She scooted closer to him, shifting the blanket so that she could drape the excess around his shoulders.
He even made grants in excess to the others from his own share.
Excess of Totals.
Would the heart, overweighted with sudden joy, stop beating for very excess of happiness?
It is insoluble in dilute acids, but is readily soluble in excess of potassium cyanide.
Taran nodded and stripped off his tunic and excess weapons before dropping into a fighting stance opposite his challenger.
This recourse in England sometimes took the form of the appeal to the king given by the Constitutions of Clarendon, just mentioned, and later by the acts of Henry VIII.; sometimes that of suing for writs of prohibition or mandamus, which were granted by the king's judges, either to restrain excess of jurisdiction, or to compel the spiritual judge to exercise jurisdiction in cases where it seemed to the temporal court that he was failing in his duty.
The bride-price varied much, according to the position of the parties, but was in excess of that paid for a slave.
Had the expenses of all the small towns and rural communities been included, the total would be in excess of $20 gold, or £4, per capita.
The excess of births over deaths shows considerable variationsowing to a very low birth-rate, it was only 3.12 per 1000 in 1880, but has averaged 11.05 per 1000 from 1896 to 1900, reaching 11.98 in 1899 and 11.14 in 1902.
Later, the serendipitous drippings were augmented by additional piping, carrying excess water to spray even more surface of the rock walls.
From the very beginning there had been an intensity, a seriousness to the falling flakes that spoke of accumulations far in excess of anything the Deans had seen to date.
So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
You can be a subsistence farmer and perhaps produce some excess, but given the prior observation about the fundamental volatility of farming, you will always be at risk of not producing enough.
The expansion has been due mainly to the natural increase; that is, by reason of excess of births over deaths.
The aide-de-camp replied that probably the Emperor would not be displeased at this excess of zeal.
The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.
"My darling Mummy!" she repeated, straining all the power of her love to find some way of taking on herself the excess of grief that crushed her mother.
Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.
On the other hand, in the six years, 1892-97, the excess of Russian emigration over immigration was 207,353, as compared with an excess of foreign immigration over emigration of only 136,740.
Cobalt ammonium phosphate, CoNH4PO 4.12H 2 0, is formed when a soluble cobalt salt is digested for some time with excess of a warm solution of ammonium phosphate.
The birth rate averages 26.28 per thousand of the population and the death rate 12.28, showing a net increase of 14 per thousand by reason of the excess of births over deaths.
In 1864, as minister in the La Marmora cabinet, he had again to face an excess of expenditure over income amounting to more that 14,600,000.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.
GALVANIZED IRON, sheet iron having its surface covered with a thin coating of zinc. In spite of the name, galvanic action has often no part in the production of galvanized iron, which is prepared by dipping the iron, properly cleaned and pickled in acid, in a bath of molten zinc. The hotter the zinc the thinner the coating, but as a high temperature of the bath is attended with certain objections, it is a common practice to use a moderate temperature and clear off the excess of zinc by passing the plates between rollers.
Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F OH, is a mobile liquid obtained by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur trioxide.
This value, although considerably in excess of that previously found by different methods, was held by Airy, from the care and completeness with which the observations were carried out and discussed, to be "entitled to compete with the others on, at least, equal terms."
According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.
The statistics of these show that there was during the thirty-two years, 1856-88, an excess of emigration over immigration of 1,146,052 in the case of Russians, and a surplus of immigration of 2,304,717 foreigners.
As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
If an air-tight receptacle is not available, a small percentage of powdered carbon is added to the zinc-dust, to prevent increase in the amount of oxide, which, if present in excess, tends to make the deposit dull.
As regards water, its deficiency or excess is a relative matter, and although many of the minor maladies of pot-plants in windows and greenhouses controlled by amateurs depend on its misuse, water alone is probably never a primary cause of disease.
If excess of a mineral acid be added to a solution of an alkaline thiogermanate a white precipitate of germanium disulphide, GeS2, is obtained.
The first line gives the mean value of the potential gradient, the second the mean excess of the largest over the smallest hourly value on individual days.
Inasmuch as the debenture stocks and preference shares would have to be redeemed in 1911 at premiums ranging from 3 to 5 per cent., the state would have to pay the company £253,000 in excess of the total of the outstanding securities in order to enable the ordinary shares to receive par, and in the council's view this payment would diminish the p robability of the Post Office being able to afford a substantial reduction in the telephone charges.
This is considerably in excess of the circulation, 40,404,000, fixed by royal decree of 1900; but the issue of additional notes was allowed, provided they were entirely covered by a metallic reserve, whereas up to the fixed limit a 40% reserve only was necessary.
the excess of the 1 The statistical portion of this article includes Tasmania, which is a member of the Australian Commonwealth.
Industry, 1899, 18, p. 553) adds excess of sodamide to a solution of the phenol in a suitable solvent, absorbs the liberated ammonia in an excess of acid, and titrates the excess of acid.
It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
The hexammine salts are formed by the oxidizing action of air on dilute ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, especially in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride.
By the addition of excess of ammonia to a cobalt chloride solution in absence of air, a greenishblue precipitate is obtained which, on heating, dissolves in the solution, giving a rose-red liquid.
Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.
(The calculations are mad in both cases on the total of births and deaths of both sexes.) The result is that, while in 1871 there was an excess of 143,370 males over females in the total population, in 188f the excess was only 71,138, and in I90f there were 169,684 more females than males.
In 1899 the excess of imports over exports fell to 3,006,000; but since then it has never been less than 12,000,000,
26), Athenagoras (Libellus pro Christianis) and the Acts of Martyrs, were greatly in excess of those recorded in previous reigns, it must not be forgotten that it was only in this period that the Christians began to keep records.
This latter fact is no doubt due to the production of an excess of plastic materials over and above what the tree requires for its immediate needs.
The excess expenditure caused the Post Office during two or three years to make temporary application of Savings Banks' balances to telegraph expenditure, an expedient which was disapproved of by both the Treasury and the House of Commons.
When the temporal courts interfered to prevent excess of jurisdiction, they did so by prohibiting the ecclesiastical court from trying and the suitor from suing in that court.
is the interior of the Northern Territory north of the 10th parallel; and the whole of the country, excepting the seaboard, lying between the meridians of 120° and 140°, and north of the 25th parallel, has a mean temperature in excess of 90° Fahr.
With excess of water, it gives a white precipitate of the oxychloride, BiOC1.
The liquid is filterpressed, and any excess of iron in the filtrate is precipitated by the careful addition of caustic soda and then removed.
Dittmar's analysis of the " Challenger " samples indicated an excess of oxygen in the surface water of high southern latitudes and a deficiency at depths below 50 fathoms.
Excess of lime in the soil is said to favour the development of the fungus.
Antimony trichloride ("Butter of Antimony"), SbCl 31 is obtained by burning the metal in chlorine; by distilling antimony with excess of mercuric chloride; and by fractional distillation of antimony tetroxide or trisulphide in hydrochloric acid solution.
Drains ordinarily remove only excess of capillary water, an excess of percolating water in wet weather.
Butchers have palmed off upon their customers imported fresh meat as homegrown, and secured a dishonest profit by charging for it the prices of the latter, which are considerably in excess of those of the imported product.
This direction was beyond the terms of the reference, and the award, when made, was repudiated by the United States as void for excess.
Achilles is a typical Greek hero; handsome, brave, celebrated for his fleetness of foot, prone to excess of wrath and grief, at the same time he is compassionate, hospitable, full of affection for his mother and respect for the gods.
In these African campaigns Sulla showed that he knew how to win the confidence of his soldiers, and throughout his career the secret of his success seems to have been the enthusiastic devotion of his troops, whom he continued to hold well in hand, while allowing them to indulge in plundering and all kinds of excess.
The ordinary revenue of the empire is in excess of the ordinary expenditure, but the extraordinary expenditure not only swallows up this surplus, but necessitates the raising of fresh F loans every year.
When the service is frequent enough to give a good power factor continuously, the steam locomotive cannot compete with the electric motor for the purpose of quick acceleration, because the motors applied to the axles of a train may for a short time absorb power from the central station to an extent far in excess of anything which a locomotive boiler can supply.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
For example, when metallic zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid with production of zinc sulphate (in solution) and hydrogen gas, a definite quantity of heat is produced for a given amount of zinc dissolved, provided that the excess of energy in the initial system appears entirely as heat.
The total value of imports in the four years 1901-1904 was £1,756,888, of exports £1,386,777; excess of imports over exports, £370,111.
The Regulators agreed to pay no more taxes until satisfied that they were in accordance with law, and to pay nothing in excess of the legal fees.
But the Simons were obviously grotesquely unfit guardians for a prince, and they doubtless caused much suffering to the impressionable child, who was made on occasion to eat and drink to excess, and learnt the language of the gutter.
As regards the pressure of foreign competition, it was stated to be greatly in excess of the anticipations of the supporters, and of the apprehensions of the opponents of the repeal of the Corn Laws.
Alumina and lime, for example, which cannot be reduced at ordinary furnace temperatures, readily give up their oxygen to carbon in the electric furnace, and then combine with an excess of carbon to form metallic carbides.
The impossibility of working with just sufficient carbon to reduce the alumina, without using any excess which would be free to, ix.
It was found in practice (in 1889) that the expenditure of energy per pound of reduced aluminium was about 23 H.P.-hours, a number considerably in excess of that required at the present time for the production of pure aluminium by the electrolytic process described in the article Aluminium.
The filtrate, which may be collected in glass vessels if an excess of hydrofluoric acid has been avoided, deposits the greater part of the salt on cooling.
If titanic oxide be fused with excess of alkaline carbonate a titanate, R 2 T103, is formed.
By warming its aqueous solution with an excess of silver oxide it is converted into tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH3)40H, which crystallizes in hygroscopic needles, and has a very alkaline reaction.
Newcomb found an excess of motions in the perihelion of Mars amounting to about 5" per century.
It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.
Coincidently, to allow of fertilization and the escape of excess of yolk, and of spermatozoa, other accessory ducts open at this point.
F intestine and so gets rid of the excess of yolk.
No new skill was developed, and what remained of the old was expended chiefly upon the manufacture of meretricious objects, disfigured by excess of decoration and not relieved by any excellence of technique.
The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.
The number of tributaries is given by Aristophanes as 1000, but this is greatly in excess of those named in the tribute lists.
But the actual doctrine taught by Massenbach, who was now a colonel, may be summarized as the doctrine of positions carried to a ludicrous excess; the claims put forward for the general staff, that it was to prepare cut-anddried plans of operations in peace which were to be imposed on the troop leaders in war, were derided by the responsible generals; and the memoirs on proposed plans of campaign to suit certain political combinations were worked out in quite unnecessary detail.
He opposed the excess profits tax but maintained that a small tax should be laid " on the volume of business of a going concern."
The amalgam is first pressed in wetted canvas or buckskin in order to remove excess of mercury.
Its, effect is shown by comparing the number of emigrants with the excess of births over deaths per moo of the population.
This is shown in the following table (1905): It will be observed that, with the exception of Ireland and Italy, wherever there is a heavy emigration there is usually a considerable excess of births over deaths, i.e.
For instance, in 1891 the emigration from the provinces of West Prussia and Posen was extraordinarily heavy10.9 and Io 4 per mille respectively-but the excess of births over deaths was 19.6 per mille.
Cities grow more rapidly now than formerly, because the excess of deaths over births has been turned into an excess of births over deaths.
In 1906 the birth-rate was 40.68 per thousand, and the excess of births over deaths 2637.
It is the final product of burning bismuth in an excess of chlorine.
Bismuth combines directly with sulphur to form a disulphide, B12S2, and a trisulphide, B12S3, the latter compound being formed when the sulphur is in excess.
Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride, a precipitate or dark coloration of bismuth oxide being formed even when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water.
In some cases definite compounds have been isolated from amalgams which may be regarded as mixtures of one or more of such compounds with mercury in excess.
The bringing of the liquid to the mark is effected by removing the excess by means of a capillary.
The liquid is adjusted to the mark by withdrawing any excess from the capillary end by a strip of bibulous paper or by a capillary tube.
rend., 1905, p. 141) has investigated the solutions of mercuric iodide in other alkaline iodides; sodium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.46 at 26°, and gives with an excess of water a dense precipitate of mercuric iodide, which dissolves without decomposition in alcohol; lithium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.28 at 25.6°; and ammonium iodo-mercurate solution a density of 2.98 at 26°.
The crude element is treated with aqua regia and then evaporated with an excess of hydrochloric acid, the solution diluted and the tellurium precipitated by a current of sulphur dioxide.
Since 1851 it has been known that all sea-water has an alkaline reaction, and Torniie defined the alkalinity of sea-water as the amount of carbonic acid which is necessary to convert the excess of bases into normal carbonate.
The excess of hydrogen in a coal, above the amount necessary Physical pro= perties.
This excess is greatest in what is Gas known as cannel coal, the Lancashire kennel or candle coal, so named from the bright light it gives out when burning.
Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.
This is of course preferable, but is only applicable where the owner of the mine can afford to expend the capital required to reach the limit of the field in excess of that necessary when the raising of coal proceeds pari passu with the extension of the main roads.
With the gas in excess a heavy lurid flame emitting dense volumes of smoke results, whilst if it be driven out in a sufficiently thin sheet, it burns with a flame of intense brilliancy and almost perfect whiteness, by the light of which colours can be judged as well as they can by daylight.
Moissan in France that if lime and carbon be fused together at the temperature of the electric furnace, the lime is reduced to calcium, which unites with the excess of carbon present to form calcium carbide.
The decomposition of the carbide by water may be brought about either by bringing the water slowly into contact with an excess of carbide, or by dropping the carbide into an excess of water, and these two main operations again may be varied by innumerable ingenious devices by which the rapidity of the contact may be modified or even eventually stopped.
The run carbide, however, is never so rich as the ingot carbide, since an excess of lime is nearly always used in the mixture to act as a flux, and this remaining in the carbide lowers its gasyielding power.
The best forms of generator are either those in which water rises slowly in contact with the carbide, or the second main division in which the carbide falls into excess of water.
All the water in excess of the city's actual needs may be employed for irrigation.
Of the increase in total population from1856-1895only a third could be attributed to the excess of births over deaths; two-thirds being due to immigration from other states or from abroad.
Women are eligible for these positions, and among the teachers in the schools they are greatly in excess over men (more than 10 to 1), especially in lower grades.
estimation by assessors, without relief for overvaluation except for excess more than 50% above the proper valuation) was introduced in 1868 as a method of securing returns of personalty.
During the war all but twelve small townships raised troops in excess of every call, the excess throughout the state amounting in all to more than 15,000 men; while the total recruits to the Federal army (including re-enlistments) numbered, according to the adjutantgeneral of the state, 159,165 men, of which less than 7000 were raised by draft.
If foodstuffs are to be employed it must be possible to grow them in excess of food requirements, and at a cost low enough to ensure that the price of the alcohol shall be about the same as that 1 The lower calorific value plus the latent heat of evaporation at constant volume.
Investigations started in 1920 by the British Government, in connexion with the production of alcohol for power purposes, have shown, however, that there are large areas of suitable land in the British Empire where the cost of production would be comparatively low, and where it might be possible to grow vegetable substances in excess of food requirements, and in sufficient quantities to produce alcohol for local consumption to replace expensive petrol.
It becomes less when the "oxyhydrogen" is mixed with excess of one or the other of the two reacting gases, or an inert gas such as nitrogen, because in any such case the same amount of heat spreads over a larger quantity of matter.
The sesquioxide, Os203, results on heating osmium with an excess of the tetroxide.
It is insoluble in acids and exists in several hydrated forms. The osmiates, corresponding to the unknown trioxide 0503, are red or green coloured salts; the solutions are only stable in the presence of excess of caustic alkali; on boiling an aqueous solution of the potassium salt it decomposes readily, forming a black precipitate of osmic acid, H20s04.
If the carbonate be in excess, the salt Na4Zr04 results, which when treated with water gives Na2Zr8017 12H20, which crystallizes in hexagonal plates.
The Nuovo Prospetto delle scienze economiche (1815-1817), although long to excess, and overburdened with classifications and tables, contains much valuable material.
The common bricks made in New York in 1908 were valued at $5,066,084, an amount in excess of that in any other state; and the total value of brick and tile products was $7,270,981, being less than that of Ohio, Pennsylvania or Illinois.
Before 1886 exports exceeded imports; but in the twenty subsequent years there was an invariable excess of exports, valued in all at £52,000,000.
Or we may take it as representing the pressure - excess over the normal pressure in compression, defect from it in extension.
Let E be the bulk modulus of elasticity, defined as increase of pressure = decrease of volume per unit volume where the pressure increase is so small that this ratio is constant, w the small increase of pressure, and - (dy/dx) the volume decrease, then E=e/(- dy/dx) or w Ã†= - dy/dx (I) This gives the relation between pressure excess and displacement.
Equating (I) and (2) u/U = wÃ† (3) which gives the particle velocity in terms of the pressure excess.
Let the excess.
We see at once that, where u=o, the velocity has its " normal " value, while where u is positive the velocity is in excess, and where u is negative the velocity is in defect of the normal value.
If V is the undisturbed volume of a small portion of the air at the undisturbed pressure P, and if it becomes V - v when the pressure increases to P+w, the average pressure during the change may be taken as PH-1-a), since the pressure excess for a small change is proportional to the change.
Buti o Pdt = P is the normal pressure, and as we only wish to find the excess we may leave this out of account.
The excess pressure on CD is therefore 4 1 (c:3+ pu 2)dt.
If then dl is an element of the path, putting dt = do/U, we have the average excess of pressure p = ° (to } pu 2) dt = Lj j (+pu2)dI.
But the energy will also be doubled, so that (15) still gives the average excess of pressure.
in diameter, and, using Regnault's apparatus, found, that the velocity could be represented by 33 3(1 +C/P), where P is the mean excess of pressure above the normal.
It is sufficient then to show that the excess of pressure at any point is the sum of the excesses due to either train separately.
If w is the total pressure excess, and if y is the total displacement at x, then w = E Xchange of volume _original volume = - Edy/dx.
At the open end, as a first approximation to be corrected later, there are no pressure changes, for any tendency to excess can be relieved by immediate expansion into the outer air, and any tendency to defect can be filled up by an inrush from the outer air.
This would require that the air outside should have no mass in order that it should at once move out and relieve the air at the end of the pipe from any excess of pressure, or at once move in and fill up any defect.
Let us suppose that with constant excess of pressure, p, in the wind-chest, the amplitude produced is proportional to the pressure, so that the two tones issuing may be represented by pa sin 27-nit and pb sin 21rn 2 t.
The annual revenue and expenditure are each somewhat in excess of £3,000,000.
He was also much about the court, and he admits very frankly that in his youth he led a life of pleasure, if not exactly of excess.
In the same way he retained archaic and provincial words with a good deal of freedom, but by no means to excess.
Saxony carries on 26% of the whole textile industry in Germany, a share far in excess of its proportionate population.
Hence to give a margin of safety to cover contingencies not calculable, an excess of material must be provided.
In the case of the plate web there must be a considerable excess of material, partly to stiffen it against buckling and partly because an excess of thickness must be provided to reduce the effect of corrosion.
In the Forth bridge stability is obtained partly by the great excess of dead over live load, partly by the great width of the river piers.
is shown the excess of imports of grain over exports (+), or of exports over imports (-).
Notwithstanding the fact that the banking law raised the tax-free note issue in 1911 from 400 to 600 millions of kronen, in 1913 the bank was unable to avoid incurring tax payments for notes issued in excess of the amount allowed free of tax, a state of affairs which had no parallel in the bank's history.
There are throughout the state occasional tracts in which, owing to deficient drainage, an excess of alkali '507 has accumulated, and which require special treatment before they can be made again productive.
Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.
This solution with excess of sulphur dioxide yields the "bisulphite of lime" of commerce, which is used in the "chemical" manufacture of woodpulp for paper making.
Chlorine takes fire when passed into ammonia, nitrogen and hydrochloric acid being formed, and unless the ammonia be present in excess, the highly explosive nitrogen chloride NC1 3 is also produced.
Chattaway determined its composition as N 2 H 3 I 3, by the addition of excess of standard sodium sulphite solution, in the dark, and subsequent titration of the excess of the sulphite with standard iodine.
The normal phosphate, (NH4)3P04,is obtained as a crystalline powder, on mixing concentrated solutions of ammonia and phosphoric acid, or on the addition of excess of ammonia to the acid phosphate (NH 4) 2 HPO 4.
Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH 4) 2 HPO 4, is formed by evaporating a solution of phosphoric acid with excess of ammonia.
Ammonium sulphide, (NH 4) 2 S, is obtained, in the form of micaceous crystals, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen mixed with a slight excess of ammonia through a well-cooled vessel; the hydrosulphide NH 4 ï¿½HS is formed at the same time.
The hydrosulphide 'NH' 4 ï¿½HS can be obtained as a white solid, by mixing well-cooled ammonia with a slight excess of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.
The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
The chief danger with herbivorous and frugivorous creatures is that their constitutions are not adapted to the richness of cultivated fruits and cereals, and, in captivity, they may suffer mechanically from the want of bulk in their food supply, or if they eat a quantity sufficient in bulk, it contains an excess of nutritive material.
rend., 1901, 133, p. 223.) Sodium dioxide, Na202, is formed when the metal is heated in an excess of air or oxygen.
Sodium trioxide, Na 2 O 31 is said to be formed from an excess of oxygen and a solution of sodammonium in liquid ammonia.
It may also be prepared by heating formic and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid, K 4 Fe(CN) 6 -i-6H2S04+6H20=2K2S04+FeS04+3(NH4)2S04+6C0.
It is a constituent of the minerals cerussite, malachite, azurite, spathic iron ore, calamine, strontianite, witherite, calcite aragonite, limestone, &c. It may be prepared by burning carbon in excess of air or oxygen, by the direct decomposition of many carbonates by heat, and by the decomposition of carbonates with mineral acids, M2C03+2HC1=2MCl-FH 2 O+CO 2.
A solution of one part of the carbonate in 12 parts of water is heated to boiling in a cast-iron vessel (industrially by means of steampipes) and the milk of lime added in instalments until a sample of the filtered mixture no longer effervesces with an excess of acid.
For the fusion of the dry hydrate nickel vessels cannot be used; in fact, even silver is perceptibly attacked as soon as all the excess of water is away; absolutely pure KHO can be produced only in gold vessels.
All commercial caustic potash is contaminated with excess of water (over and above that in the KHO) and with potassium carbonate and chloride; sulphate, as a rule, is absent.
The peroxide, K204, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, is obtained by heating the metal in an excess of slightly moist air or oxygen.
An excess of alcohol, in fact, precipitates normal sulphate (with little bisulphate) and free acid remains in solution.
weight made of brass, 2 grains in excess are allowed; on 1 oz.
troy or apothecaries' weight, +0.2 grain is allowed; on 1 pint pot, 4 fluid drachms is permitted; on 1 brass yard, 0.05 inch in excess or 0.02 inch in deficiency in length is allowed for ordinary trade purposes.
He occupied part of his time in dabbling in literature, science and various trifling arts, but gave himself up chiefly to excess and debauchery.
The excess above this will depend on the circumstances of the country, and the consequent demand for labour - wages being high when national wealth is increasing, low when it is declining.
In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.
They again renounced tobacco, wine, meat and every kind of excess, many of them dividing up all their property in order to supply the needs of those who were in want, and they collected a new public fund.
Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.
The usual method is to make a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and a large excess of iodine and then to allow water to drop slowly upon it; the reaction starts readily, and the gas obtained can be freed from any admixed iodine vapour by passing it through a tube containing some amorphous phosphorus.
The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.
It is readily soluble in water, but excess of water decomposes it.
On the 26th of April 1441 the pope announced that the synod would be transferred to the Lateran; but before leaving Florence a union was negotiated with the Oriental Christians known as Jacobites, through a monk named Andreas, who, at least as regards Abyssinia, acted in excess of his powers.
Ind., 1893, 13, p. 887) digest carbon bisulphide with ammonia and lime in quantities slightly in excess of those demanded by the following equation: 2CS 2 + 2NH 3 + 2Ca(OH) 2 = Ca(SCN) 2 Ca(SH)2+4H20; the product is then treated with a current of carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate being precipitated, sulphuretted hydrogen escaping, and calcium sulphocyanide remaining in solution.
Potassium ferrocyanide, K 4 Fe(NC) 6, (yellow prussiate of potash), was first obtained by decomposing Prussian blue with caustic potash: Fe4[Fe(NC)6]3 + 12KHO = 3K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +4Fe(OH) 3; it may be also obtained by warming a solution of ferrous sulphate with an excess of potassium cyanide: FeS04-I-6KNC = K4Fe(NC)6+ K2S04.
It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
The excess of reagent is removed by evaporation and a small quantity of a ferric salt added, when a deep red colour is produced.
Silver nitrate gives a white precipitate with cyanides, soluble in excess of potassium cyanide.
The amount of hydrocyanic acid in a solution may be determined by adding excess of caustic potash and a small quantity of an alkaline chloride, and running into the dilute solution standard silver nitrate until a faint permanent turbidity (of silver chloride) is produced, that is, until the reaction, 2KNC+AgNO 3 = KAg(NC) 2 - -KNO 3, is completed.
The submature or mature dissection of the plateau by its branching insequent streams results in giving it an excess of sloping surface, usually too steep for farming, and hence left for tree growth.
Not only is it extensive in area, but the stratigraphic break is very great, as shown by (I) the excess of metamorphism of the lower group as compared with the upper, and (2) the amount of erosion suffered by the older group before the deposition of the younger.
A great majority of all, of these elements except the British are settled in the states added to the original Unionthe Scandinavians- being the most typically agricultural element; while almost all the other nationalities are in excess, most of them heavily so, in the original states of 1790, where they land, and where they are absorbed into the lower grades of the industrial organization.
Although, as already stated, the population of the original area of 1790 was passed in 1880 by that of the added area, the natives of the former were still in excess in 1900.
The absolute excess of males rn the aggregate population has been progressively greater at every successive census since 1820, save that of 1870Which followed the Civil War, and closed a decade of lessened immigration.
The relative excess of males in each unit of population has not constantly progressed, but has been continuous.
The excess of female illiteracy in the total population also decreased within the same period, from 20.3 to 108 illiterates in a thousand.
Women are in excess in the occupations of boarding and lodging house keepers, housekeepers, launderers, nurses and midwives, and servants and waiters.
The excess of exports over imports in the decade1899-1908totalled $5,728,214,844; and in the same period there was an excess of exports of gold and silver, above imports, of $444,908,963.
Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
For the purposes of the calculator a solution erring in excess was also required, and this Snell gave by slightly varying the former construction.
The portion distilling at about 200° C. is then methylated by means of methyl alcohol and methyl iodide at loo-i io C., the excess of methyl alcohol removed and the product obtained decolorized by sulphuric acid.
Eighteenth-century Italy looked on religion with apathetic indifference, and Liguori convinced himself that only the gentlest and most lenient treatment could win back the alienated laity; hence he was always willing to excuse errors on the side of laxity as due to an excess of zeal in winning over penitents.
Bacon with an excess of fat is not wanted, except in the lumber camps; consequently the farmers of Canada have cultivated a class of swine for bacon having plenty of lean and firm flesh.
By the terms of this treaty the " Alabama " claims and the San Juan boundary were referred to arbitration; the free navigation of the St Lawrence was granted to the United States in return for the free use of Lake Michigan and certain Alaskan rivers; and it was settled that a further commission should decide the excess of value of the Canadian fisheries thrown open to the United States over and above the reciprocal concessions made to Canada.
The Fishery Commission, on the other hand, which sat in Halifax, awarded Canada $5,500,000 as the excess value of its fisheries for twelve years, and after much hesitation this sum was paid by the United States into the Canadian treasury.
per ton in excess of the rate paid by a Yorkshire farmer; this, it will be admitted, does not go very far towards enabling the latter to pay rent, tithes and rates and taxes.
By Reason Also Of The Fractional Excess Of The Length Of The Year Above 365 Days, It Likewise Happens That The Years Cannot All Contain The Same Number Of Days If The Epoch Of Their Commencement Remains Fixed; For The Day And The Civil Year Must Necessarily Be Considered As Beginning At The Same Instant; And Therefore The Extra Hours Cannot Be Included In The Year Till They Have Accumulated To A Whole Day.
Sosigenes Could Scarcely Fail To Know That This Year Was Too Long; For It Had Been Shown Long Before, By The Observations Of Hipparchus, That The Excess Of 3654 Days Above A True Solar Year Would Amount To A Day In 300 Years.
In Order To Discover Whether The Coincidence Of The Civil And Solar Year Could Not Be Restored In Shorter Periods By A Different Method Of Intercalation, We May Proceed As Follows: The Fraction 0.2422, Which Expresses The Excess Of The Solar Year Above A Whole Number Of Days, Being Converted Into A Continued Fraction, Becomes 4 I 7 1 I I 3 1 4 I 1, &C.
It Implies A Year Differing In Excess From The True Year Only By 19.45 Sec., While The Gregorian Year Is Too Long By 26 Sec. It Produces A Much Nearer Coincidence Between The Civil And Solar Years Than The Gregorian Method; And, By Reason Of Its Shortness Of Period, Confines The Evagations Of The Mean Equinox From The True Within Much Narrower Limits.
At The End Of Two Periods, Or Sixteen Years, The Excess Is Three Days, And At The End Of 160 Years, Thirty Days.
To Compute The Times Of The New Moons Which Determine The Commencement Of Successive Years, It Must Be Observed That In Passing From An Ordinary Year The New Moon Of The Following Year Is Deduced By Subtracting The Interval That Twelve Lunations Fall Short Of The Corresponding Gregorian Year Of 365 Or 366 Days; And That, In Passing From An Embolismic Year, It Is To Be Found By Adding The Excess Of Thirteen Lunations Over The Gregorian Year.
395 sec. in excess of the true astronomical value, which will cause the dates of commencement of future Jewish years, so calculated, to advance forward from the equinox a day in error in 216 years.
In 1900 there were 201 incorporated cities, towns and villages in the state, but of these only nine had a population in excess of 5000, and only three a population in excess of 25,000.
Goldschmidt (Annalen, 1898, 301, p. 19) in which the oxide is reduced by metallic aluminium; and if care is taken to have excess of the sesquioxide of chromium present, the metal is obtained quite free from aluminium.
Sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions precipitate green chromium hydroxide from solutions of chromic salts; the precipitate is soluble in excess of the cold alkali, but is completely thrown down on boiling the solution.
Chromium in the form of its salts may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation from boiling solutions with a slight excess of ammonia, and boiling until the free ammonia is nearly all expelled.
In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.
Chromium trioxide, Cr03, is obtained by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate, when it separates in long red needles; the mother liquor is drained off and the crystals are washed with concentrated nitric acid, the excess of which is removed by means of a current of dry air.
Solutions of chromic chloride in presence of excess of acid are green in colour.
By adding sodium phosphate to an excess of chrome alum the violet phosphate, CrP04.6H 2 O, is precipitated; on heating to 100° C. it loses water and turns green.
3H 2 O, is obtained on adding an excess of sodium phosphate to chromic chloride solution.
Resorting to stimulants after illness, his marked excess in this respect on the occasion of his inauguration as vice-president undoubtedly did him harm with the public. Faults of personality were his great handicap. Though approachable and not without kindliness of manner, he seemed hard and inflexible; and while president, physical pain and domestic anxieties, added to the struggles of public life, combined to accentuate a naturally somewhat severe temperament.
China and Japan, both of which contribute so largely to the supplies that appear in European and American statistics, only export their excess growth, silk-weaving being carried on and native silk worn to an enormous extent in both countries.
German statesmen, under the powerful stimulus of the emperor William II., have, in the eyes of some critics, carried this secondary object of conscript training to such excess as to be detrimental to military efficiency.
Among the natural causes may be classed all failures of crops due to excess or defect of rainfall and other meteorological phenomena, or to the ravages of insects and vermin.
Government relief in excess of the needs of the people.
The conclusion seemed natural that the spectra which showed the Doppler effect were due to vibratory systems which had an excess of positive charge.
A Klages (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2633 et seq.) has shown that if one uses an excess of magnesium and of an alkyl halide with a ketone, an ethylene derivative is formed.
This world being the work of Satan, the perfect must eschew any and every excess of its pleasure.
As a statesman, he certainly committed grave faults - through excess of diplomatic subtlety, lack of forethought, and sometimes even through ingenuousness; but it must with justice be admitted that, in spite of his reputation for pugnacity and obstinacy, he never failed, either by temperament or on principle, to exhaust every peaceful expedient in settling questions.
This temporary decline was, however, followed by a rather steady rise and in 1908 the output was valued at $19,104,944, which was still far in excess of that of any other state and nearly 35% of that of the entire country.
Some pairs of liquids are soluble in each other in all proportions, but, in general, when dealing with solutions of solids or gases in liquids, a definite limit is reached to the amount which will go into solution when the liquid is in contact with excess of the solid or gas.
The quantity of substance, or solute, which a given quantity of liquid or solvent will dissolve in presence of excess of the solute measures the solubility of the solute in the given solvent in the conditions of temperature and pressure.
The number F is called the number of degrees of freedom of the system, and is measured by the excess of the number of unknowns over the number of variables.
The importance of these experiments from the point of view of the theory of solution, lay in the fact that they suggested the conception of a perfect or ideal semi-permeable partition, and that of an equilibrium pressure representing the excess of hydrostatic pressure required to keep a solution in equilibrium with its pure solvent through such a partition.
be in equilibrium under the excess of hydrostatic pressure represented when the solution is very dilute by P=(p - p')p/0.
In any solution, then, the osmotic pressure represents the excess of hydrostatic pressure which it is necessary to apply to the solution in order to increase its vapour pressure to an equality with that of the solvent in the given conditions.
It is not the heat effect when solid is dissolved in a large excess of solvent, and may differ so much from that effect as to have an opposite sign.
Under the influence of the heat the atmospheric oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the ammonia, and when the excess of the latter is removed with sulphuric acid, the gas properly desiccated should be pure nitrogen, derived in part from the ammonia, but principally from the air.
During this stage the oxygen should be in considerable excess.
Water vapour and excess of oxygen in moderation do not interfere seriously with its visibility.
This corresponds to N+1 7 5 0, the oxygen being decidedly in excess of the proportion required to form nitrous acid.
If a more dilute acid than this be distilled, water passes over in excess and the residue in the retort reaches the above composition and boiling point; on distillation of a stronger acid, excess of acid passes into the distillate and the boiling point rises until the values of the constant boiling mixture are reached.
(3) When the sensorium is strongly excited nerve-force is generated in excess, and is transmitted in definite directions, depending on the connexions of nerve-cells and on habit.
In these cases the concrete should be allowed to take all it can, but an excess of water which would flow away, carrying the cement with it, should be avoided.
Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical circle passing through the sun.
In the three cases cited above, with the exception of the first, the synaposematic mimics are vastly in excess of the pseudaposematic; this appears to be the general rule elsewhere.
This delay is not explained by any excess of care in preparation, for much of the matter was out of date and the appendix giving the author's latest views is the only portion of special interest.
Both these soluble hydrates are readily coagulated by traces of a salt, acid or alkali; Crum's hydrate does not combine with dye-stuffs, neither is it soluble in excess of acid, while Graham's compound readily forms lakes, and readily dissolves when coagulated in acids.
Three months after the massacre of St Bartholomew had caused some additional restrictions to be placed upon her freedom of action, Shrewsbury writes to Burghley that "rather than continue this imprisonment she sticks not to say she will give her body, her son, and country for liberty"; nor did she ever show any excess of regard for any of the three.
They form, moreover, neat enclosures for the vegetable quarters, and, provided excess of growth from the centre is successfully grappled with, they are productive in soils and situations which are suitable.
For the growth of pot plants sand is an essential part of most composts, in order to give them the needful porosity to carry off all excess of moisture from the roots.
Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed.
The roots should never be suffered either to get thoroughly dry or to get sodden with excess of water.
It is often resorted to as a means of restoring fertility in plants which have become over rank from an excess of nourishment in the soil, or sterile from want of it.
The immediate application of a very hot atmosphere would unduly force the tops, while the roots remained partially or wholly inactive; and a strong bottom heat, if it did not cause injury by its excess, would probably result in abortive growth.
But there is no good evidence for an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - an assumption founded on the luxuriance of the vegetation, coupled with the fact that volcanicity was active and wide-ranging.
13) sufficient in quantity to represent their excess of carbon over the eutectoid ratio; they are called " hyper-eutectoid," and are represented by region 8 of fig.
12) sufficient in quantity to represent their excess of iron over this eutectoid ratio; is called " hypo-eutectoid "; and is represented by region 6 of fig.
1 A " eutectic " is the last-freezing part of an alloy, and corresponds to what the mother-liquor of a saline solution would become if such a solution, after the excess of saline matter had been crystallized out, were finally completely frozen.
Its striking characteristics are: (1) that for given metals alloyed together its composition is fixed, and does not vary with the proportions in which those metals are present, because any " excess metal," i.e.
so much of either metal as is present in excess over the eutectic ratio, freezes out before the eutectic; (2) that though thus constant, its composition is not in simple atomic proportions; (3) that its freezing-point is constant; and (4) that, when first formed, it habitually consists of interstratified plates of the metals which compose it.
If the alloy has a composition very near that of its own eutectic, then when solidified it of course contains a large proportion of the eutectic, and only a small proportion of the excess metal.
If it differs widely from the eutectic in composition, then when solidified it consists of only a small quantity of eutectic and a very large quantity of the excess metal.
measures the percentage of the excess of ferrite or cementite for hypoand hyper-eutectic steel and white cast iron respectively.
By " total ferrite " is meant both that which forms part of the pearlite and that which is in excess of the pearlite, taken jointly.
In short, from Ar 3 to Ar t the excess substance ferrite or cementite, in hypoand hyper-eutectoid steels respectively, progressively crystallizes out as a network or skeleton within the austenite mothermetal, which thus progressively approaches the composition of hardenite, reaching it at Ar t, and there splitting up into ferrite and cementite interstratified as pearlite.
The reason for its birth, of course, is that the solubility of carbon in austenite progressively decreases as the temperature falls, from about 2.2% at 1130° (a), to 0.90% at 690° (Ar 1), as shown by the line aS, with the consequence that the austenite keeps rejecting in the form of this pro-eutectoid cementite all carbon in excess of its saturation-point for the existing temperature.
smaller and smaller proportion of the whole, and the austenitecementite eutectic which forms at the eutectic freezing-point, 1130° (aB), increases in amount until, when the carbon-content reaches the eutectic ratio, 4 30%, there is but a single freezing-point, and the whole mass when solid is made up of this eutectic. If there is more than 4-30% of carbon, then in cooling through region 3 the excess of carbon over this ratio freezes out as " primary " cementite.
It has been calculated that the gas from a pair of old-fashioned blast-furnaces making i 600 tons of iron per week would in this way yield some 16,000 horse-power in excess of their own needs, and that all the available blast-furnace gas in the United States would develop about i,50o,000 horse-power, to develop which by raising steam would need about 20,000,000 tons of coal a year.
An excess of silicon or sulphur in the cast iron from one blastfurnace is diluted by thus mixing this iron with that from the other furnaces.
As the essential difference between cast iron on one hand and wrought iron and steel on the other is that the former contains necessarily much more carbon, usually more silicon, and often more phosphorus that are suitable or indeed permissible in the latter two, the chief work of all these conversion processes is to remove the excess of these several foreign elements by oxidizing them to carbonic oxide CO, silica S102, and phosphoric acid P 2 0 5, respectively.
that it shall have a great excess of the strong base, ferrous oxide, FeO, for the phosphoric acid to unite with, lest it be deoxidized by the carbon of the iron as fast as it forms, and so return to the iron, following the general rule that oxidized bodies enter the slag and unoxidized ones the metallic iron.
In the basic Bessemer process phosphorus is readily removed by oxidation, because the product of its oxidation, phosphoric acid, P 2 O 5, in the presence of an excess of base forms stable phosphates of lime and iron which pass into the slag, making it valuable as an artificial manure.
The slag, in order that it may have such an excess of base that this will retain the phosphoric acid as fast as it is formed by the oxidation of the phosphorus of the pig iron, and prevent it from being re-deoxidized and re-absorbed by the iron, should, according to von Ehrenwerth's rule which is generally followed, contain enough lime to form approximately a tetra-calcic silicate, 4CaO,S10 2 with the silica which results from the oxidation of the silicon of the pig iron and tri-calcic phosphate, 3CaO,P205, with the phosphoric acid which forms. The danger of this " rephosphorization " is greatest at the end of the blow, when the recarburizing additions are made.
These effects are so serious that until very lately it was thought that the silicon could not safely be much in excess of i %.
But this excess of their contraction is resisted by the almost incompressible inner layers so that the outer layers are prevented from contracting as much as they naturally would if unopposed, and they are thereby virtually stretched.
Because the outer and inner layers are integrally united, this excess of contraction of the inner layers makes them draw outward towards and against the outer layers, and because of their thus drawing outward the molten lake within no longer suffices to fill completely the central space, so that its upper surface begins to sink.
Hence in the act of solidifying it expels any excess of gas which it has dissolved while liquid, and this gas becomes entangled in the freezing mass, causing gas bubbles or blowholes, as at A and B in fig.
Because the volume of the pipe represents the excess of the contraction of the inner walls and the molten lake jointly over that of the outer walls, between the time when the lake begins to ebb and the time when even the axial metal is too firm to be drawn further open by this contraction, the space occupied by blowholes must, by compensating for part of this excess, lessen the size of the pipe, so that the more FIG.
Bringing such an ingot, then, to the rolling temperature is not really an operation of heating, because its average temperature is already above the rolling temperature, but one of equalizing the temperature, by allowing the internal excess of heat to " soak " through the mass.
Gjers did this by setting the partly solidified ingot in a well-closed " pit " of brickwork, preheated by the excess heat of previous lots of ingots.
Similar results have been obtained by using diazotized para-anisidine, a synand an anticompound being formed, as well as a third isomeric cyanide, obtained by evaporating para-methoxybenzenediazonium hydroxide in the presence of an excess of hydrocyanic acid at ordinary temperatures.
Magee took a prominent part in the Ritual controversy, opposing what he conceived to be romanizing excess in ritual, as well as the endeavour of the opposite party to "put down Ritualism," as Disraeli expressed it, by the operation of the civil law.
p. 859) showed that barium percarbonate, BaCO 4, is formed when the gas is in excess; this substance readily yields the peroxide with an acid.
An early step accomplished by Ostwald in this direction is to define ozone in its relation to oxygen, considering the former as differing from the latter by an excess of energy, measurable as heat of transformation, instead of defining the difference as diatomic molecules in oxygen, and triatomic in ozone.
Considerable herds of cattle are reared on the rich pastures of the lower Rhine, but the number of sheep in the province is comparatively small, and is, indeed, not greatly in excess of that of the goats.
In "cold deserts" the want of vegetation is wholly due to the prevailing low temperature, while in "hot deserts" the surface is unproductive because, on account of high temperature and deficient rainfall, evaporation is largely in excess of precipitation.
Taking Newton's law of cooling that the rate of loss of heat is simply proportional to the excess of temperature, the emissivity would be independent of the temperature.
The emissivity really depends on every variety of condition, such as the size, shape and position of the surface, as well as on its nature; it varies with the rate of cooling, as well as with the temperature excess, and it is generally so difficult to calculate, or to treat in any simple manner, that it forms the greatest source of uncertainty in all experimental investigations in which it occurs.
As the 18th century progressed the use of tea in England rapidly increased, and by the close of the century the rate of consumption exceeded an average of 2 lb per person per annum, a rate in excess of that of to-day of all people except those of Mongol and Anglo-Saxon origin.
A production temporarily in excess of the world's demand of several years ago, led to the offering of bonuses for the production in India and Ceylon of green teas, with a view to lessening the black tea output.
China Unknown Japan The countries of smallerconsumption absorbed about 25,000,000 lb but there is a considerable excess in the returns of production over those of consumption.
120-127) has obtained it in lustrous hexagonal crystals by electrolysing the double fluoride of beryllium and sodium or potassium with an excess of Crystal of beryl.
The mineral is fused with potassium carbonate, and, on cooling, the product is treated with sulphuric acid, the excess of which is removed by evaporation; water is then added and the silica is filtered off.
The hydroxide Be(OH)2 separates as a white bulky precipitate on adding a solution of an alkaline hydroxide to a soluble beryllium salt; and like those of aluminium and zinc, this hydroxide is soluble in excess of the alkaline hydroxide, but is reprecipitated on prolonged boiling.
The fisheries do not, however, supply the demand for fish, and fresh, salt and dried fish is imported largely in excess of the home yield.
Certain reorganizations were made in 1887 and 1902, but the excess of the Matrikular Beitrage over the Uberweisungen continued; the figures in 1905 and 1908 being as follows (in millions of marks): I_________ I~atrikular-1 Uberweisungen.
From 1871 to 1879 the contribution of the states had varied from 94 to 67 million marks; under the new system the surplus of the contributions made by the states over the grant by the imperial treasury was soon reduced to a very small sum, and in 1884-1885 the payments of the empire to the states exceeded the contributions of the states to the empire by 20 million marks, and this excess continued for many years; so that there was, as it were, an actual grant in relief of direct taxation.
The Scandinavian data, from the wealth of observations, are probably the most representative, and even in the most northern district of Scandinavia the smallness of the excess of the frequencies in December and January over those in March and October suggests that some influence tending to create maxima at the equinoxes has largely counterbalanced the influence of sunlight and twilight in reducing the frequency at these seasons.
The number seen in the evening is, however, according to Table III., considerably in excess at all seasons.
An excess of evening over morning occurrences is also the rule, and it is not infrequently more pronounced than in Table III.
The annual means derived from the whole group, and the two sub-groups, of years of many and few sun-spots are as follows: In each case the excess of auroras in the group of years of many sun-spots is decided, but the results from the two sub-periods do not harmonize closely.
The mean sun-spot frequency for the group of years of few sun-spots is almost exactly the same for the two subperiods, but the auroral frequency for the later group is nearly 40% in excess of that for the earlier, and even exceeds the auroral frequency in the years of many sun-spots in the earlier sub-period.
„ 55.8 „ I12.2 The mean sun-spot frequencies in the two periods differ by only I %, but the auroral frequency in the later period is 45% in excess of that in the earlier.
The heights calculated in this way for the under surface of the arc, have usually exceeded 100 M.; some have been much in excess of this figure.
recruits liable to military service but in excess of the annual 103,000 enrollable by law) pending the adoption of the Army bills by the two parliaments.
They show an elongation of forms and an excess of decoration in which the florid qualities predominate.
The tenth day, being the anniversary of the martyrdom of Hosain, the son of Ali and grandson of the Prophet, the mosque of the Hasanen at Cairo is thronged to excess, mostly by women.
Any excess could, however, only be met out of the half-share of the eventual surplus reached in the manner described.
In the pyramid of Cheops the blocks were all faced before building; but the later granite temple of Chephren and the pyramid of Mycerinus (Menkaura, Menkeure) show a system of building with an excess of a few inches left rough on the outer surface, which was dressed away when in position (P.T.
In gold work the earliest jewelry, that of King Zer of the 1st Dynasty, shows a perfect mastery of working hollow balls with minute threading holes, and of soldering with no trace of excess nor difference of color.
This, however, seems greatly in excess of probability, and several Egyptogists familiar with excavation are willing to accept Meyers figures on archaeological grounds.
The dates of the earlier dynasties in this table are always intended to be only approximate; for instance, Meyer in 1904 allowed an error of 100 years either of excess or deficiency in the dates he assigned to the dynasties from the Xth upwards.
The male sex remains in excess until about the twentieth year, from which age the female sex preponderates in increasing ratio with advancing age.
This is, of course, due to the excess of evaporation over the amount of water supplied by its two feeders, the Amu-darya and the Syrdarya, both of which are seriously drawn upon for irrigation in all the oases they flow through.
Owing to the numerous conversions to Islam which followed the Turkish conquest, the Mahommedan population of the Peninsula is largely in excess of the purely Turkish element.
They are not usually manufactured by the careful grinding together of the pozzuolana and the lime, but are mixed roughly, a great excess of pozzuolana being employed.
This excess does no harm, for that part which fails to unite with the lime serves as a diluent, much as does sand in mortar.
The excess held temporarily in solution is then deposited in crystals of CaS04.2H20.
Indefatigable in sifting original documents, Aubigne had amassed a wealth of authentic information; but his desire to give in all cases a full and graphic picture, assisted by a vivid imagination, betrayed him into excess of detail concerning minor events, and in a few cases into filling up a narrative by inference from later conditions.
Sulphuretted hydrogen, in the presence of free mineral acid, gives no precipitate; sulphide of ammonium, from neutral solutions, precipitates T12S as a dark brown or black precipitate, insoluble in excess of reagent.
It is true that the tonnage of the 918 sailing vessels of 1905 was considerably in excess of that of the 3432 sailing vessels of 1850, but even so it was a declining figure from a higher tonnage of the middle of the period.
The excess of deaths over births is due to the fact that there are comparatively few women among the Chinese; the steady increase of the population in the face of this fact is to be attributed entirely to immigration, mainly from China, but to a minor extent from India also.
That is probably true, and it may be admitted that, as a rule, the early calculations erred on the side of excess.
The excess of acid is removed by spreading the mass on a porous plate, the residue stirred for some hours with nitric acid, again spread on a porous plate, and finally dried quickly at about 130° C. It is a dark green deliquescent powder which decomposes on heating or on exposure to moist air.
The fused mass has a dark olive-green colour, and dissolves in a small quantity of cold water to a green solution, which is, however, only stable in the presence of an excess of alkali.
The women cover themselves with silks, gold and jewels, while the men indulge to excess their love of fine horses and splendid arms.
In cleansing the Temple He had given offence by what might seem an excess of rigour: now, by healing a sick man and bidding him carry his bed on the Sabbath, He offended by His laxity.
The crude oxide of the metal is obtained from cerite, by evaporating the mineral with strong sulphuric acid, removing excess of acid and dissolving the residue in ice-cold water; sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the solution, which is then filtered, acidified with hydrochloric acid, and precipitated as oxalate by oxalic acid; the oxalate is then converted into oxide by ignition.
lxiii.) he showed how, by the deposition of a transparently thin film of silver on the outer side of the object glass of a telescope, the sun could be viewed without injuring the eye by excess of light.
The excess of females over males, which in 1900 amounted to upwards of 22,000, is partly explained by the fact that few women emigrate.
in excess of this figure has been registered.
The object of the latter is to convert the manganous hydroxide by the atmospheric oxygen into manganese dioxide, but this would take place much too slowly if there was not an excess of lime present ready to combine with the manganese dioxide to form a calcium manganite.
5), to a larger extent into chlorine and water, of course mixed with the excess of oxygen and all the nitrogen of the air.
The sulphuric acid, of which 6 or 7 parts are used to one of impure liquid hydrochloric acid, is always reserved for usein the same process, by driving off the excess of water in a lead pan, fired from the top, so that the principal expense of the process is that of the fuel required for the last operation.
Bleaching-powder is a compound obtained by the action of free chlorine on hydrated lime, containing a slight excess of water at ordinary temperatures or slightly above these.
It always contains a certain quantity of chemically combined water and also an excess of lime.
If the chlorine is made to act on cream of lime, care being taken that the temperature does not rise above 35° and that the chlorine is not in excess, a solution is obtained containing a mixture of calcium chloride and hypochlorite which is a very convenient agent for bleachers, but which does not bear the expense of carriage over long distances.
A number of secondary reactions, however, occur, owing partly to the excess of calcium carbonate and coal and partly to the impurities present, so that the solid product of the process, which is called " black-ash," has a somewhat complicated composition.
When oxidation is complete the crude anthraquinone is separated in filter presses and heated with an excess of commercial oil of vitriol to 120° C., the various impurities present in the crude material being sulphonated and rendered soluble in water, whilst the anthraquinone is unaffected; it is then washed, to remove impurities, and dried.
The solution is poured into water and sodium carbonate is added to neutralize the excess of acid, when the sodium salt of the monosulphonic acid (known as silver salt) separates out.
(2) That in areas where the State receives its land revenue from landlords, progressive moderation is the key-note of the policy of Government, and that the standard of 50% of the assets is one which is almost uniformly observed in practice, and is more often departed from on the side of deficiency than of excess.
The use of bhang in moderation is comparatively harmless; ganja and charas when taken in excess are undoubtedly injurious, leading to crime and sometimes to insanity.
In 1905 the value of factory products was $4,254,024 (an increase of 37.7% over the value in 1900); the exports in 1907 were valued at $852,457; the imports were valued at $994,47 2, the excess over the exports being due to the fact that the food supply of the city is derived from other Florida ports and from the West Indies.
Anything done in excess of those powers is null and void.
This can be roughly estimated by observing the rate of change of temperature before and after the experiment, and assuming that the loss of heat is directly proportional to the duration of the experiment and to the average excess of temperature.
It can be minimized by making the mixing as rapid as possible, and by using a large calorimeter, so that the excess of temperature is always small.
If given in excess the drug is eliminated by way of the intestines and kidneys.
These are zone for zone very nearly equal; the slight excess of stars in the southern hemisphere perhaps implies that the sun is a little north of the central position.
Freedom from arrest was guaranteed by Magna Carta, save on a criminal charge, yet thousands were committed to gaol on legal fictions and retained indefinitely for costs far in excess of the original debt.
Dietaries are everywhere the same; they are calculated with great nicety according to the time of durance, and afford variety and ample nutrition without running into excess.
The caustic alkalis added to solutions of nickel salts give a pale green precipitate of the hydroxide, insoluble in excess of the precipitant.
Ammonium sulphide precipitates black nickel sulphide, which is somewhat soluble in excess of the precipitate (especially if yellow ammonium sulphide be used), forming a dark-coloured solution.
Ammonium hydroxide gives a green precipitate of the hydroxide, soluble in excess of ammonia, forming a blue solution.
Liebig, Ann., 1848, 6 5, p. 2 44; 1853, 87, p.128), in which the two metals are precipitated by excess of potassium cyanide in alkaline solution, bromine being afterwards added and the solution warmed, when the nickel is precipitated.
The latter method has been modified by adding potassium cyanide in slight excess to the solution of the mixed salts, heating for some time and then adding mercuric oxide and water, the whole being then warmed on the water bath, when a precipitate of mercuric oxide and nickel hydroxide is obtained 666, 670).
Rengade (Comptes rendus, 1907, 1 44, P. 920), by partially oxidizing the metal in a current of dry oxygen and removing excess of metal by distillation in vacuo, has obtained oxides of composition Rb202 (yellowish white), Rb203 (black) and Rb204 (yellow).
Sci., 18 9 1 (3), 43, P. 475); Rubidium sulphate, Rb2S04, is formed by the action of sulphuric acid on the carbonate or hydroxide of the metal, or by the action of milk of lime on rubidium alum, the excess of lime being precipitated by rubidium carbonate and the solution neutralized by sulphuric acid.
Chalcopyrite is decomposed by nitric acid with separation of sulphur and formation of a green solution; ammonia added in excess to this solution changes the green colour to deep blue and precipitates red ferric hydroxide.
When a machine is being started from a state of rest, and brought by degrees up to its proper speed, the effort must be in excess; when it is being retarded for the purpose of stopping it, the resistance must be in excess.
An excess of effort above resistance involves an excess of energy exerted above work perfor~ned; that excess of energy is employed in producing acceleration.
An excess of resistance above effort involves an excess of work performed above energy expended; that excess of work is performed by means of the retardation of the machinery.
The value of this periodical excess is e=R2W(asaif), 2~, (77)
The actual energy due to the rotation of the fly, with its mean angular velocity, is equal to one-half of the periodical excess of energy multiplied by the steadiness.
The periodical excess e may arise either from variations in the effort exerted by the prime mover, or from Variations in the resistance of the work, or from both these causes combined.
When but one flywheel is used, it should be placed in as direct connection as possible with that part of the mechanism where the greatest amount of the periodical excess originates; but when it originates at two or more points, it is best to have a flywheel in connection with each of these points.
For example, in a machine-work, the steam-engine, which is the prime mover of the various tools, has a flywheel on the crank-shaft to store and restore the periodical excess of energy arising from the variations in the effort exerted by the connecting-rod upon the crank; and each of the slotting machines, punching machines, riveting machines, and other tools has a flywheel of its own to store and restore energy, so as to enable the very different resistances opposed to those tools at different times to be overcome without too great unsteadiness of motion.
This would naturally lead to an excess of women over men in the higher septs, and would render it difficult for a man to get his daughter respectably married without paying a high price for a suitable bridegroom and incurring other heavy marriage expenses.
The excess ranges from 20 to 60 per thousand.
From the more accurate statistics available it appears that the excess of male births varies amongst different races and also at different times in the same community.
These, with the English, show a much smaller excess of boy-births than the average of western Europe, and the proportion, moreover, seems to be somewhat declining in both these countries and in Belgium, from causes which have not yet been ascertained.
The general results are an excess of females over males throughout western Europe: but though the relative proportions vary from time to time, remaining always in favour of what is conventionally called the weaker sex, it is impossible, owing to disturbing factors like war and migration, to ascertain whether there is any general tendency for the proportion of females to increase or not.
Far more important is the vegetative, or "natural" increase, through the excess of births over deaths.
It should be remarked, in passing, that these rates are enormously higher amongst illegitimate children than amongst those born in wedlock, and that the proportion of still-born amongst the former is also in excess of that amongst the latter by some 50%.
A birthrate continuously in excess of the death-rate tends to lower the latter through the supply it affords of people annually reaching the more healthy ages.
In some of the smaller basins it sometimes happens that, when the excess of carbonate acid escapes rapidly, there is formed, besides the crystal bed below, a film above, shot like a sheet of ice across the surface.
In his reign was begun the reckless system of foreign loans, carried to excess in the ensuing reign, and culminating in default, which led to the alienation of European sympathy from Turkey and, indirectly, to the dethronement and death of Abd-ul-Aziz.
This disease is also caused by the wine lacking alcohol, acid and tannin, and to the presence of an excess of albuminous matters.
In such cases, and also in others where pasteurizing is not applicable, some direct treatment with a view to eliminating or adding constituents which are in excess or lacking is indicated.
It is held that an excess of the latter is undesirable in wine, but unless the quantity appreciably exceeds two grams per litre, na reasonable objection can be raised.
The ideal soil for vinegrowing is that which possesses a sufficiency, but not an excess, of nutriment for the plant, and which is so constituted that it will afford good drainage.
It is to this relatively large amount of body and absence of an excess of acid and of tannin that the peculiarly soft effect of the Bordeaux wines on the palate is due.
This is necessary, not only to prevent fermentation recommencing, but also in order to preserve the light golden colour of the wine, which, if brought into contact with an excess of air, rapidly assumes an unsightly brown shade.
Electric charge consists, therefore, in an excess or deficit of negative electrons in a body.
Such are the tendency to make all things subservient to, or take the colour of some favourite subject, the extreme fondness and reverence either for what is ancient or for what is modern, and excess in noting either differences or resemblances amongst things.
Finally, no religion has been without exhibitions of fanaticism and excess on the part of its followers, and if the Old Testament itself was the authority for witch-burning among Christians, it is no longer profitable to ask whether the Talmud was responsible for offences committed by or alleged against those whose lives were regulated by it.
The M`Dougall-Herreshoff, working on ores of over 30% of sulphur, requires no fuel; but in furnaces of the reverberatory type fuel must be used, as an excess of air enters through the slotted sides and the hinged doors which open and shut frequently to permit of the passage of the rakes.
Hot air is blown into the filtrate, which contains ferrous or calcium chlorides, to expel the excess of sulphur dioxide, and the liquid can then be used again.
It dissolves in the excess of acid, and is precipitated as a white crystalline powder on the addition of water.
Cupric chloride, CuC1 2, is obtained by burning copper in an excess of chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride, obtained by dissolving the metal or cupric oxide in an excess of hydrochloric acid.
The oxychloride Cu 3 0 2 C1 2.4H 2 O is obtained as a pale blue precipitate when potash is added to an excess of cupric chloride.
Emigrants numbered 584,259 men and 424,566 women between 1851 and 1900, these figures helping to account for the considerable excess of women over men in the resident population, which in 1900 was as 1049 to 1000.
The annual excess of births over deaths is high, the proportion being as 1.68 to 1.
For the application of continued fractions to the problem " To find the fraction, whose denominator does not exceed a given integer D, which shall most closely approximate (by excess or defect, as may be assigned) to a given number commensurable or incommensurable," the reader is referred to G.
Persians say that the females exceed the males by so to 20%, but wherever the present writer has been able to obtain trustworthy information he found the excess to be less than 2%.
This was owing to the depreciation of the copper coir~age from 1896 onwards, consequent upon there being an excess of coinage due to the excessive quantities formerly put in circulation from the mint.
However, in November 1907, when the national assembly or council demanded a budget and made inquiries as to the financial position, it was found that the expenditure foz some years past had been half a million sterling per annum in excess of the receipts and that considerable sums were owing to banks and commercial firms who had lent money.
cease and the excess of the copper coinage be withdrawn from circulation.
If government had been able to buy up the excess at 40 and reissue it gradually after a time at its nominal value when the people required it, the loss would have been small.
This value was adopted by James Watt as the result of experiments with strong dray-horses, but, as he was aware, it is in excess of what can be done by an average horse over a full day's work.
Barium dioxide, Ba02, can be prepared as shown above, or in the hydrated condition by the addition of excess of barytawater to hydrogen peroxide solution, when it is precipitated in the crystalline condition as Ba0 2.8H 2 O.
Barium bromate, Ba(Br03)2, can be prepared by the action of excess of bromine on barytawater, or by decomposing a boiling aqueous solution of loo parts of potassium bromate with a similar solution of 74 parts of crystallized barium chloride.
It crystallizes in monoclinic prisms of composition Ba(C10 3) 2 H 2 O, and begins to decompose on being heated to 250° C. Barium iodate, Ba(103)2, is obtained by the action of excess of iodic acid on hot caustic baryta solution or by adding sodium iodate to barium chloride solution.
Nevertheless, as in a campaign the general's plan may be spoiled by too hasty or too eager action on the part of some of his troops, so the defensive arrangement carried to excess may prove injurious or fatal to the organism.
But protective processes misdirected or carried to excess may become injurious or even dangerous to the organism.
Such remedies are termed antiphlogistic. Venesection (blood-letting) at one time was highly esteemed as an antiphlogistic measure, and while it is possible that it has now fallen too much into disuse, there can be no doubt that at one time it was very greatly abused, and was carried to such an excess as to kill many patients who would have recovered perfectly had they been let alone.
In some cases of chronic inflammation of the kidneys, where the disease is not extensive, the patient may continue in fair health for a number of years, provided attention be paid to the following rules: - (i) The body must be kept warm, and chills must be scrupulously avoided; (2) the digestion must be attended to carefully, so that no excess of poisonous bodies is formed in the intestine or absorbed from it; (3) eliminating channels such as the skin and bowel must be kept active.
In the solution, therefore, there is now an excess of hydroxyl ions; consequently it has an alkaline reaction and the litmus turns blue.
Having feasted themselves to excess, they are set upon by the hunters with sticks, and being unable, owing to the want of space within the pen, to take the run without which they are unable to rise on wing, they are readily killed or captured.
It is soluble in alcohol and in carbon bisulphide, and also in a small quantity of water; but with an excess of water it gives a precipitate of various oxychlorides, known as powder of algaroth.
Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.
By distilling an alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand, trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH 3) 3 i is obtained; this combines with excess of methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH 3) 4 1.
The composition of his various satires shows no negligence, but rather excess of elaboration; but it produces the impression of mechanical contrivance rather than of organic growth.
The diction is full, even to excess, of meaning, point and emphasis.
The mortality is highest among male children, and the normal excess of females is in the proportion of 109 to loo.
The municipal revenues aggregated 2,317,670 bolivianos in 1902, and the expenditures 61,510 bolivianos in excess of that sum.
In very high relief and representing furious action, these sculptures are the finest which survive from the Pergamene school, which replaced the repose and breadth of earlier schools by excess of emphasis and detail.
Hence the equation of work and energy is p dV = Tds (6) 41rpr 2 dr = 8zrrdrT (7) p = 2T/r (8) This, therefore, is the excess of the pressure of the air within the bubble over that of the external air, and it is due to the action of the inner and outer surfaces of the bubble.
The observation that it is possible for soap to be in excess may here have significance.
The scanty rainfall is distributed from July to April, with marked excess from July to September and a lesser maximum in December.
These soils are in general rich, but deficient in nitrogen and somewhat in humus; and in limited areas white alkaline salts are injuriously in excess.
Excess of stain is afterwards removed from the tissues by the use of decolorizing agents, such as acids of varying strength and concentration, alcohol, &c. Different bacteria behave very differently to stains; some take them up rapidly, others slowly, some resist decolorization, others are easily decolorized.