Whatever the ostensible form of a railway tariff, the contribution of the different shipments of freight to these general expenses is determined on the principle of charging what the traffic will bear.
The working expenses were reduced in a progressively larger ratio, e.g.
The working expenses amounted to £1,530,093 or 62.6 per cent.
Had the expenses of all the small towns and rural communities been included, the total would be in excess of $20 gold, or £4, per capita.
His government was costly, and to meet its many expenses he was obliged to lay heavy taxes upon the people.
There is evidence to show that the arrangement for this " publishing of Truth" rested mainly with Fox, and that the expenses of it and of the foreign missions were borne out of a common fund.
For more than five years I maintained myself thus solely by the labor of my hands, and I found that, by working about six weeks in a year, I could meet all the expenses of living.
Receipts in Expenses in Passengers Goods carried Year.
Frequently he was too poor to pay the expenses of his own table.
id., and the working expenses about 4s.
But the only true America is that country where you are at liberty to pursue such a mode of life as may enable you to do without these, and where the state does not endeavor to compel you to sustain the slavery and war and other superfluous expenses which directly or indirectly result from the use of such things.
He obtained 150,000 ducats towards the expenses of the expedition from Henry VIII.
in 1859 the average working expenses were 2S.
In 1869 Mr Scudamore estimated the operating expenses at 51 to 56 per cent.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
Like a TV star that doesn't scale back his expenses after his show is cancelled, these benefits expand, not contract, during periods of economic decline, for two main reasons.
As provided by the law of 1900 all local charges are borne by the colonies-supplemented at need by grants in aidbut the military expenses are borne by the state.
In the budget of 1885 these expenses were put at 1,380,000; in 1895 they had increased to 3,200,000 and in 1900 to 5,100,000.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
However large the wealth he brought back from India, all was swallowed up in defraying the expenses of his trial.
At the head of the financial organization of France, and exercising a general jurisdiction, is the minister of finance, who co-ordinates in one general budget the separate budgets prepared by his colleagues and assigns to each ministerial department the sums necessary for its expenses.
Tuition in the institute is free; board and living cost $8.50 a month; day students are allowed to "work-out" $1.50-$3.00 a month of this amount, and night students may thus pay all their expenses.
The profits when earned were derived mainly from foreign messages and transit messages between foreign countries, while the receipts from inland messages did not always cover expenses.
The fares (in slow trains, with the addition of 10 ~/ for expenses) are: 1st class, I ~85d.; 2nd, I3d.; 3rd, o725d.
The revenue was about 3,600,000; after deduction of taxes, interest on debts, expenses of management, &c., 2,080,000.
The agitation ceased in June with the defeat of the strikers, but not until a vast amount of damage had been done to the crops and all had suffered heavy losses, including the government, whose expenses for the maintenance of public order ran into tens of millions of lire.
The guardian or his servant must not take from the ward's property more than a reasonable amount for his expenses and the like; on the contrary he must maintain the houses, estates and other belongings in a proper state of efficiency.
The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.
The administration of the act was entrusted to the pharmaceutical society, and the duty of prosecuting unauthorized practitioners has been performed by the society ever since, without any pecuniary assistance from the state, although the legal expenses involved in prosecution amount to a considerable portion of its income.
The sovereigns, too, saw the stream of money, which they had hoped for, diverted to the coffers of the Holy Office, and in 1493 they made complaint to the pope; but Torquemada was powerful enough to secure most of the money for the expenses of the Inquisition.
He then formed some other connexion, and became at an advanced age the father of a natural son, Giovanni Andrea; and at the last, although he continued launching out into various expenses and schemes, he had serious tribulations, such as the banishment from Mantua of his son Francesco, who had incurred the marquis's displeasure.
A system of charges which compels each piece of traffic to pay its share of the charges for track and for stations overlooks the fundamental fact that a very large part of the expenses of a railway - more than half - is not connected either with the cost of moving traffic or of handling traffic at stations, but with the cost of maintaining the property as a whole.
The quality of the last is a matter of great importance; when it is unsuitable, the boilers will suffer, and the installation of a water-softening plant may save more in the expenses of boiler maintenance than it costs to operate.
In addition the increased size of the American freight car has diminished the interest on the first cost and the expenses of maintenance relatively to the work done; it has diminished to some extent the amount.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
The saving of cost is effected in two ways: (I) Instead of having to incur the expenses of a protracted inquiry before parliament, the promoters of a light railway under the act of 1896 make an application to the light railway commissioners, who then hold a local inquiry, to obtain evidence of the usefulness of the proposed railway, and to hear objections to it, and, if they are satisfied, settle the draft order and hand it over to the Board of Trade for confirmation.
Some idea of the business efficiency of the C.R.B., as it was familiarly called, may be gained from the fact that although almost $1,000,000,000 was expended on food and transportation, only about one-half of one per cent was required for overhead expenses.
Congress granted another township (thirty-six sections) for the university in 1892, and its income is supplemented by legislative appropriations for current expenses and special needs.
Their finances were indeed excellent; they kept regular accounts, and had already developed the modern principle of separating the civil list from the expenses of the government; but when they brought the tables of moneychangers into the temple, they were doing as the Templars had done before them, and were likely to suffer as the Templars had suffered.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
Mill's subscription to the election expenses of Bradlaugh, and his attitude towards Governor Eyre, are generally regarded as the main causes of his defeat in the general election of 1868.
To buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest; to secure cheapness by lowering the expenses of production; to adopt the less expensive rather than the more expensive method of obtaining a given result - these and other maxims are as old as human society.
Soon after her marriage miners had been brought from Lorraine to dig for gold at Crawford Moor, and she now carried on successful mining enterprises for coal and lead, which enabled her to meet the expenses of her government.
The running expenses per capita in 1900 were $35.23; more than twice the average of 86 leading cities of the country (New York, $23.92; Chicago, $11.62).
Revenues were not realized adequate to its lavish undertakings, and loans were used to meet current expenses.
But he declared himself exhausted by the expenses of his coronation; and Honorius III.
In 399 the exercise of the pagan cult was prohibited, and the revenues of the temples, which were to be appropriated for the use of the public or pulled down, were confiscated to defray the expenses of the army.
A state railway commission, whose members are elected by the people, has power to enforce its schedule of freight rates except when such rates would not pay the operating expenses of the railway.
"The Brill" was one of the four Dutch towns handed over to Queen Elizabeth in 1584 as security for English expenses incurred in aiding the Dutch.
Manual labour was adopted at first as a means for students to defray their college expenses.
WINDOW TAX, a tax first levied in England in the year 1697 for the purpose of defraying the expenses and making up the deficiency arising from clipped and defaced coin in the recoinage of silver during the reign of William III.
The performance, directed by Hans Richter, excited extraordinary attention; but the expenses were enormous, and burdened the management with a debt of £7500.
Perseus, the last of the Antigonid house, amassed a substantial treasure for the expenses of the supreme struggle with Rome (Polyb.
They agreed to raise an annual sum of £200 for the expenses of their commonwealth; they assigned their governor a salary of £20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits to the Indians and imprisonment for debt.
At last the book appeared in 1482, the expenses of the press being defrayed by the noble Florentine, Filippo Valori.
Prominent among the " nine hundred theses " which Mirandola had placarded in Rome, and which he undertook to defend in the presence of all European scholars, whom he invited to the Eternal City, promising to defray their travelling expenses, was the following: " No science yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the Kabbalah."
The expenses were met by collections made in the Calvinistic Methodist Societies, and as the funds increased masters were multiplied, until in 1786 Charles had seven masters to whom he paid £io per annum; in 1787, twelve; in 1789, fifteen; in 1794, twenty.
Schools and levees absorb about half of all revenues, leaving half for the payment of interest on the state debt (bonded debt on 1st of April 1908, $11,108,300) and for expenses of government.
For four years (1868-1872) the government expenses increased to ten times their normal volume, taxation was enormously increased, and about $57,000,000 of debt was created.
Primary education is declared by the constitution to be free and compulsory; and its expenses are paid by the central government so far as it may be beyond the power of the province or municipality to bear them.
The public revenues were passed under three principal denominations: (1) the public treasury; (2) the reserve, into which was paid any surplus of revenues over expenses from the treasury; (3) the private fortune (civil list) of the prince.
The Budget was supposed to be drawn up according to an excellent set of regulations sanctioned by imperial decree, dated the 6th of July 1290 (1875), of which the first article absolutely prohibited the increase, by the smallest sum, of any of the expenses, or the abandonment of the least iota of the revenues fixed by the budget.
The remaining regulations set forth the manner in which extra-budgetary and extraordinary expenses were to be dealt with, and the manner in which the rectified budget, showing the actual revenues and expenditure as proved at the close of the year was to be drawn up with the assistance of the state accounts department (divan-i-mouhassebat).
Thus, especially during the last two years, urgent extraordinary expenses have been perforce partially covered by the proceeds of the ordinary revenues, the revenues of 1303 (1887) were already considerably anticipated in the course of 1302 (1886).
They are further allowed travelling expenses from and to their constituencies on the basis of rules governing journeys of functionaries receiving a monthly salary of £750.
In this are included the expenses of the administration of both the central and provincial departments of the finance ministry, the mint, charitable allowances, expenses and presents in connexion with the holy cities (£T121,410), pension funds of state officials (£7628,038), administrative allowance made to the agricultural bank (ET225,380) and various other expenses.
This sum covered " immigration expenses," i.e.
The Hejaz railway figures in the budget for £T550,180, and it is explained that this will not only cover working expenses, but also the final completion of the line.
It should be added that the total issue was made sufficient to reserve also £TI, 460,000 for expenses, after taking into account £ioo,000 in cash paid by the government to the public debt administration out of the said issue.
After1905-1906extra-budgetary receipts relating to expenditure previously effected have been deducted from " General Expenses."
A duty of 10 per mille on its estimated value has to be paid on transfer by sale, donation or testament; 5 per mille on transfer by inheritance; and, a registration duty on expenses of transfer.
A transfer duty of 5% on the estimated value of emiriye is paid on transmission by sale, inheritance or donation, of 22% on the amount of the debt in case of mortgage or release from mortgage, and of 10% on expenses.
Aware of the growing feeling against war in France, Napoleon had determined to make his allies not only bear the expenses of the coming campaign, but find the men as well, and he was so far master of Europe that of the 363,000 who on the 24th of June crossed the Niemen no Iess than two-thirds were Germans, Austrians, Poles or Italians.
His estate seems to have suffered severely from the Persian invasions, for apparently he did not leave enough money to defray the expenses of his burial, and it is known that his descendants even in the 4th century received state pensions.
The Rigsdag which assembled on the 23rd of February 1657 willingly granted considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military expenses; on the 15th of April Frederick III.
On the 21st of May 1760 a fresh convention was signed between Russia and Austria, a secret clause of which, never communicated to the court of Versailles, guaranteed East Prussia to Russia, as an indemnity for war expenses.
He paid his own expenses in all his journeys and received no public reward.
Military expenses thus becoming permanent, it was natural that the taille, the tax which had long been devoted to meeting the expenses of the royal wars, should also become permanent.
It advocates unity of the monetary system throughout the entire state, with strict integrity in the quality of the coin, and the charge of a seigniorage sufficient to cover the expenses of mintage.
residence in the college, meeting his expenses by a small sum amassed by school-keeping and by help from a poor students' fund, and graduating in 1836.
He founded museums, libraries and schools, and inaugurated scholarships and a fund from which deserving scholars desirous of studying in England and America could obtain their expenses.
The maintenance of the court, and the salaries of so large a number of high officials, entailed the imposition of new taxes to meet these expenses.
Meanwhile the estates, with the tardy assent of Vienna, had undertaken to pay the expenses of publishing Palacky's capital work, The History of the Bohemian People (5 vols., 1836-1867).
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
The following table summarizes the local budget of Annam for the years 1899 and 1904: - In 1904 the sum allocated to the expenses of the court, the royal family and the native administration, the members of which are paid by the crown, was £85,000, the chief remaining heads of expenditure being the government house and residencies (£39,7 0 9), the native guard (£32,609) and public works (£24,898).
Finally, a great crusade was resolved upon, to defray the expenses of which it was determined that the clergy should lay aside one-twentieththe pope and the cardinals one-tenth - of their revenues for the next three years; while the crusaders were to be held free of all burdens during the period of their absence.
Although he had some trouble with the peasantry, the lands and treasures of the church enabled him to propitiate the nobles and for a time to provide for the expenses of the court.
He had never been a rich man, nor had he been a saving one, and during his period of popularity and office he had incurred great expenses.
The preliminary work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres took over the expenses after Giry's death.
Matsukata showed the government the danger of the situation, and urged that the issue of further paper currency should be stopped at once, the expenses of administration curtailed, and the resulting surplus of revenue used in the redemption of the paper currency and in the creation of a specie reserve.
Out of this fund certain expenses of guardians in connexion with the maintenance of indoor paupers and lunatics, the salaries of officers, the maintenance of children in poorlaw schools, valuation, vaccination, registration, &c., are paid.
The leading principle of the Highway Act 1835 is to place the highways under the direction of parish surveyors, and to provide for the necessary expenses by a rate levied on the occupiers of land.
The trustees were required and empowered to maintain, repair and improve the roads committed to their charge, and the expenses of the trust were met by tolls levied on persons using the road.
The expenses of highway management in each district (or parish), together with a proportion of the general expenses of the act, are levied by the trustees by an assessment on the lands and heritages within the district (or parish).
Cornish pumps are economical in running expenses, provided the driving engine is of proper design and the disadvantages incurred in conveying steam underground are avoided.
The chief harvest is of mother of pearl, which suffices to pay the working expenses; and there is over and above the chance of finding a pearl of price.
On the 3rd of February 1793 he had decreed the emission of Boo millions of assignats, for the expenses of the war.
Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were Ito churches, 39 religious houses; the shops of the ante della lana numbered over 200, producing cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public buildings, were barely 40,000.
In practice, the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being limited by its power of evaporation.
The factory expenses are taken at £30,000 per annum, or £3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost £8 per ton all told at the factory) - equivalent to £300 per day for the loo working days of crop time.
Under these men and influences, Arminius studied with signal success; and the promise he gave induced the merchants' gild of Amsterdam to bear the further expenses of his education.
If now, in addition to his own expenses, the soldier must provide a horse and its keeping, the system was likely to break down altogether.
This enterprise, of which the expenses were defrayed by the Jacobin Club, made him well known to the revolutionary leaders; and he made himself still more conspicuous in organizing the great "Fete de la Liberte" on the 1 5th of April 1792, in honour of the released soldiers of Chateau-Vieux, with Collot d'Herbois.
He settled at Madrid in 1626, and died there on the 28th of July 1631 in such poverty that his funeral expenses were defrayed by charity.
The subsequent regulation of the former suburbs has to a large extent covered its own expenses through the acquisition by the town of the improved area.
c. the Athenian envoys were shown the treasure of the temple at Eryx as available for the expenses of the war, which treasure turned out to be only silver-gilt and not of solid gold (Thucydides vi.
The gross earnings of all the lines during the fiscal year I 9051906 were 7 millions sterling, approximately, and the gross expenses (including the payment of interest on loans and debentures) were under 31/8 millions, so that there remained a net profit of 31/8 millions, being at the rate of a little over 81/8% on the invested capital.
The finances were squandered in gratifying the king's unbridled prodigality, and the treasury was drained by his luxurious habits, by the innumerable gifts and pensions he distributed among his mistresses and courtiers, by his war expenses and by his magnificent buildings.
The gain would be the addition to the kingdom of a new and fertile province of the area of North Brabant, a saving of expenses on dikes, diminution of inundations, improvement of communication between the south and the north of the kingdom, protection of isles of the sea, &c. The costs were calculated as follows: (I) enclosing dike, sluices, and regulation of Zwolsche Diep, £1,760,000; (2) reclamation of four polders, £5,200,000; (3) defensive works, £400,000; (4) indemnity to fishermen, £180,000; total, £7,540,000.
The most scientific procedure, however, is to calculate the probable earnings of the immigrant during the rest of his lifetime, and deduct therefrom his expenses of living.
An evidence of the good use he made of his means, as well as of the kindliness of his character, is furnished by the fact that he entertained as a guest for a whole month a scientific adversary, Adriaan van Roomen, and then paid the expenses of his journey home.
Maximilian was planning a journey into Italy in order to be crowned emperor at Rome, and was levying subsidies from the imperial burghs for his expenses.
Left an orphan at an early age, he worked on a farm to pay his expenses at Richfield (Ohio) Academy, was a schoolmaster for two winters, and, having studied law in the meantime, was admitted to the bar in 1859.
To meet the expenses entailed by his liberality and extravagance, Gregory resorted to confiscation, on the pretext of defective titles or long-standing arrearages.
In the deeper German pits, where great thicknesses of water-bearing strata have to be traversed, the first establishment expenses are so great that in order to increase output the shaft is sometimes provided with a complete double equipment of cages and engines.
His loyalty to the emperor Frederick, and the expenses incurred in this connexion, aroused some irritation among his subjects, but his rule was a period of prosperity in Saxony.
The expenses of the family, including the education of the children, are chargeable alike upon the property of either or both.
He replied saying he would come if all the expenses were guaranteed and the British flag accepted.
was made to reduce expenses.
To this journal Bain contributed many important articles and discussions; and in fact he bore the whole expenses of it till Robertson, owing to ill-health, resigned the editorship in 1891, when it passed into other hands.
The debt of the state (especially the contingent debt, secured by sinking funds) has been steadily rising since 1888, and especially since 1896, chiefly owing to the erection of important public buildings, the construction of state highways and metropolitan park roadways, the improvement of Boston harbour, the abolition of grade crossings on railways, and the expenses incurred for the Spanish-American War of 1898.
Out of an assessment at one time upon the states of $5,000,000 for the expenses of the war, Massachusetts was charged with $820,000, the next highest being $800,000 for Virginia.
The deficit in the treasury made it inevitable that the gold reserve should be used to meet current expenses.
His chief work was, however, in reducing the expenses of the armies.
The services, too, of the educated public are often voluntarily placed at the disposal of the local authorities for the census night, with' no desire for remuneration beyond out-of-pocket expenses, and the addition, perhaps, of a personal letter of thanks from the chief official of the district.
The difference between the nominal value of silver and bronze coin and its intrinsic value is retained by the state to cover the expenses of manufacture and as a source of profit.
The constitution of 1846 limited the pay of members of both houses to three dollars a day and to three hundred dollars for any one session (except in impeachment proceedings) besides an allowance for travelling expenses, but since an amendment of 1874 they have been paid $1500 a year and ten cents a mile for travelling expenses.
To decrease the evil of lobbying a law was enacted in 1906 which requires that every person employed to promote or oppose the passage of any bill shall file in the office of the secretary of state a written statement showing who has employed him and describing the legislation in respect of which his services are to be rendered; the law also requires the employers of lobbyists to file in the same office within two months after the adjournment of the legislature an itemized statement of all their lobbying expenses, and forbids the employment of a lobbyist for a contingent fee.
England's attempt to make the colonies pay the expenses of the war by means of the stamp tax thoroughly aroused the opposition of commercial New York, already chafing under the hardships imposed by the Navigation Acts and burdened with a war debt of its own exceeding £300,000.
The state railways (2500 m.) return about £800,000 after paying working expenses.
The members of the legislature are paid $5 for each day's attendance during the session, besides an allowance for travelling expenses.
From 1900 to 1905 the schools were managed, teachers selected and appointed and all expenses borne by the government.
The first week's expenses were $525 and the receipts $92.
With the exception of the hereditary and some of the ex-officio members of the first chamber, the members of the diet are entitled to an allowance for their daily expenses, as well as their travelling expenses.
In order to defray the expenses of his wars with Charles XII.
powers to summon witnesses, to administer oaths and to award expenses), and specifies the time within which the "decreet arbitral" is to be pronounced.
In 1913 the Germans sent in a petition that each nationality should pay the costs of its own educational and cultural institutions, as otherwise one nationality would have to bear the expenses of the other, and vice versa.
The expenses of education were distributed as follows: the communes built the schoolhouses, the political sub-districts (Bezirke) paid the teachers, the Crown territory gave a grant, and the State appointed the inspectors.
In addition to the dividend 5% was allowed for commission, office expenses and risk.
For defraying the expenses of the state government, exclusive of the interest on the bonded debt, the tax rate is limited by the constitution to four mills on the dollar of assessed valuation.
The boat traffic on them is so great that the collection of a small toll more than suffices to pay for all maintenance expenses.
Unlike the army, which is purely colonial, the navy in Netherlands India is partly colonial, partly belonging to the royal navy of the Netherlands, and its expenses are therefore borne partly by the mother country and partly by the colony.
The two towns also, by the decision given as arbitrators at Payerne (30th December 1530), upheld their alliance with Geneva, condemned the duke to pay all the expenses of the war, and confirmed the clause as to their right to occupy Vaud; they also surrounding the exercise of the powers of vidomne by the duke with so many restrictions that in 1532 the duke, after much resistance, formally agreed to recognize the alliance of Geneva with the two towns and not to annoy the Genevese any more.
In 1901, to aid in meeting the expenses of the South African war, a moderate revenue duty was again imposed on sugar; and in 1902 the shilling duty on corn and flour (abolished in 1869) was restored, but again taken off in 1903.
Both Chodkiewicz and olkiewski frequently had to pay the expenses of their campaigns out of their own pockets, and were expected to conquer empires and defend hundreds of miles of frontier with armies of 3000 or 4000 men at most.
He spent large sums in promoting the spread of Christianity, contributing liberally to missionary societies, and to the expenses of translating the Bible or portions of it into various languages.
The site was purchased by the United States government, and all the expenses come from national funds, the management being vested in the Smithsonian Institution.
The staff, excluding purely scientific departments, costs about £6000 per annum; gardening department, about £1500 per annum; maintenance of buildings, enclosures, paths and so forth, about £4000 per annum; provisions for animals, about £5000 per annum; litter, water, heating and general menagerie expenses about £3000 per annum.
From the point of view of public convenience, too large a space is fatiguing and makes it more difficult to see the animals, whilst the expenses of maintenance, drainage and supervision increase out of proportion to the advantages.
With the exception of small fees charged for incidental expenses, the university is free to all students who are residents of the city; others pay $75 a year for tuition.
residuum, a remainder, from residere, to remain), in law, that which remains of a testator's estate after all debts and legacies are discharged, and funeral, administration and other expenses paid.
the briefest sketch of her life can omit to notice that happy instinct or intuition which led her, when all others had heard with incredulity the scheme of Columbus, to recall the wanderer to her presence with the words, "I will assume the undertaking for my own crown of Castile, and am ready to pawn my jewels to defray the expenses of it, if the funds in the treasury should be found inadequate."
Maryland supports no state university, but Johns Hopkins University, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the country, receives $25,000 a year from the state; the medical department of the university of Maryland receives an annual appropriation of about $2500, and St John's College, the academic department of the university of Maryland, receives from the state $13,000 annually and gives for each county in the state one free scholarship and one scholarship covering all expenses.
To meet the interest, such heavy taxes were levied that anti-tax associations were formed to resist the collection, and in 1842 the state failed to pay what was due; but the accumulated interest had been funded by 1848 and was paid soon afterwards, the expenses of the government were curtailed by the constitution of 1851, and after the Civil War the amount of indebtedness steadily decreased until in 1902 the funded debt was $6,909,326 and the net debt only $2,797,269.13, while on the 1st of October 1908 the net debt was $366,643.91.
Scarcely had these amendments been carried when the serious financial straits brought on by debt incurred through the state's promotion of internal improvements gave rise to the demand for a reduction of governmental expenses and a limitation of the power of the General Assembly to contract debts.
In 1879 an estimate made of all Federal war expenses up to that date, including pension charges, interest on loans, &c., showed a total of $6,190,000,000 (Dewey, Financial History of the United States).
This budget includes all the expenses of Algeria save the cost of the army (estimated at £2,000,000 yearly) and the guarantee of interest on the railways open before 1901.
So, although a price of 6'5 cents a pound covered expenses of the planter of Burley in the Blue Grass, who could use the same land for tobacco once in four years, this price did not repay the hill planter.
1 He is less absolute in his doctrine of governmental non-interference when he comes to consider in his fifth book the "expenses of the sovereign or the commonwealth."
The expenditures are chiefly for the services of the public debt, military expenses, public works and internal affairs (Department of the Interior).
14,605,022 „ 14,160,132 „ The taxes cover a great variety of occupations and property, often to a minute and vexatious degree, and the expenditure includes the expenses of local administration, schools, police, streets and otheobjects of purely local interest.
He succeeded to the throne on the 16th of November 1797 and at once gave earnest of his good intentions by cutting down the expenses of the royal establishment, dismissing his father's ministers, and reforming the most oppressive abuses of the late reign.
This edition was mainly due to the combined efforts of William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby and Thomas Sampson, and the expenses towards printing and publication were borne by members of the congregation at Geneva.
The delegates of the Clarendon Press in Oxford, and the syndics of the Pitt Press in Cambridge, entered into a liberal arrangement with the revisers, by which the necessary funds were provided for all their expenses.
Since 1579 he had lived mainly at Barn Elms, Barnes, maintaining an adequate establishment; but his salary did not cover his expenses, he was burdened with his son-in-law Sir Philip Sidney's debts, and he obtained few of those perquisites which Elizabeth lavished on her favourites.
The Richmond lunatic asylum, erected near the House of Industry, and placed under the care of officers appointed by government, receives patients from a district consisting of the counties of Dublin, Louth, Meath and Wicklow, each of these contributing towards its expenses in proportion to the number of patients sent in.
The simple offering of food or shedding of blood at the grave develops into an elaborate system of sacrifice; even where ancestor-worship is not found, the desire to provide the dead with comforts in the future life may lead to the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animals, &c., to the breaking or burning of objects at the grave or to the provision of the ferryman's toll, a coin put in the mouth of the corpse to pay the travelling expenses of the soul.
He had to meet the cardinal's creditors and to find money for the expenses of the household.
Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.
The magnitude in 1905 of each of the leading items, and its increase since 1900, then appear as follows: number of factories, 216,262, increase 4.2%; capital invested, $12,686,265,673, increase 41.3% salaries, $574,761,231, increase 50.9%; total wages, $2,009,735,799, increase 29.9%; miscellaneous expenses, $1,455,019,473, increase 60-7%; cost of materials, $8,503,949,756, increase 29.3%; value of products, including custom work and repairing (in such factories), $14,802,147,087, being an increase of 29.7%.
The selectmen, who receive no regular salary, but may charge for expenses actually incurred, form a sort of directory or executive committee, which manages the ordinary administrative and financial business under such instructions as may have been given by the town meeting.
The latter have the management of county buildings, such as courthouses ar,d prisons, have power to lay out new main highways, to grant licences, and to apportion among the towns and cities the taxation necessary to meet county expenses.
There is no legal limitation to his re-eligibility any number of times; but tradition, dating from the refusal of George Washington to be rioniinated for a third term, has virtually established the rule that no person shall be president for more than two continuous terms, If the president dies, the vice-president steps into his place; and if the latter also dies in office, the succession passes to the secretary of state.f The president receives a salary of $75,000 a year, besides $25,000 a year for travelling expenses, and has an official residence called the Executive Mansion, or more familiarly the White House.
In all the provinces they are under the control of the federal government which acts as their trustee, investing the money which they derive chiefly from the sale of lands and timber, and making a large annual appropriation for the payment of their annuities, schools and other expenses.
Now if we add together all these savings in the rate of rail and ocean freights and incidental expenses, we arrive at an aggregate economy of 8s.
Dante was perhaps too severe on Robert, whom he described as a re da sermone (word king), and contemporary critics accused him of covetousness, a fault partly excused by his pressing need of money to pay the expenses of his perpetual wars.
Hull was represented in the parliament of 1295 and has sent members ever since, save that in 1384 the burgesses were exempted from returning any member on account of the expenses which they were incurring through fortifying their town.
In 1822 there appeared in London an anonymous translation sometimes ascribed to Southey, but really the work of Sara Coleridge, who had undertaken the task to defray the college expenses of one of her brothers.
(6) The enactment in a number of states of various other laws for the prevention of corrupt practices, for the publication of campaign expenses, and for the prohibition of party workers from coming within a certain specified distance of the polls.
Apart from his personal expenses such as postage, travelling expenses, &c., a candidate is prohibited from spending anything himself to promote either his nomination or his election, but he is allowed to contribute to the treasury of the political committee.
In the state of New York the act which seeks to prevent corrupt practices relies in like manner on the efficacy of publicity, but it is less effective than the Massachusetts law in that it provides simply for the filing by the candidates themselves of sworn statements of their own expenses.
The expenses connected with elections, such as the renting and preparing of the polling-places, the payment of the clerks and other officers who conduct the elections and count the vote, are borne by the community.
The difficulty that is naturally experienced by a traveller in finding sufficient support on a sparsely populated "ground" has brought into vogue the traveller on commission who represents several firms. The traveller with salary and allowances for expenses survives, but the quickening induced by an interest in the amount of sales has caused many firms to adopt the principle of commission, which may, however, be an addition to a minimum salary.
Again, during the Seven Years' War the assembly withstood the governor, Robert Hunter Morris, in the matter of grants for military expenses.
After the proprietors subscribed £5000 for the protection of the colony the assembly momentarily gave up its contest for a tax on the proprietary estates and consented to pass a money bill, without this provision, for the expenses of the war.
The old families had lost heavily from generation to generation, partly by personal extravagances, but also by gradual alienations of land to the Church and by the enormous expenses of the crusades.
The reorganization of the mint alone increased the royal revenue by 210,000 gulden a year and enabled Sigismund to pay the expenses of his earlier wars.
The towns of Cantu, Meda, Lissone and Carugo supply Milanese firms with most of their merchandise, the furniture being made by the workmen at their own homes with materials supplied by the Milanese buyers, who also advance the capital necessary for working expenses.
The initial expenses for frames, lights, cloches, mats and water-supply are in many cases prohibitive to men with the necessary gardening experience, while on the other hand those who have the capital lack the practical knowledge so essential to success.
The expenses of a magnificent court led the duke to quarrel with the Landschaft, to oppress his subjects, and to leave a great burden of debt when he died in October 1579.
Members must be at least thirty years old, and receive an annual allowance of £166, besides travelling expenses.
Elizabeth was alarmed by the successes of the Spanish arms, and especially by the fall of Antwerp; and, though refusing the sovereignty, she agreed to send a force of s000 foot and I 000 horse to the aid of the Provinces under the command of the earl of Leicester, her expenses being - guaranteed by the handing over to her the towns of Flushing, Brill and Rammekens as pledges (loth of August 1585).
Until 1871 the surplus derived from the colonial budget had been turned into a deficit, and the necessity of imposing fresh taxes to meet the war expenses has led to the downfall both of individual ministries and of cabinets.
Measures were taken for the defence of the territory and the punishment of the assailants, which culminated in the despatch of Sir Garnet (afterwards Viscount) Wolseley as British administrator, 800,000 being voted by parliament for the expenses of the expedition.
The death of Arcadius in May 408 caused milder counsels to prevail in the western cabinet, but Alaric, who had actually entered Epirus, demanded in a somewhat threatening manner that if he were thus suddenly bidden to desist from war, he should be paid handsomely for what in modern language would be called the expenses of mobilization.
But an effective reforming monarchy must stand upon a sound financial basis; and the usual revenues of the crown, always inadequate, were so diminished that they did not cover half the daily expenses of government.
The surplus proceeds of the property were further to be applied to maintain a yearly offering in commemoration of his departed father, mother and brothers, to pay the expenses incurred in celebrating his own birthday every year on the 7th of the month Gamelion, and for a social gathering of the sect on the 10th of every month in honour of himself and Metrodorus.
On four works of this class were spent Rx.1,649,823, which in1896-1897irrigated 200,733 acres, a valuable return then, although in an ordinary year their gross revenue does not cover their working expenses.
This canal has cost Rx.428,086, and causes an annual loss to the state in interest and working expenses of about Rx.20,000.
His business declined; his debts increased; it was with difficulty that the daily expenses of his household were defrayed.
To prevent abuses, a minute tariff of expenses was drawn up during the pontificate of Leo XIII.
The land occupied by foreigners was leased to them by the Japanese government, 20% of the annual rent being set aside for municipal expenses.
to defray the expenses of interment; (2) a monthly allowance of one-fifth of the annual earnings as above to the widow and each child up to the age of 15.
They are called One-Year Volunteers (Einjahrig-Freiwilligen), defray their own expenses and are the chief source of supply of reserve and Landwehr officers.
Partly to provide for the expenses of this court, partly to furnish Maximilian with the promised monetary aid, a tax called the common penny was instituted, this impost taking the form both of a property tax and of a poll tax.
So far as the imperial expenses were not covered by these sources of revenue, until imperial taxes were introduced, the deficit had to be covered by matricular contributions paid by the individual states in proportion to their population.
but Hesse has the right of appointing one director, and the expenses and profits are divided between the two states in proportion to their population.
Unable to meet the expenses of his rank, which was equivalent to the grade of colonel in the army, he retired in 1775.
Deak and the majority agreed, however, that there should be certain institutions common to Hungary and the rest of the monarchy; these were - (1) foreign affairs, including the diplomatic and consular service; (2) the army and navy; (3) the control of the expenses required for these branches of the public service.
The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: - (1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent and has since remained part of the fundamental constitution of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial settlement, determining the partition of the common expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement as to currency - a voluntary and terminable arrangement made between the two governments and parliaments.
It was then agreed that the two states should form a Customs Union for the next ten years; the customs were to be paid to the common exchequer; all sums required in addition to this to meet the expenses to be provided as to 30% by Hungary and as to 70% by Austria.
First the Austrians were determined to get a more favourable division of the common expenses; that of 1867 still continued, although Hungary had grown relatively in wealth.'
During 1904 the coral fisheries employed 98 vessels with 1138 men: the profits were about £75,264, the expenses being £64,664.
In finance his administration was very successful, as notwithstanding the expenses of his wars he showed an annual surplus of two millions sterling.
When the expenditure during the same period was examined the extraordinary fact was disclosed that the sum raised by revenue was only three millions less than that spent on administration, tribute and public works, including a sum of 10,500,000, described as expenses of questionable utility or policy.
sufficient for the payment of interest and the sinking fund was in full operation, the government found that their share of the revenue was altogether inadequate for the expenses of administration, and they were compelled to borrow on short loans at high rate of interest.
It was recognized, however, that the non-assigned revenue was insufficient to meet the necessary expenses of govern- Provisions ment, and a scale of administrative expenditure was of the drawn up. This was originally fixed at E.5,237,000,i London but subsequently other items were allowed, and ~onvenin.
The chief items of ordinary expenditure are tribute and debt charges, the expenses of the civil administration, of the Egyptian army (between Soo,ooo and 600,000 yearly), of the revenue-earning departments and of pensions.
It is not known at what time the practice of having the amount due settled by the community was altered into that according to which it was settled by the governor, or at what time the practice of deducting from the total certain expenses necessary for the maintenance of the community was abandoned.
Worst of all, the government was drifting rapidly towards insolvency, being quite unable to fulfil its obligations to the bondholders and meet the expenses of administration.
Members are paid ten kroner each day of the session and are allowed travelling expenses.
Denmark was offered an alliance, the complete restitution of her fleet after the war, a guarantee of all her possessions, compensation for all expenses, and even territorial aggrandizement.
The Left was willing to vote 30,000,000 crowns for extraordinary military expenses, exclusive of the fortifications of Copenhagen, on condition that the amount should be raised by a property and income tax; and, as the elections of 1875 had given them a majority of three-fourths in the popular chamber, they spoke with no uncertain voice.
He liked good eating and drinking, although even here the cost was sharply looked after, the expenses of his kitchen mounting to no higher figure than 1800 a year.
also permitted foreigners to substitute for the pilgrimage to Rome a visit to some specified church in their own country and a contribution towards the expenses of the Holy Wars.
It is frequently stated that Marazion had formerly the right of returning two members to parliament, but that owing to its inability to pay the members' expenses the right was lost.
Of this $1,416,392 was expended on personal emoluments, and $1,116,548 on other charges connected with the administrative establishments; $1,763,488 was spent on military services, exclusive of expenses connected with the volunteer force; $183,075 on the upkeep and maintenance of existing public works; and $569,884 on new public works.
According to Herodotus, Cyrus devoted the revenue of four great towns to meet the expenses of his hunting establishments.
With regard to the expenses of hunting, it is calculated that a master of hounds should be prepared to spend at the rate of £500 a year for every day in the week that his hounds are supposed to hunt.
The expenses to the individual naturally vary so much that no figures can be given.
The expenses of the journey to Palestine were no light matter.
This was the amount raised in 1147 by one Goswin von Randerath to defray the expenses of his pilgrimage (Niederrhein.
The expenses of the princes and lords were, of course, much heavier.
The expenses of this very interesting venture were borne entirely by Morris, but after the issue of No.
Economic depression gave the Granger Movement considerable popularity, and an outgrowth of the Granger organization was the Independent Reform Party, of 1874, which advocated retrenchment of expenses, the state regulation of railways and a tariff for revenue only.
The successful candidate, who received the title of licentiate, was, on payment of a heavy fee and other expenses, permitted to proceed to the conventus or final public examination.
His father was a poor weaver, and the expenses of his early education were paid by one of his godfathers.
The public debt in March 1919 was £3,190,000, nearly all (£2,998,000) advances made by the British Government to meet the expenses of the local campaign against German East Africa.
If it be possible,"he said," to be certainly conscious of anything, I am conscious of feeling no difference between writing to the highest and lowest being on earth."Jefferson's first administration was marked by a reduction of the army, navy, diplomatic establishment and, to the uttermost, of governmental expenses; some reduction of the civil service, accompanied by a large shifting of offices to Republicans; and, above all, by the Louisiana Purchase, following which Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Jefferson, con 1 See also Jefferson to E.
In this connexion it is interesting to note the account given by Severus of the synod held at Rimini in 359, where the question arose whether the bishops attending the assembly might lawfully receive money from the imperial treasury to recoup their travelling and other expenses.
Oudh was given back to the nawab wazir, on condition of his paying half a million sterling towards the expenses of the war.
In each school division, of which there were 35 in 1908, the division superintendent appoints the native teachers, prepares for the municipal councils estimates of school expenses, and approves all expenditures from municipal school funds.
The heavy expenses entailed thereby were largely met by the booty which he won.
Yazid discovered soon that the system of taxation as regulated by Hajjaj could not be altered without serious danger to the finances of the empire, and that he could not afford the expenses which his prodigal manner of life involved.
For that purpose it was necessary that he should have the means not only to meet all state expenses, but also to be bounteous.
==Finance== The constitution makes 1% on the assessed valuation of property a maximum limit of state taxation for ordinary expenses, but by an amendment of 1906 the legislature may levy three mills on the dollar per annum for common schools; and may " authorize school districts to levy by a vote of the qualified electors of such district a tax not to exceed seven mills on the dollar in any year for school purposes."
Of the current expenses of the common schools about three-fourths is borne by the localities; the state distributes its contribution annually among the counties.
The current expenses of the state in the years of Reconstruction were also enormously increased.
Little is known of him before he became consul in 97, except that he proposed a law regulating the expenses of the table, which met with general approval.
Besides, the hides and tallow yielded by the great herds of cattle at the missions were the support of foreign trade and did much toward paying the expenses of the government.
Peterboro became a station on the "underground railroad"; and after 1850 Smith furnished money for the legal expenses of persons charged with infractions of the Fugitive Slave Law.
One-half the expenses of the government of Washington is paid by the District of Columbia and one-half by the United States.
This would naturally lead to an excess of women over men in the higher septs, and would render it difficult for a man to get his daughter respectably married without paying a high price for a suitable bridegroom and incurring other heavy marriage expenses.
It is not improbable, therefore, that the fall in wholesale prices which, with temporary interruptions, persisted between 1870 and 1900, in general harmony with the other movement, may have conduced to reluctance on the part of those who have enlarged their notions of the standard of comfort to endanger their prospects of enjoying it by incurring the additional expenses of family life.
- Average, in modern law, is the term used in maritime commerce to signify damages or expenses resulting from the accidents of navigation.
(a) When a ship shall have entered a port or place of refuge, or shall have returned to her port or place of loading, in consequence of accident, sacrifice, or other extraordinary circumstances, which render that necessary for the common safety, the expenses of entering such port or place shall be admitted as G.A.; and when she shall have sailed thence with her original cargo, or a part of it, the corresponding expenses of leaving such port or place, consequent upon such entry or return, shall likewise be admitted as G.A.
But when the ship is condemned or does not proceed on her original voyage, no storage expenses incurred after the date of the ship's condemnation or of the abandonment of the voyage shall be admitted as G.A.
Graving dock dues, including expenses of removals, cartages, use of shears, stages and graving dock materials, shall be allowed in full.
It is not sufficient "that an expenditure should have been made to benefit both cargo owner and shipowner."' Thus expenses incurred after ship and cargo are in safety, say at a port of refuge, are not generally, by English law, to be treated as G.A.; although the putting into port may have refuge ex- been for safety, and therefore a G.A.
sacrifice, as by cutting away the ship's masts, the case is different; the port expenses, the expenses of repairing the G.A.
damage, and the incidental expenses of unloading, storing and reloading the cargo are, in such a case, treated as consequences of the original sacrifice, and therefore subjects for contribution.
Whatever the reason for putting into the port of refuge, provided it was necessary for the common safety, the expenses of going in, and the consequent expenses of getting out (if she sails again with all or part of her original cargo), are allowed as G.A., Rule X.
Again, when the cost of discharging is treated as G.A., so also are to be the expenses of storing the cargo on shore, and of reloading and stowing it on board, after the repairs have been done (Rule X.
expenditure, or as expenses separately incurred in saving the separate interests.
One view has been that it is covered by the sue and labour clause of an ordinary policy, by which the insurer agrees to bear his proportion of expenses voluntarily incurred "in and about the defence, safeguard and recovery" of the insured subject.
Expenses voluntarily incurred by the assured with that object are expressly made repayable by the sue and labour clause of the policy.
expenses which had been incurred, over and above the cost of repairs, was disallowed.
arose in the case of the Brigella (1893, P. 189), where a shipowner had incurred expenses which would have been the subject of G.A.
The expenses of these missions are borne by private charity, and by a general annual collection.
They had double reason to be grateful to Wladislaus for defeating the enemies of the republic, for he had also paid for the expenses of his campaigns out of his own pocket, yet he could not obtain payment of the debt due to him from the state till 1643.
His expenses during the war, including secret service money, aggregated about $64,000; in addition he expended a considerable amount from his private fortune, for which he made no claim to reimbursement.
An act of 1909 provides that election campaign expenses shall be borne "only by the state and by the candidates," and authorized appropriations for this purpose.
The expenses of every defensive war which the commissioners declared to be just were to be defrayed by the several colonies in proportion to their number of men and boys between the ages of sixteen and sixty.
All education above that level is in the hands of the educational department and school boards elected in each parish, each rural parish being bound (since 1898) to be divided into a proper number of school districts and to have a school in each of them, the state contributing to these expenses Boo marks a year for each male and 600 marks for each female teacher, or 25% of the total cost in urban communes.
The country was flooded with spies, and a special Russian police force was created, the expenses being charged to the Finnish treasury.
From this date the expenses of the Roman state " were undisguisedly supported by the taxation of the provinces."
A noble scheme of education was sketched for the whole country, but neither this nor the provision made for ministers' stipends was carried out, the revenues of the old church, from which the expenses of both were to be paid, being in the hands of the barons.
Ink forms a large item in the total expenses of this department, besides which there are: oil for lubricating, turpentine and other solvents for cleaning, paper for proofs and making-ready, &c. When the work is printed it is handed to the warehousemen, who are responsible both for unprinted and printed paper.
The two following tables illustrate the further development of railways in the United Kingdom: In 1909 the percentage of working expenses to total receipts was 63 in England and Wales, 57 in Scotland and 62 in Ireland.
The development of tramway enterprise in the United Kingdom, as shown by the mileage open, the paid-up capital, gross receipts, working expenses and number of passengers carried, has been as follows 1900, 1,749,804 * Excluding season-ticket holders, whose number in 1880 was 502,174; in and in England and Wales alone, in 1880, 449, 82 3; in 1900, 1,610,754.
The expenses of the colonies are met by voluntary subscriptions, but it has been found that the persons who enter the free colonies remain there and few fresh cases are received.
In 1382 the archbishop's visitation led to disputes with the bishops of Exeter and Salisbury, and Courtenay was only partially able to enforce the payment of a special tax to meet his expenses on this occasion.
Hitherto Charles had aimed at supporting the weaker Slavonic power against the stronger; but now that Muscovy seemed about to disappear from among the nations of Europe, Swedish statesmen naturally sought some compensation for the expenses of the war before Poland had had time to absorb everything.
24, 1706) he did, indeed, conclude the Polish War by the peace of Altranstadt, but as this treaty brought no advantage to Sweden, not even compensation for the expenses of six years of warfare, it was politically condemnable.
In spite of reduced expenses, a highly estimated revenue, and the contemplated raising of taxes, there was a deficit, for the payment or discharge of which the government would be obliged to demand supplementary supplies.
The national expenditures are chiefly for the interest and amortization charges on the public debt, official salaries, military expenses in connexion with the army and navy, public works (including railway construction, port improvements, water and sewage works), the administration of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office, church subsidies, public instruction and foreign representation.
The government continued to be animated by a progressive spirit: schools, railways, telegraphs were rapidly extended; a steamship mail service to Europe was subsidized, and the stability of the government enabled it to raise new foreign loans in order to extinguish the old high interest-bearing loans and to meet the expenses of public works.
The resources of Balmaceda were running short on account of the heavy military expenses, and he determined to dispose of the reserve of silver bullion accumulated in the vaults of the Casa de Moneda in accordance with the terms of the law for the conversion of the note issue.
But, like the gas and glass companies, it found the cost of the raw material and the incidental expenses too great, and ceased its operations in 1899.
The administration became more and more despotic, and Tangier was abandoned in order to reduce expenses and to increase the forces at home for overawing opposition.
His private expenses were exceedingly small.
In this besides giving an historical account (founded on Dr Robert Hamilton's valuable work On the National Debt, 1813, 3rd ed., 1818) of the several successive forms of the sinking fund, he urges that nations should defray their expenses, whether ordinary or extraordinary, at the time when they are incurred, instead of providing for them by loans.
The fishermen of the district consequently combined to defray the expenses of transplanting large numbers of small plaice from the outer waters to the inner lagoons, where they were found to thrive far better than in their natural habitat.
On the 10th of May 1356 Wykeham first appears in the direct employment of the king, being appointed clerk of the king's works in the manors of Henley and Yeshampsted (Easthampstead) to pay all outgoings and expenses, including wages of masons and carpenters and other workmen, the purchase of stone, timber and other materials, and their carriage, under the view of one controller in Henley and two in Easthampstead.
The expenditures are chiefly for official salaries, subsidies, public works, church and mission support, justice, public instruction, military expenses, and interest on the public debt.
The consul may even defray the expenses of maintaining, and forwarding to their destination, passengers taken off or picked up from wrecked or injured vessels, if the master does not undertake to proceed in six weeks; these expenses becoming, in terms of the Passenger Acts 1855 and 1863, a debt due to His Majesty from the owner or charterer.
the transference of the American marine to the British flag, the enhanced payments of insurance, the expenses of pursuit and the prolongation of the war.
The supervisor is also the township assessor, and the several township supervisors constitute the county board of supervisors who equalize property valuations as between townships, authorize townships to borrow money with which to build or repair bridges, are entrusted with the care and management of the property and business of the county, and may borrow or raise by tax what is necessary to meet the more common expenses of the county.
There is no institution for the blind, but the state pays the expenses of blind children who are sent from New Jersey to the New York State School for the Blind.
The expenses of the state government are met chiefly by special taxes on railway and canal corporations, a franchise tax on the capital stock of other corporations, a collateral inheritance tax and leases of riparian lands.
They refused to pay their share of the public expenses; and their deputies, on refusing to take the oath of allegiance and fidelity, were expelled from the assembly.
The principal heads of expenditure were: interest and charges on public debt, £3,291,059; public instruction, £911,177; working expenses of railways and tramways, £2,954,777; other services working expenses, £208,242; other services, £3,900,726.
Payment on account of the conveyance of electors to or from the poll; payment for any committee room in excess of a prescribed number; the incurring of expenses in and about the election beyond a certain maximum; employing, for the conveyance of electors to or from the poll, hackney carriages or carriages kept for hire; payments for bands, flags, cockades, &c.; employing for payment persons at the election beyond the prescribed number; printing and publishing bills, placards or posters which do not disclose the name and address of the printer or publisher; using as committee rooms or for meetings any licensed premises, or any premises where food or drink is ordinarily sold for consumption on the premises, or any club premises where intoxicating liquor is supplied to members.
The petition is tried in open court at some place within the county, the expenses of the court being provided in the first instance by the Treasury, and repaid out of the county rates, except in so far as the court may order them to be paid by either of the parties.
The police rate is made for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the county police.
The committee are also charged with the duties of appointing or removing the clerk of the peace, and they have jurisdiction in matters relating to justices' clerks, the provision of accommodation for quarter sessions or justices out of session, and the like, and their expenses are paid by the county council out of the county fund.
the cost of pay, clothing and such other expenses as the joint-committee may direct, is (defra ed at the cost of the particular district for which it is incurred (see also P01.1cE).
It was provided by the Highway Act 1878 that every road which was disturnpiked after the 31st of December 1870 should be deemed to be a main road, the expenses of the repair and maintenance of which were to be contributed as to one-half thereof by the justices in quarter sessions, then the county authority.
In the case of a combination the expenses are defrayed by the several councils in such proportion as they may agree upon, and the proportion may be fixed with reference to either the accommodation required by each council or the population of the district.
The expenses of lunatic asylums are defrayed in the following manner: The guardians from whose union a lunatic is sent have to pay a fixed weekly sum, which may not exceed 14s.
a week from " the exchequer contribution account " already mentioned, and the remaining expenses are defrayed out of the county rate.
When a scheme has been confirmed, the county council must carry out the obligations imposed on it within a prescribed time; if they make default the board may direct the commissioners to assume all the powers of the county council, and the county council must repay to the board the expenses the commissioners may incur.
These include the remuneration of the mayor, recorder audit and officers of the borough, overseers' expenses, the expenses of the administration of justice in the borough, the payment of the borough coroner, police expenses and the like.
In the event of the borough fund being more than sufficient to meet the demands upon it without recourse to a borough rate, any surplus may be applied in payment of any expenses of the council as a sanitary authority or in improving the borough or any part thereof by drainage, enlargement of streets or otherwise.
Local authorities may require premises to be cleansed and disinfected; they may order the destruction of bedding, clothing or other articles which have been exposed to infection; they may provide proper places for the disinfection of infected articles free of charge; they may provide ambulances, &c. In the case of a person found suffering from infectious disease who has not proper lodging or accommodation, or is lodging in a room occupied by more than one family, or is on board any ship or vessel, such person may by means of a justice's order be removed to a hospital; a local authority may pay the expenses of a person in a hospital or, if necessary, provide nursing attendance; any person exposing himself or any other in his charge while suffering from infectious disease, or exposing infected bedding, clothing or the like, is made liable to a penalty.
The distinction between a burial ground provided under the Burial Acts and a cemetery provided under the act of 1879 is important in many ways, of which one only need be mentioned here - the expenses under the Burial Acts are paid out of the poor rate, while the expenses under the act of 1879 are paid in an urban district out of the general district rate, the incidence of which differs materially from that of the poor rate, as will be seen hereafter.
One important point of difference is that under the latter act the council may resolve that the expenses shall be apportioned among the owners not merely according to frontage, but according to the greater or less degree of benefit to be derived by any premises from the works.
As a general rule, all the expenses of carrying into execution the Public Health Acts in an urban district fall upon a fund which is called the general district fund, and that fund is provided by means of a rate called the general district rate.
First, in the case of boroughs where from the time of the first adoption of the Sanitary Acts these expenses have been paid out of the borough rate, the expenses continue to be so paid; and in an urban district which was formerly subject to an Improvement Act, the expenses may be payable out of the improvement rate authorized by that act.
The expenses of highways in an urban district fall as a rule upon the general district rate, but under certain conditions, which need not be here set out, a separate highway rate may have to be levied.
The expenses of a rural district council are of two kinds.
Of these the first is called general expenses, and it includes the expense of the establishment and officers of the council, of disinfection, providing of conveyance for infected persons, and the expenses of highways.
These expenses are payable out of a common fund which is raised out of the poor rate of the several parishes in the district, according to the rateable value of each.
Special expenses include the expenses of the construction and maintenance and cleansing of sewers, providing water-supply, and all other expenses incurred or payable in respect of a parish or contributory place within the district determined by order of the Local Government Board to be special expenses.
The expression " contributory place " means a place other than a parish chargeable with special expenses.
For the most part it has reference only to what is called a special drainage district, that is to say, a district formed out of one or more parishes or parts of parishes for the purpose of the provision of a common water-supply, or scheme of sewerage, or the like, and in the event of such a district including part only of a parish, the remaining portion would, so far as the special expenses for which the district was created are concerned, be a separate contributory place.
These special expenses are chargeable to each parish or contributory place, and they are defrayed by means of special sanitary rates, such rates being raised on all property assessed to the relief of the poor, but with the same exemptions of certain properties as have been mentioned under the head of general district rate in urban districts.
The money must be borrowed for permanent works, the expenses of which ought in the opinion of the powers.
The resolution must have been published in newspapers circulated in the district, and must have received the consent of the Local Government Board or of a secretary of state, if the matter is one within his jurisdiction; and further, the expenses must not be incurred unless the promotion or opposition has been assented to by the owners and ratepayers of the district assembled at a meeting convened for the purpose of considering the matter, and if necessary, signified by a poll.
Moreover, the expenses must, before they can be charged to the rates, be examined and allowed by some person authorized by a secretary of state or the Local Government Board, as the case may be.
any special powers or duties, although, as a matter of fact, prosecutions for offences are usually undertaken by the district councils, and the expenses of the execution of the acts are paid out of their funds.
The urban district council execute the Public Libraries Acts for their district, and the rate for the expenses of the acts, which may not exceed td.
The inspectors took the necessary steps for having the parish lighted (the provisions as to watching having been obsolete for many years), and the expenses of lighting were raised by the overseers upon an order issued to them by the inspectors.
After the adoption of the act it is carried into execution by the parish council, if there is one, and if not, by the parish meeting, and the expenses are raised in the same manner as heretofore.
The expenses of the execution of the Burial Acts are provided by the overseers out of the poor rate upon the certificate of the body entrusted with the execution of them.
The expenses in a rural parish are defrayed by means of a rate raised with, and as part of, the poor rate, with a qualification to the effect that agricultural land, market gardens and nursery grounds are to be assessed to the rate at one-third only of their rateable value.
The expenses of a parish council may not, without the consent of a parish meeting, exceed the amount of a rate of threepence in the for the financial year; but with the consent of the parish meeting the limit may be increased to sixpence, exclusive of expenses under the adoptive acts.
The expenses are payable out of the poor rate by the overseers on the precept of the parish council.
The income which the Cossack voiskos receive from the lands which they rent to different persons, also from various sources (trade patents, rents of shops, fisheries, permits of gold-digging, &c.), as also from the subsidies they receive from the government (about £712,500 in 1893), is used to cover all the expenses of state and local administration.
At the regular town meeting held in March the electorate of the town assembles, decides what shall be done for the town during the ensuing year, elects officers to execute its decisions with limited discretion, and votes money to meet the expenses.
But the state was authorized by an amendment adopted in 1868 to issue bonds for the reimbursement of the expenses incurred by its cities, towns, and plantations on account of the Civil War, and these bonds, with those issued by the state itself during the Civil War, constituted the largest part of the state's bonded indebtedness.
The marriage was a very happy one, though the bulk of the fortune was worn away in the expenses of public and social life.
On the 23rd of February 1805 he agreed with Ahmet that the United States should undertake to re-establish him in Tripoli, that the expenses of the expedition should be repaid to the United States by Ahmet, and that Eaton should be general and commander-in-chief of the land forces in Ahmet's campaign; as the secretary of the navy had given the entire matter into the hands of Commodore Barron, and as Barron and Tobias Lear (1762-1816), the United States consulgeneral at Algiers and a diplomatic agent to conduct negotiations, had been instructed to consider the advisability of making arrangements with the existing government in Tripoli, Eaton far exceeded his authority.
But as a rule, and in spite of what has often been the practice in the past, and of exceptions which may still exist in some countries, a government obtains the money required for its expenses by means of taxation.
however, for the purpose of meeting the expenses of the government, all such duties must be ruled out.
The only proper object of taxation is to meet the expenses of the state, and when taxes are used primarily or mainly for some other object they can only be justified by political and economic reasons of a different order from anything that has been under discussion.
When a change of residence became necessary to enable the peasant to take up the new allotment, the state advanced £6 to each family to defray expenses.
Expenses incurred during the war led to much controversy, especially when the Russian government claimed the return of £120,000 advanced to enable the Rumanians to mobilize, and considered by them as a free gift.
Expenses which ought to have been defrayed out of the ordinary budget, such as the erection of magnificent public offices at Bucharest, were frequently defrayed out of the loans; and the custom had arisen when money was scarce of issuing treasury bonds.
The gross earnings in 5905 were £4,047,065 (as compared with £3,390,093 in 1895); the expenses £3,076,920 (as compared with £1,596,013 in 1895).
It is under the control of a royal astronomer and its expenses are defrayed by the British admiralty.
Moreover, the allies realized at last that it was impossible to dislodge Philip from Spain, and all the peoples were groaning under the expenses and the sufferings of the war.
Such, in particular, were certain property taxes, raised to meet the expenses of war.
The remainder of Smith's property was constituted a contingent fund to defray expenses and keep the principal funds intact.
Among the measures adopted were: a'law (of doubtful constitutionality) requiring legislators to vote for the people's choice for a United States senator - this was adopted by a vote of 69,668 to 21,162; a corrupt practices act, regulating the expenditure of moneys in political campaigns and limiting a candidate's expenses to onefourth of one year's salary; an amendment permitting the establishment of state institutions elsewhere than at the capital; an amendment changing the time of state elections from June to November; an amendment permitting the legislature to pass a law providing for proportional representation, i.e.
Livingston's final victory in the courts brought him little financial profit because of the heavy expenses of the litigation.
In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses of the new abbot's journey to Rome.
Meanwhile to pay for the pallium of the see of Mainz and to discharge the other expenses of his elevation, Albert had borrowed a large sum of money from the Fuggers, and had obtained permission from Pope Leo X.
To meet expenses the youth worked in various ways, even making slippers by hand in after-hours; but when he came of age his text-book days were ended.
- By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge, in the years 1663 and 1664, I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas, I, being then Senior Sophister, bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before), and borrowed Wallis's works, and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis, in winter between the years 1664 and 1665.
The property in the thing seized, to the amount of the debt and expenses, became legally transferred from the debtor to the creditor, not all at once but in stages fixed by law.
In regular sessions not exceeding fifty days and in special sessions not exceeding thirty days the members of both houses are paid three dollars a day besides an allowance for travelling expenses, but they receive no compensation for the extra time of longer sessions.
Edward was a thrifty king; he was indeed the only medieval monarch of England who succeeded in keeping free of debt and made his revenue suffice for his expenses.
In the eyes of many men parliament lost the main reason for its existence when it ceased to be the habitual provider of funds for the ordinary expenses of the realm.
Charles was obliged to leave these two counties in their hands as a pledge foii the payment of their expenses; and he was also obliged to summon parliament to grant him the supplies which he needed for that object.
If this result was not immediately felt, it was because the king had a large certain revenue voted to him for life, so that, for the present at least, it was only his extraordinary expenses which could be brought under parliamentary control.
This reverse necessitated fresh operations, and in 1860 Lord Elgin and Baron Gros were directed to return to China, and, at the head of an adequate force, were instructed to exact an apology for the attack on the allied fleets, the ratification and execution of the treaty of Tientsin, and the payment of an indemnity for the expenses of the war.
The serious losses which the war entailed, the heavy expenses which it involved, and the large force which it absorbed, filled thoughtful men with anxiety.
27 in the spirit of a man of business, by sending ships to seize some islands belonging to France in the West Indies, so as to make certain of repayment of the expenses of the war.
The county board represents the county, is entrusted with the care of the county property and the management of the county business, appoints a supervisor of assessments and levies the taxes necessary to defray the county expenses.
But primary instruction has been greatly improved; there is a school of arts and trades at the capital, in which there are endowed scholarships for pupils from different provinces; a normal school has been established to train teachers for the Indians; high schools and training schools have been opened; and the government pays the expenses of several students in Europe.
Gerald was immediately reconciled to the king and archbishop; the utmost favour was shown to him; even the expenses of his unsuccessful election were paid.
The finances had been so thoroughly ruined that the government could not have met its expenses without the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries.
Still to be provided for is the interest on the operating expenses for eighteen months, which will, at 8%, be 48 cents per acre.
This is about 8% on the capital invested in the land, plant and operating expenses.
But we have described the conditions on one of the best bonanza farms. The average yield per acre in this region is not over 18 bushels, and the average expenses would be higher than those given.
This small charge pays all the expenses.
We are told that a third of his revenue sufficed for the ordinary expenses of government, a third was hoarded and a third spent on buildings.
To meet these expenses the foreign ratepayers are authorized to levy taxes on land and houses, to levy wharfage dues on goods landed or shipped, and to charge licence fees.
(6) A hundred places of safety were given to the Protestants for eight years, the expenses of garrisoning them being undertaken by the king.
There are certain debts in England, Scotland and the United States which are said to be privileged - that is, such debts as the executor must first apply the personal estate of the deceased, in payment, for example, of funeral expenses or servants' wages.
Tandy then took proceedings against the lord lieutenant for issuing a proclamation for his arrest; and although the action failed, it increased Tandy's popularity, and his expenses were paid by the Society of the United Irishmen.
At first the person who instituted the games and defrayed the expenses was the Agonothetes; but in the great public games, such as the Olympic and Pythian, these presidents were the representatives of different states, or were chosen from the people in whose country the games were celebrated; thus at the Panathenaic festival at Athens ten athlothetae were elected for four years to superintend the various contests.
During the first 15 years of Elizabeth's reign the expenses of Ireland, chiefly on account of wars, amounted, according to Sir James Ware's estimate, to over £490,000, while the revenue is put by some writers at £8000 per annum and by others at less.
The principal source of income was a charge of &1,250 a year upon the Irish Church surplus, but the establishment expenses were paid by parliament.
Besides substituting Hungarian for Austrian sovereignty, it provided that the diet and the ban should control local affairs, subject to the Croatian minister in the Hungarian cabinet, and that Croatia-Slavonia should pay 55% of its revenue to Hungary for mutual and imperial expenses, but should be represented in the Hungarian parliament by thirty-six delegates, and should continue to use Serbo-Croatian as the official language.
In 1889 the financial agreement with Hungary was revised and the contribution of Croatia-Slavonia to the expenses shared with Hungary or common to the whole of the Dual Monarchy was raised by i %.
Russia was also authorized to levy tolls intended to cover the expenses of any works of improvement that might be undertaken by her.
In his bull Clericis laicos the pope protested against the taxes levied upon the French clergy by the king, whose expenses were increasing with his conquests.
The royal exchequer, which was being painfully elaborated in the chambre des corn ptes, and the treasury of the crown lands at the Louvre, together barely sufficed to meet the expenses of this more complicated and costly machinery.
The death of the duke of Anjou at Ban (1384) gave preponderant influence to Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who increased the large and fruitless expenses of his Burgunclian policy to such a point that on the return of a last unfortunate expedition into Gelderland Charles VI., who had been made by him to marry Isabel of Bavaria, took the governMadness ment from his uncles on the 3rd of May 1389, and vi.
Under Pontchartrain, Chamillard and Desmarets, the expenses of the two wars of 1688 and 1701 attained to nearly five milliards.
Another feature of the period of reconstruction was the formation of numerous trusts or combinations of producing companies designed to take advantage of the high tariff, and to restrict competition, lower expenses an d raise prices.
The government of Spain having guaranteed the colonial debts of Cuba and of the Philippines, when those colonies were lost in 1898, Spain was further saddled with 46,210,000 of colonial consolidated debts, and with the expenses of the wars amounting, besides, to 63,257,000.
The secondary schools, of which there must be at least one in every province, are styled institutes and are mostly self-supporting, the fees paid by the pupils usually cover the expenses of such establishments, which also receive subsidies from some of the provincial councils.
The Italian states barely paid their expenses.
The expenses of the royal household increased fourfold, and most of the increase was absorbed by the favorite and his agents.
the Cortes had guaranteed, and by 6o,ooo,ooo of debts contracted at a high rate of interest, and with the national guarantee, to meet the expenses of the struggle with the colonies and of the war with the United States.
In 1851 he resigned from the Mercersburg Seminary in order that its running expenses might be lightened; and from 1841 to 1853 he was president of Marshall College at Mercersburg.
As the expenses of Territorial government were partly borne by the United States, statehood was voted against in 1860, and again (virtually) in 1864 after Congress had passed an Enabling Act; but in 1866 a constitution framed by the legislature was declared carried by the people by a majority of loo votes in 7776, and Nebraska was admitted as a state (in spite of President Johnson's veto) in 1867, after her legislature had accepted a fundamental condition imposed by Congress removing the limitation of the suffrage to whites by the new constitution.
Itemized estimates of expenses for the next fiscal year are furnished by the different departments to the controller in February.
The members live in community, and each pays his own expenses, having the usufruct of his private means - a startling innovation on the monastic vow of poverty.
He was found guilty, and was sentenced to pay a fine of £loo, while his expenses as defendant amounted to about 14,000, a sum that was at once raised by public subscription, a surplus being spent on the purchase of Rednall, a small property picturesquely situated on the Lickey Hills, with a chapel and cemetery, where Newman now lies buried.
They maintained British influence in those countries, and even paid the expenses of the embassies which were sent out by the English government to their courts.
The expenditure was £840,185, thus distributed: railway working expenses, £171,619; public instruction, £67,403; interest and charges upon debt, including sinking funds, £349, 0 9 0; and other services £252,075.
The capital expended on government lines up to 1905 was £3,920,500; the gross earnings in that year were £ 2 43,5 66, and the working expenses £171,630; leaving £71,936 as.
Small surfaces reduce first cost, but involve higher working expenses by decreasing the value of T i /(T 2 - TO, and thus demanding more energy, and consequently more fuel, to effect the given result than if larger surfaces were employed.
In order to pay for these wars, and to meet the expenses of a splendid court, the later margraves had sold various rights to the towns and provinces of Brandenburg, and so aided the development of local government.
Gradually, however, the expenses of warfare, liberal donations to the clergy, and the maintenance of numerous and expensive households, compelled them to pledge these dues for sums of ready money.
The expenses of this war led to a quarrel with the estates.
Over the Cleves-Jiilich succession, John Sigismund had incurred heavy expenses, and the public debt had again mounted up. He was thus obliged to seek aid from the estates, and in return for grants to make concessions to the nobles.
The legislature meets biennially, in odd numbered years, on the first Monday in January, and the length of the session is limited by a provision that the members shall be paid four dollars a day, besides an allowance for travelling expenses, not to exceed 75 days; whenever the governor calls an extra session they are not paid for more than 20 days.
He hastily denied his endeavors were for profit, but tossed in a caveat of "possible help with expenses."
Any expenses incurred by the trustees in publishing notices can be met out of the charity's income.
administrative expenses were £ 1.3 million compared to £ 1.2 million in 1998.
The visits are usually eligible for EC grants toward traveling expenses and also administrative and entertaining expenses.
For the fourth quarter of 2001, SG&A expenses included $ 5.5 million of restructuring charges and $ 2.5 million of goodwill amortization.
Other expenses included an apothecary to attend the sick poor and some education for the workhouse children.
apportion any expenses.
They also aver: " Further the claimants incurred various costs and expenses in removing from the subjects " .
Some smaller LLCs use a single-entry bookkeeping system such as a simple business check register to keep track of their expenses and income.
cash flow issues, keep track of expenses, and qualify for deals and discounts.
cashless society, paying for only 5% of corporate expenses with only cash.