleasure over pain " - pleasures and pains being regarded as " differing in nothing but continuance or intensity."
Paley, however, holds that scripture is given less to teach morality than to illustrate it by example and enforce it by new sanctions and greater certainty, and that the light of nature makes it clear that God wills the happiness of his creatures.
Hence, his method in deciding moral questions is chiefly that of estimating the tendency of actions to promote or diminish the general happiness.
To meet the obvious objections to this method, based on the immediate happiness caused by admitted crimes (such as " knocking a rich villain on the head "), he lays stress on the necessity of general rules in any kind of legislation;' while, by urging the importance of forming and maintaining good habits, he partly evades the difficulty of calculating the consequences of particular actions.
whether a man is pleased with hearing music, seeing prospects, tasting dainties, performing laudable actions, or making agreeable reflections," and again that by " general good " he means " quantity of happiness," to which " every pleasure that we do to our neighbour is an addition."
There is, however, in Tucker's theological link between private and general happiness a peculiar ingenuity which Paley's common sense has avoided.
He argues that men having no free will have really no desert; therefore the divine equity must ultimately distribute happiness in equal shares to all; therefore I must ultimately increase my own happiness most by conduct that adds most to the general fund which Providence administers.
But in fact the outline of Paley's utilitarianism is to be found a generation earlier - in Gay's dissertation prefixed to Law's edition of King's Origin of Evil - as the following extracts will show: - " The idea of virtue is the conformity to a rule of life, directing the actions of all rational creatures with respect to each other's happiness; to which every one is always obliged..
but it is evident from the nature of God that he could have no other design in creating mankind than their happiness; and therefore he wills their happiness; therefore that my behaviour so far as it may be a means to the happiness of mankind should be such; so this happiness of mankind may be said to be the criterion of virtue once removed."
He does not himself use the will of an omnipotent and benevolent being as a means of logically connecting individual and general happiness.
For in answer to the question that immediately arises, How then are the sanctions of the moral rules which it will most conduce to the general happiness for men to observe, shown to be always adequate in the case of all the individuals whose observance is required ?
And, in fact, "private ethics, " as conceived by Bentham, does not exactly expound such a system; but rather exhibits the coincidence, so far as it extends, between private and general happiness, in that part of each man's conduct that lies beyond the range of useful legislation.
On the contrary, he tries to prove elaborately that they (as well as the pleasures of imagination, ambition, self-interest) cannot be made an object of primary pursuit without a loss of happiness on the whole - one of his arguments being that these pleasures occur earlier in time, and " that which is prior in the order of nature is always less perfect than that which is posterior."
The influence of the Darwinian theory, moreover, has extended from historical psychology to ethics, tending to substitute " preservation of the race under its conditions of existence " for " happiness " as the ultimate end and standard of virtue.
Accordingly, it is the development of benevolence in man, and of the habit of " living for others," which Comte takes as the ultimate aim and standard of practice, rather than the mere increase of happiness.
He holds, indeed, that the two are inseparable, and that the more altruistic any man's sentiments and habits of action can be made, the greater will be the happiness enjoyed by himself as well as by others.
But he does not seriously trouble himself to argue with egoism, or to weigh carefully the amount of happiness that might be generally attained by the satisfaction of egoistic propensities duly regulated; a supreme unquestioning self-devotion, in which all personal calculations are suppressed, is an essential feature of his moral ideal.
Kant's answer is that what each is to aim at in the case of others is not Perfection, but Happiness, i.e.
He explains also that to seek one's own happiness cannot be prescribed as a duty, because it is an end to which every man is inevitably impelled by natural inclination: but that just because each inevitably desires his own happiness, and therefore desires that others should assist him in time of need, he is bound to make the happiness of others his ethical end, since he cannot morally demand aid from others, without accepting the obligation of aiding them in like case.
The exclusion of private happiness from the ends at which it is a duty to aim contrasts strikingly with the view of Butler and Reid, that man, as a rational being, is under manifest obligation " to seek his own interest.
The difference, however, is not really so great as it seems; since in another part of his system Kant fully recognizes the reasonableness of the individual's regard for his own happiness.
Though duty, in his view, excludes regard for private happiness, the summum bonum is not duty alone, but happiness combined with moral worth; the demand for happiness as the reward of duty is so essentially reasonable that we must postulate a universal connexion between the two as the order of the universe; indeed, the practical necessity of this postulate is the only adequate rational ground that we have for believing in the existence of God.
Thus, in his view, not merely natural inclinations towards pleasures, or the desires for selfish happiness, require to be morally resisted; but even the prompting of the individual's conscience, the impulse to do what seems to him right, if it comes into conflict with the common sense of his community.
The failure of " laissez-faire " individualism in politics to produce that common prosperity and happiness which its advocates hoped for caused men to question the egoistic basis upon which its ethical counterpart was constructed.
Similarly the comparative failure of science to satisfy men's aspirations alike in knowledge and, so far as the happiness of the masses is concerned, in practice has been largely instrumental in producing that revolt against material prosperity as the end of conduct which is characteristic of idealist moral philosophy.
Spencer looked to ideas derived from the biological sciences to provide a solution of all the enigmas of morality, as of most other departments of life; and he conceived it " to be the business of moral science to deduce from the laws of life and the conditions of existence what kinds of action necessarily tend to produce happiness and what kinds to produce unhappiness."
He pointed out that the principle of the greatest happiness of the greatest number is a principle without any definite meaning, since men are nowhere unanimous in their standard of happiness, but regard the conception of happiness rather as a problem to be solved than a test to be applied.
Universal happiness would require omniscience to legislate for it and the " normal " or, as some would say, " perfect " man to desire it; neither of these conditions of its realization is at present in existence.
It may be taken to imply that the useless and the criminal should be entitled to as much happiness as the useful and the virtuous.
For neither happiness, nor the concrete means to happiness, nor finally the conditions of its realization can be distributed; and in the end " not general happiness becomes the ethical standard by which legislative action is to be guided, but universal justice."
Happiness, again, is always regarded as consisting in feeling, ultimately in pleasant feeling, and there is no attempt to apply the same principles of criticism which he had successfully applied to the Utilitarians' " happiness " to the conception of " pleasure."
Sir Leslie Stephen, for instance, wishes to substitute the conception of " social health " for that of universal happiness, and considers that the conditions of social health are to be discovered by an examination of the " social organism " or of " social tissue," the laws of which can be studied apart from those laws by which the individuals composing society regulate their conduct.
a universal test such as that of pleasure, happiness and the like, by which we can judge of the worth of actions, will Green's position seem absurd; since, on the contrary, such conceptions as those of " self-development " or " self-realization " seem to have a definite and positive value if they call attention to the metaphysical implications of morality and accurately characterize the moral facts.
1921, when the great Greek statesman was occupied in cementing his domestic happiness by a second marriage in England, and the Greek army in Asia Minor was engaged in costly military operations against Turkey by way of making up for the loss of his powerful diplomacy, Venizelos himself had taken no further steps towards a restoration of his active influence in the national politics.
This hedonism, however, is not confined to the self (egoistic), but involves a due regard to the pleasure of others, and is, therefore, distinguished further as universalistic. Lastly, Sidgwick returns to the principle that no man should act so as to destroy his own happiness, and leaves us with a somewhat unsatisfactory dualism.
The article runs: - "In order to consolidate the intimate tie which unites the four sovereigns for the happiness of the world, the High Contracting Powers have agreed to renew at fixed intervals, either under their own auspices or by their respective ministers, meetings consecrated to great common objects and to the examination of such measures as at each one of these epochs shall be judged most salutary for the peace and prosperity of the nations and the maintenance of the tranquillity of Europe."
The final end of life is happiness, and happiness is harmony of soul and body (tranquillitas animi et indolentia corporis).
Probably, Gassendi thinks, perfect happiness is not attainable in this life, but it may be in the life to come.
He desired all France to set to work as he did with a contented air and rubbing his hands for joy; but neither Colbert general theories nor individual happiness preoccupied 7~ustiy.
The self-love theory of Hobbes, with its subtle perversions of the motives of ordinary humanity, led to a reaction which culminated in the utilitarianism of Bentham and the two Mills; but their theory, though superior to the extravagant egoism of Hobbes, had this main defect, according to Herbert Spencer, that it conceived the world as an aggregate of units, and was so far individualistic. Sir Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics insisted that the unit is the social organism, and therefore that the aim of moralists is not the "greatest happiness of the greatest number," but rather the "health of the organism."
Starting with the indisputable fact that man's life and happiness are largely dependent upon phenomena in the heavens, that the fertility of the soil is de pendent upon the sun shining in the heavens as well as upon the rains that come from heaven, that on the other hand the mischief and damage done by storms and inundations, to both of which the Euphratean Valley was almost regularly subject, were to be traced likewise to the heavens, the conclusion was drawn that all the great gods had their seats in the heavens.
This is emancipation (mukti) from the burthen of birth and rebirth, and the highest happiness.'
They were published as follows: Natural Religion Insufficient, and Revealed Religion Necessary, to Man's Happiness in his Present State (1714), an able statement of the orthodox Calvinistic criticism of the deism of Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Charles Blount; Memoirs of the Life of Mr Thomas Halyburton (1715), three parts by his own hand, the fourth from his diary by another hand; The Great Concern of Salvation (1721), with a word of commendation by I.
de SaintLambert, 1773), in which he develops the idea that true happiness is only to be found in making the interest of one that of all; his philosophical studies ended in the production of his famous book De l'esprit.
Consolation of Israel with the promise of deliverance and lasting happiness and blessing to Jerusalem.
Is being in control so important that you're willing to sacrifice the happiness of your only son - or do you love him enough to let him go?
I.m glad she.s not, and she seems to understand trading personal happiness for a social status.
Happiness can be restored.
Happiness, fear, awe â€¦ The gloves were off this night.
Happiness should be all I feel but a strange sense of dread is overwhelming any feeling of contentment as I enter this stately home.
Kris's memories stirred stronger than he liked. He remembered Lilith, a beautiful Immortal whose laugh had filled him with happiness. Their love had been intense and brief, lasting less than a human year in total. One day, she was just â€¦ gone. Slaughtered by Rhyn, who had taken her head the same way his brothers took the head of Rhyn's demoness mother.
They married within weeks and Monica was set for a lifetime of martial happiness until, six months into her marriage, she was diagnosed with cancer, which began to ravage her body.
Dusty deserved happiness after all he'd been through.
But she â€¦ she didn't want what came with that kind of happiness.
The love and romance psychic can help you achieve divine bliss and happiness in your love life.
Of course the sad truth about happiness is that it is entrancing, desirable and maddeningly elusive.
Dreams of happiness were often juxtaposed with dreams of sadness.
Gross international happiness is a new concept in economic thinking aimed at replacing the western paradigm of economic productivity and well-being.
Some people want to maximize the sum of human happiness which has nothing to do with inclusive fitness, it's almost antithetical.
attain perfection brings happiness in both worlds.
Bliss: (Anglo-Saxon: blithe, happy) Intense gladness; the perfect happiness of heaven; eternal beatitude.
beware of the temptations of this life, the allures to a kind of happiness.
birthright of man is health, freedom and happiness.
calligraphy character for Happiness.
In spite of a troubled childhood, actress and singer Lorraine McIntosh has found true happiness through her own family.
concomitants of consciousness, and thus conscious beings are endowed with a desire for happiness.
Be not contented with outward happiness; things are worthy according to their duration.
contentment of soul, happiness they enjoy find their expression in these words.
Their lives are full of violence, wild sex, and general debauchery as Bruno and Michael try to find happiness.
delirious with happiness that I am back in parliament.
Consumerism often creates the problem of a false sense of happiness, leaving the consumer destitute of the desire to confront a higher calling.
Love is irreconcilable with evil because love seeks the genuine happiness and peace of humanity, whereas evil is inherently destructive.
They sing a love duet of the happiness they hope to share in their future life together.
A loaf of bread and bare earth for a bed in the company of the beloved, is full happiness.
Happiness economics would target unemployment beyond what is economically efficient to what is optimal for well-being.
Some seek their rest and happiness on earth, others eternal felicity in heaven.
flesh and bloodor clients as flesh-and-blood people leads her to worry about their happiness, not just their freedom.
grumpy mood provides a challenge for the science of happiness.
The denial of a fixed human nature also corrodes an ethics based on human pleasure or happiness, like hedonism and utilitarianism.
For me personally, as the 49th hereditary imam of the Ismailis, this is a day of great happiness.
Read Gooseberries, Chekhov's typically incisive short story exploring human happiness, suffering and society.
kindhearted people and showers them with even more happiness.
I still hope, madam, that we shall have the happiness of seeing you at the court of the duke.
manipulated to produce the maximum total happiness?
Why they ought to be important is usually because they add to the sum of human happiness, rather than perpetuating misery.
The time she spent with the little mutt turned her thoughts from sadness to happiness.
myrtle bushes at the couple's new home, to ensure the couple happiness.
overmastering desire of happiness.
They come with happiness and joy; they enter the king's palace.
In fact 11 million people have taken Prozac, the universal panacea for happiness.
Encouraging the soul to attain perfection brings happiness in both worlds.
Mixing American pragmatism with Buddhist philosophy, the goal of Soka education is the lifelong happiness of the learner.
In one sense, the idea of helping people who seem to have more than their fair share of happiness seems presumptuous.
Third, I consider priestcraft and superstition the greatest obstacle to human improvement and happiness.
priestly vocation, the source of my happiness, I owe to almighty God.
pursuit of happiness.
It was old Karl Marx that wrote: ' The first requisite for the people's happiness is the abolition of religion ' .
savagery of battle pauses briefly to allow the snatched happiness of the wedding before the desperate flight from anger and betrayal.
If you find serenity and happiness, people may be jealous.
somber shades and sunlit patches of great happiness.
suffused with a sudden glow of happiness.
The sun tarot card meaning is happiness, contentment and bliss.
Only with an underlying theme of doubt can happiness be found.
Brought up by their eccentric uncle Django, the McCabe sisters had assumed their mid-thirties would be a time of happiness and stability.
Fischer said, My priestly vocation, the source of my happiness, I owe to almighty God.