There was nothing unusual in the final epistle to indicate why the correspondence abruptly ended.
4 2 seq.), to the kingly priesthood of Jesus, as that idea is worked out at length in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
In 1617 Napier published his Rabdologia, 4 a duodecimo of one hundred and fifty-four pages; there is prefixed to it as preface a dedicatory epistle to the high chancellor of Scotland.
to See Bishop Lightfoot's exhaustive essay in his volume on the Epistle to the Philippians.
It has been a common mistake to think of Calvin and contemporary Reformers See Lightfoot's Essay in Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
The Church of England has reverted to early custom in so far as only "Easter Even" is distinguished by a special collect, gospel and epistle.
The former came from Paul's pen, but it did not belong originally to this epistle.
Epistle to the Romans >>
The gospel and epistle are still read from the ambo in the Ambrosian rite at Milan.
The second stage was for the sub-deacon who read the epistle (facing the altar); and the third for the subordinate clergy who read other parts of scripture.
The inconvenience of having a single ambo led to the substitution of two separate ambones, between which these various functions were divided, one on the south side of the chancel being for the reading of the gospel, and one on the north for reading the epistle.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
In the epistle ambo at Salerno and the gospel ambones at Cava and San Giovanni del Toro in Ravello, the columns support segmental arches carrying the ambones; the epistle ambo at Ravello and all those in Rome are raised on solid marble bases.
These are the Epistles of James and Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Apocalypse of John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
In 1730 he entered the Mazarin College under the Jansenists, who soon perceived his exceptional talent, and, prompted perhaps by a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which he produced in the first year of his philosophical course, sought to direct it to theology.
12) the epistle from Pontus (Ex Ponto, iv.
The word seems to be used in this sense in the epistle of Jude 12: "These are they who are hidden rocks in your lovefeasts when they banquet with you."
So Basil of Cappadocia (Epistle 93), about the year 350, records that in Egypt the laity, as a rule, celebrated the communion in their own houses, and partook of the sacrament by themselves whenever they chose.
Epistle to the Hebrews >>
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
graduale or gradale) is used of a service book or antiphonal of the Roman Catholic Church containing certain antiphons, called "graduals," sung at the service of the Mass after the reading or singing of the Epistle.
This suspicion is strengthened by the fact (discovered by von Sybel) that even the very preface to his book is taken almost word for word from Rufinus's translation of Origen's commentary on the epistle to the Romans.
Of the shorter poems, besides the greeting to Pippin on his return from the campaign against the Avars (796), an epistle to David (Charlemagne) incidentally reveals a delightful picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace.
ii.) the following writings: Speech to the Greeks (Oratio); Address to the Greeks (Cohortatio): On the Monarchy of God; Epistle to Diognetus; Fragments on the Resurrection and other Fragments; Exposition of the True Faith; Epistle to Zenas and Serenus; Refutation of certain Doctrines of Aristotle; Questions and Answers to the Orthodox; Questions of Christians to Pagans; Questions of Pagans to Christians.
Beside the works already named Tyndale wrote A Prologue on the Epistle to the Romans (1526), An Exposition of the 1st Epistle of John (1531), An Exposition of Matthew v.-vii.
Though at first written consecutively, the work is now usually divided into three portions, - a preface, the history proper, and an epistle, - the last, which is largely made up of passages and texts of Scripture brought together for the purpose of condemning the vices of his countrymen and their rulers, being the least important, though by far the longest of the three.
EPISTLE TO THE.
Ephesians has been called "the crown of St Paul's writings," and whether it be measured by its theological or its literary interest and importance, it can fairly dispute with Romans the claim to be his greatest epistle.
Like its sister Epistle to the Colossians, it represents, whoever wrote it, deep experience and bold use of reflection on the meaning of that experience; if it be from the pen of the Apostle Paul, it reveals to us a distinct and important phase of his thought.
That our epistle is the one referred to in Col.
In the intervening body of the epistle the writer also follows the regular form of a letter.
Paul habitually expanded and deepened this, and, in this case, that paragraph is enormously enlarged, so that it may be regarded as including chapters i.-iii., and as carrying the main thought of the epistle.
The fundamental theme of the epistle is The Unity of Mankind in Christ, and hence the Unity and Divinity of the Church of Christ.
The relationship, both literary and theological, between the epistle to the Ephesians and that to the Colossians is very close.
No doubt of the Pauline authorship was expressed in ancient times; nor is there any lack of early use by writers who make no direct quotation, to raise doubts as to the genuineness of the epistle.
The influence of its language is probably to be seen in Ignatius, Polycarp and Hermas, less certainly in the epistle of Barnabas.
To the evidence given above may be added the use of Ephesians in the First Epistle of Peter.
If the latter epistle could be finally established as genuine, or its date fixed, it would give important evidence with regard to Ephesians; but in the present state of discussion we must confine ourselves to pointing out the fact.
De Wette first (1826) doubted, then (1843) denied that the epistle was by Paul.
On the other hand, the epistle has been defended by Bleek, Neander, Reuss, B.
But these cases, when properly understood and calmly viewed, do not carry conviction against the epistle.
But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.
That the epistle implies as already existent a developed system of Gnostic thought such as only came into being in the 2nd century is not true, and such a date is excluded by the external evidence.
Moreover, if Colossians be accepted as Pauline (and among other strong reasons the unquestionable genuineness of the epistle to Philemon renders it extremely difficult not to accept it), the chief matters of this more advanced Christian thought are fully legitimated for Paul.
On the other hand, the characteristics of the thought in Ephesians give some strong evidence confirmatory of the epistle's own claim to be by Paul.
(b) The centre in all the theology of the epistle is the idea of redemption.
(c) The epistle shows the same panoramic, pictorial, dramatic conception of Christian truth which is everywhere characteristic of Paul.
The balance of evidence seems to lie on the side of the genuineness of the Epistle.
"Ephesians, Epistle to," in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, the various works of Holtzmann above referred to, and T.
The Jewish expectations are adopted for example, by Papias, by the writer of the epistle of Barnabas, and by Justin.
society meeting in Aldersgate Street where Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans was being read.
The preface to the prose life of Cuthbert proves that he had stayed at Lindisfarne prior to 721, while the Epistle to Egbert shows that he had visited him at York in 733.
The Epistle to Egbert, though not historical in form, may be mentioned here, because of the valuable information which it contains as to the state of the Northumbrian Church, on which the disorders and revolutions of the Northumbrian kingdom had told with disastrous effect.
It is a monument of learning and scholarship. The most recent edition is that with notes and introduction by the present writer, u.s. It includes also the History of the Abbots, and the Epistle to Egbert.
saw the prestige of his see involved in this slighting of Chalcedon and his predecessor Leo's epistle.
It was a short commentary on all the books of Scripture, including some of the apocryphal works, such as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Revelation of Peter.
Notes in Latin on the first epistle of Peter, the epistle of Jude, and the first two of John have come down to us; but whether they are the translation of Cassiodorus, or indeed a translation of Clement's work at all, is a matter of dispute.
He is equally full in his quotations from the New Testament, for he quotes from all the books except the epistle to Philemon, the second epistle of St Peter, and the epistle of St James, and he quotes from The Shepherd of Hermas, and the epistles of Clemens Romanus and of Barnabas, as inspired.
- Apart from the Letter and Epistle mentioned above our chief sources of information with regard to the life of St Patrick are contained in the Book of Armagh.
For general reflections on the subject see the appendix to Jowett's edition of the Epistle to the Romans (London, 1855).
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
DOM, Book Of.) Epistle of Jeremy.
Epistle of Barnabas.
" Clement's " 2nd Epistle of the Corinthians.
Epistle of Polycarp.
(b) Apocryphal 3rd Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians and Epistle from the Corinthians to Paul.
founded on a Jewish and probably pre-Christian document, which forms the basis also of the Epistle of Barnabas.
- The special object of this epistle was to guard its readers against the danger of relapsing into Judaism.
- The object of this epistle is the restoration of harmony to the church of Corinth, which had been vexed by internal discussions.
The epistle may be safely ascribed to the years 95-96.
The genuineness of this epistle stands or falls with that of the Ignatian epistles.
Such an epistle is mentioned in the Muratorian canon.
For the Third Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, and Epistle from the Corinthians to Paul, see under " Acts of Paul " above.
The only positive piece of evidence produced is the passage from Thomas Nash's "Epistle to the Gentlemen of the Two Universities," prefixed to Greene's Arcadia, 1859, in which he upbraids somebody (not known to be Shakespeare) with having left the "trade of Noverint" and busied himself with "whole Hamlets" and "handfuls of tragical speeches."
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
There is a touching epistle (Medea to Jason) in the Heroides of Ovid.
author of the epistle to the Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as "thurificati," would still further militate against its employment.
The writer is more versed than any other New Testament writer except the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and very much more than most of them, in the literary Greek of the period of the rise of Christianity; and he has, also, like other writers, his favourite words, turns of expression and thoughts.
EPISTLE TO PHILEMON, a scripture of the New Testament.
xvi.), this is the only letter in the New Testament addressed, even in part, to a woman, unless the second epistle of John be taken as meant for an individual.
Thus some have made him out to be the Hermas to whom salutation is sent at the end of the Epistle to the Romans, others that he was the brother of Pius, bishop of Rome in the middle of the 2nd century, and others that he was a contemporary of Clement, bishop of Rome at the close of the 1st century.
831; new ed., with an epistle to Charles the Bald, 844), which was not only the first systematic and thorough treatise on the sacrament of the eucharist, but is the first clear dogmatic statement of transubstantiation, and as such opened an unending controversy.
Martin Luther regarded Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and many scholars since have shared his view.
the ascription to him of the Alexandrine Epistle of Barnabas).
7; the early Actus Petri Vercellenses; and the late Cypriot Encomium), especially if we might trust the Western ascription to him of the epistle of the Hebrews, which begins with Tertullian (De Pud.
If we could confidently credit him with the authorship of the epistle to the Hebrews, we could conceive his theological standpoint more exactly.
Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas, pp. xlvii.-lxii.; O.
THE Epistle Of Barnabas is one of the apocryphal books of the New Testament.
At the end of the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century, as a sort of appendix to the New Testament, there stands an "Epistle of Barnabas."
The modifications, however, are all in a more spiritual direction, in keeping with the genuinely evangelic spirit which underlies and pervades even the allegorical ingenuities of the epistle.
This being so, the epistle was probably written, not to Alexandria, but rather by a "teacher" of the Alexandrine Church to some body of Christians in Lower Egypt among whom he had recently been visiting.
This would explain the absence of specific address, so that it appears as in form a "general epistle," as Origen styles it.
Thus this epistle is the earliest of the Apostolic Fathers, and as such of special interest.
Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas (1877); sections in J.
EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS, a book of the New Testament.
At any rate the extant epistle is the answer to one received from the Philippian Christians, who had evidently desired information about the apostle's health and prospects (i.
2-9), 4 and the epistle closes with some personal details (iv.
5 But the whole tone of the epistle suggests that Paul expected a speedy end to his case.
A further examination of the epistle shows that it must have been written towards the close of the B&erla An of Acts xxviii.
Upon the whole, the internal evidence of the epistle strongly favours its position as the last of the captivity epistles.
6 More significance attaches to the view that the epistle is made up of two separate notes, written to Philippi at different times.
1, and evidence is led from supposed inconsistencies between the earlier and the latter parts of the epistle.
The exegesis does not absolutely necessitate a partition of the epistle, which (so Heinrichs and Paulus) would make iii.
The exegetical arguments are, in short, the final court of appeal, and their verdict tells rather in favour of the epistle's integrity.
The earlier work on the epistle is adequately summarized by B.
Smith (The Epistle of St.
The religious ideas of the epistle are best stated in English by Principal Rainy (Philippians, Expositor's Bible) and H.
There are in the town many memorials of John Kyrle, the Man of Ross, who died here in 1724, and is eulogized by Pope in his third Moral Epistle (1732).
Further illustrations of these views were given in two works published about the same time as the lectures, one a treatise On the Sonship and Brotherhood of Believers, and the other an exposition of the first epistle of St John.
The discovery that the poet had printed secretly 1500 copies of The Patriot King caused him to publish a correct version in 1749, and stirred up a further altercation with Warburton, who defended his friend against Bolingbroke's bitter aspersions, the latter, whose conduct was generally reprehended, publishing a Familiar Epistle to the most Impudent Man Living.
In prose the old forms - oratory, history, the epistle, treatises or dialogues on ethical and literary questions - continue to be cultivated.
Eustace Conway, or the Brother and Sister, a novel (1834); The Kingdom of Christ (1842); Christmas Day and Other Sermons (1843); TheUnity of the New Testament (1844); The Epistle to the Hebrews (1846);.
The epistle to Rufinus (3rd in Vallarsi's enumeration) tells us the route.
THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF JUDE, a book of the New Testament.
As with the epistle of James, the problems of the writing centre " upon the superscription, which addresses in Pauline phraseology (1 Thess.
But even if we date the rise of heresies in the reign of Domitian instead of Trajan, 2 the attributing of this epistle against 2 O n this point (date of the outbreak of heresy) there is some inconsistency in the reported fragments of Hegesippus.
24 seq.) show that Jude was composed from the start as an " epistle."
The history of the reception of the epistle into church canons is similar to that of James, beginning with a quotation of it as the work of Jude by Clement of Alexandria (Paed.
3), and a more or less hesitant endorsement by Origen (" if one might adduce the epistle of Jude," In Matt.
He also wrote Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1856), in which he applied to history the doctrine of organic evolution; Discourses and Essays (1856); A Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1857), a translation of Guericke; A History of Christian Doctrine (2 vols., 1863); Theological Essays (1877); Literary Essays (1878); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1879); The Doctrine of Endless Punishment (1885); and he edited Coleridge's Complete Works (7 vols., New York, 1894).
Controversy centres round a very long and singular undated epistle called "The Glasgow Letter" or "Letter II."
108, &c.); in Rome by its inclusion in the Muratorian canon, and in Gaul by its use in the Epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eus.
In earlier times the church had strongly impressed the duty of loyalty to Rome, as we see from the Epistle to the Romans and 1 Peter.
Again, while the Gospel and the Epistle of John show marks of agreement which suggest a common authorship, the Apocalypse differs widely from both in its ideas and in its way of expressing them; we miss in it the frequent references to ` life,' ` light,' ` truth,' ` grace ' and ` love ' which are characteristic of the Apostle and find ourselves in a totally different region of thought..
The Gospel and the First Epistle are written in correct and flowing Greek, and there is not a barbarism, a solecism, or a provincialism in them; whereas the Greek of the Apocalypse is inaccurate, disfigured by unusual or foreign words and even at times by solecisms."
But the address and the expression in the italicized passage just quoted (which evidently alludes to the vaunting epistle of 1165) hardly leave room for doubt that the pope supposed himself to be addressing the author of that letter.
Moreover, we know that the Ethiopic Church did long possess a chapel and altar in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and, though we have been unable to find travellers' testimony to this older than about 1497, it is quite possible that the appropriation may have originated much earlier.(fn 5) We know from Marco Polo that about a century after the date of Pope Alexander's epistle a mission was sent by the king of Abyssinia to Jerusalem to make offerings on his part at the Church of the Sepulchre.
The sources from which we derive our knowledge of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (1) a few notices in the writings of Irenaeus, (2) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. Since these authorities have all been more or less called in question and some of them entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few words about each.
1 The main attack is directed against the Epistle to Florinus, doubtless because of its importance.
The epistle is quoted by Eusebius 1 Ency.
The Epistle of Polycarp. - Though Irenaeus states that Polycarp wrote many "letters to the neighbouring churches or to certain of the brethren" 4 only one has been preserved, viz.
The epistle is largely involved in the Ignatian controversy (see Ignatius).
The testimony which it affords to the Ignatian Epistles is so striking that those scholars who regard these letters as spurious are bound to reject the Epistle of Polycarp altogether, or at any rate to look upon it as largely interpolated.
36) quotes extracts from the epistle, and some of the extracts contain the very passages which the critics have marked as interpolations, and Jerome (De Vir.
xvii.) testifies that in his time the epistle was publicly read in the Asiatic churches.
There is absolutely no motive for a forgery in the contents of the epistle.
It shows a fine combination of mildness with severity; the language is simple but powerful, and, while there is undoubtedly a lack of original ideas, the author shows remarkable skill in weaving together pregnant sentences and impressive warnings selected from the apostolic epistles and the first Epistle of Clement.
In these circumstances it would never have occurred to any one to doubt the genuineness of the epistle or to suppose that it had been interpolated, but for the fact that in several passages reference is made to Ignatius and his epistles."
The date of the epistle depends upon the date of the Ignatian letters and is now generally fixed between 112 and 118.
Eusebius has preserved the greater part of this epistle (iv.
The epistle gives a minute description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of Polycarp and of his trial and martyrdom; and as it contains many instructive details and professes to have been written not long after the events to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one of the most precious remains of the 2nd century.
Lipsius brings' the date of the epistle down to about 260, though he admits many of the statements as trustworthy.
We find him in his epistle (ch.
Cotterill, "The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians," Journ.
It was a legitimate development of an indigenous dramatic entertainment, popular among the Romans before the first introduction of the forms of Greek art among them; and it seems largely also to have employed the form of the familiar epistle.
They contend even that extreme unction was so instituted, and that St James in his Epistle did but promulgate it.
It is to this that Lord Byron alludes in his Epistle to Augusta:- " A strange doom is thy father's son's, and past Recalling as it lies beyond redress, Reversed for him our grandsire's fate of yore, He had no rest at sea, nor I on shore."
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
No part of this matter is to be found in the following documents, which present us in varying degrees of accuracy with The Two Ways: (i.) the Epistle of Barnabas, chaps.
The ministry of enthusiasm which they represent is about to give way to the ministry of office, a transition which is reflected in the New Testament in the 3rd Epistle of John.
While the first part must be dated before the Epistle of Barnabas, i.e.
With few and early exceptions, such as we may note in the Epistle of Barnabas, chap. i., they confine the word to doctrine.
Writing of the unity of the church as set forth by Paul in Ephesians, Dr Hort (The Christian Ecclesia, p. 168) says: " Not a word in the epistle exhibits the One Ecclesia as made up of many Ecclesiae.
As to the external evidence for the book's early date, we must remember that the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Book of Revelation, though admittedly earlier, are of the same school, and, with the great Pauline.
The first tract by "Martin Marprelate," known as the Epistle, appeared at Molesey in November 1588.
The Epistle attracted considerable notice, and a reply was written by Thomas Cooper, bishop of Winchester, under the title An Admonition to the People of England, but this was too long and too dull to appeal to the same class of readers as the Marprelate pamphlets, and produced little effect.
Thus the Oratorian Andrea Gallandi (1709-1779), in re-issuing Cotelier's collection in his Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum (1765-1781), included the fragments of Papias and the Epistle to Diognetus, to which recent editors have added the citations from the "Elders" of Papias's day found in Irenaeus, and, since 1883, the Didache.
Clement's epistle, indeed, conforms more to the elaborate and treatise-like form of the Epistle to the Hebrews, on which it draws so largely; and the same is true of "Barnabas."
Nor is this pre-literary and vital quality really absent even from the writing which is least entitled to a place among "Apostolic Fathers," the Epistle to Diognetus.
Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 1-60, for this distinction between the genuine "letter" and the literary "epistle," as applied to the New Testament in particular.
epistle is in any case an "open letter" of an essentially literary type.
If thus related to the Apologists of the middle of the 2nd century, the Epistle to Diognetus has also points of contact with one of the most practical and least literary writings found among our Apostolic Fathers, viz.
the homily originally known as the Second Epistle of Clement (for this ascription, as for other details, see Clementine Literature).
Its opening section, recalling to its hearers the passing of the mists of idolatry before the revelation in Jesus Christ, is markedly similar in tone and tenor to passages in the Epistle to Diognetus.
In Hermas there is special affinity to the language and thought of the epistle of James, and in the homilist to those of Paul.
Lightfoot, indeed, dwells on the all-round "comprehensiveness" with which Clement, as the mouthpiece of the early Roman Church, utters in succession phrases or ideas borrowed impartially from Peter and Paul and James and the Epistle to Hebrews.
The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.
He was delayed, and used the interval to spend two or three months at Oxford, where he found John Colet lecturing on the Epistle to the Romans.
This precipitated a very serious conflict, of which we learn something from the Epistle to the Galatians and the Book of Acts (xv.
20, and the epistle to Diognetus, c. 5), and the principles and laws by which they strove to govern themselves were from above.
In the Epistle to the Ephesians the Christian Church is spoken of as the body of Christ (iv.
his Epistle to the Ephesians 4, 1 5; Trall.
The latter tendency appeared first in Paul, afterwards in the Gospel and First Epistle of John, in Ignatius of Antioch and in the Gnostics.
The earliest expression of this genuinely official principle is found in Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians, ch.
The first forms the text of the principal argument in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the author easily demonstrates the inadequacy of the mediation and atoning rites of the Old Testament, and builds upon this demonstration the doctrine of the effectual high-priesthood of Christ, who, in his sacrifice of himself, truly " led His people to God," not leaving them outside as He entered the heavenly sanctuary, but taking them with Him into spiritual nearness to the throne of grace.
It was probably known to the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The first Epistle hits exactly the prominent features in the situation, when it reminds the Thessalonians how they had " turned unto God from idols, to serve a living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven," who would deliver them from the wrath to come (1 Thess.
In this we may take the epistle as typical of the state of the whole Church at the time.
And there is another important passage which shows why, in spite of its natural and occasional character, the epistle exhibits the germs of that essential quality which caused all the books of the New Testament to be so highly estimated.
The epistle is taken up with matters of this kind; either the apostle is reproving disorders and abuses actually existing in the Church, and almost sure to exist in a young community that had just adopted a novel method of life and had as yet no settled understanding of the principles involved in it; or else he is replying to definite questions put to him by his converts.
In all this the epistle is still a genuine letter, and not a treatise.
No epistle sheds more light on St Paul's character as a man - so mobile, so tactful, so tender and affectionate, and yet so statesmanlike and so commanding.
He knew that he could only do this at the 1 The date of this epistle is rather uncertain.
The epistle may be placed conjecturally early in the stay at Ephesus (c. A.D.
The Epistle to the Hebrews is an epistolary treatise of uncertain date, on the Pauline model, and by a disciple of St Paul or at least a writer strongly influenced by him, though influenced also in no small degree by the Jewish school of Alexandria represented by Philo.
It is not probable that the epistle was addressed to the mother church at Jerusalem.
It is a mark of the improved methods now current in Germany that, whereas in 1886 this epistle was rejected by a scholar as able and sober as Weizsacker, Julicher now pronounces it " among the most assured possessions of the apostle " (Einl.
2 and 3 John are exceptions, but probably came in under the wing of the larger epistle, which is strictly " catholic."
The Epistle of James (also, if genuine) must be placed late in the lifetime of the brother of the Lord.
The Epistle of Jude cannot be either dated or localized with any certainty.
This epistle was questioned from the first, and only gained its place with much hesitation, and rather through slackness of opposition than any conclusiveness of proof.
Nor does it appear to us that the objections to this theory brought by Dr Chase in his excellent article on the epistle in Hastings' Dictionary are really so fatal as he supposes.
The epistle is more the work of a companion of St Paul of long standing than of one who, with quite different and independent antecedents, had only been influenced by the perusal of one or two of St Paul's letters.
In the Epistle of James we have a really distinct type; and it seems to us that the degree to which the epistle misses its mark as a polemic may be easily and naturally accounted for in more ways than one.
Most nearly on the lines of the New Testament are the so-called Apostolic (really Sub-Apostolic) Fathers (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, Didache, Barnabas, the letters of Ignatius and the single letter of Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, the homily commonly known as the Second Epistle of Clement).
are not inferior in real religious value to the Epistle of Jude.
At present, both in N and B, Hebrews is placed after 2 Thess., but in B there is also a continuous numeration of sections throughout the epistles, according to which I to 58 cover Romans to Galatians, but Ephesians, the next epistle, begins with 70 instead of 59, and the omitted section numbers are found in Hebrews.
indications given in the Acts; (ii.) on the evidence of the Epistle to the Galatians, which, though in appearance more precise, can be and is interpreted in very different ways.
(ii.) A nearer attempt to date at least the chronology of St Paul's earlier years as a Christian could be made by the help of the Galatian Epistle if we could be sure from what point and to what point its reckonings are made.
Weber, Die Abfassung des Galaterbriefs vor dem Apostelkonzil, Ravensburg, 1900) that the epistle was actually written just before the council, i.e.
The new view clears away some manifest difficulties in the reconciliation of the Epistle and the Acts, and the early date for Galatians in relation to the other Pauline epistles is not so improbable as it may seem; but the chronology still appears more satisfactory on the older view, which enables the conversion to be placed at least three years later than on the alternative theory.
The former is based on the Epistle to the Romans, and deals with the religious life as (I) Repentance, (2) Faith, (3) Love.
" 2 It is highly probable that the printer of Coverdale's Bible was 1 Epistle to the Reader in the New Testament of 1526, reprinted by G.
Dr Rutherford stated the case briefly and pointedly in the preface to his translation of the Epistle to the Romans (London, 1900).
The phrase " when ye shall be stripped and not be ashamed " contains an idea which has some affinity with two passages found respectively in the Gospel according to the Egyptians and the so-called Second Epistle of Clement.
Thus he paves the way for his tardy rebuke of present disorders, which he reserves until two-thirds of his epistle is completed.
Clement is exceedingly discursive, and his letter reaches twice the length of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Many of his general exhortations are but very indirectly connected with the practical issue to which the epistle is directed, and it is very probable that he was drawing largely upon the homiletical material with which he was accustomed to edify his fellow-Christians at Rome.
The most permanent interest of the epistle lies in the conception of the grounds on which the Christian ministry rests according to the view of a prominent teacher before the 1st century has closed.
7) that the church at Rome, though suffering persecution, was firmly held together by faith and love, and was exhibiting its unity in an orderly worship. The epistle was publicly read from time to time at Corinth, and by the 4th century this usage had spread to other churches.
The epistle was published in 1633 by Patrick Young from Cod.
Its evidence is used in a small edition of the epistle by R.
In 1559 du Bellay published at Poitiers La Nouvelle Maniere de faire son profit des lettres, a satirical epistle translated from the Latin of Adrien Turnebe, and with it Le Poete courtisan, which introduced the formal satire into French poetry.
The question whether the "Churches of Galatia," to which St Paul addressed his Epistle, were situated in the northern or southern part of the province has been much discussed, and in England Prof. Sir W.
Galater (1897); Perrot, De Galatia 1 In the unsettled state of this controversy, weight naturally attaches to the opinion of experts on either side; and the above statement, while opposed to the view taken in the following article on the epistle, must be taken on its merits.
Epistle to the Galatians >>
The same epistle (x.
Bishops and deacons hold a subordinate place in this document; but the contemporary Epistle of Clement of Rome attests that these bishops " had offered the gifts without blame and holily."
In the Epistle to Diognetus, formerly assigned to Justin Martyr, we read (v.
But Paul, while he saw this much in it, saw much more; or he could not in the same epistle, x.
SECOND EPISTLE TO.
A note of personal matters concludes the epistle (iv.
The last verse, with its two-fold greeting (6 14:nos, uera Tou 7rveuµar6s co y, 7) x6.pcs AO' upL ' v), shows unconsciously but plainly that, while the epistle professes to be a private letter to Timothy, it is in reality addressed to a wider circle, like 1 Tim.
Various schemes of analysis have been proposed to account for this and other passages of the same nature in the epistle, e.g.
"To a writer of this period, it would seem as legitimate an artifice to compose a letter as to compose a speech in the 1 Bahnsen gives an ingenious analysis of this section in the epistle.
But this is as artificial as Otto's attempt to classify the contents of the epistle under the three notes of the Iry 13 a in i.
" If the epistle was an integral as we have it, its genuineness could scarcely be maintained "(Laughlin, p. 26).
4 Bacon (Story of St Paul, p. 198) and Clemen both assign part of the epistle to the Caesarean imprisonment, the former disentangling iv.
The Second Epistle to Timothy carries on this line of advice.
- Special monographs on this epistle by Leo (1850)(1850) and Bahnsen (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe, I., der 2 Tim., 1876) are to be noted.
A Manichaean epistle, addressed to one Marcellus, has, however, been preserved for us in the Acta Archelai.
Zittwitz assumes that this epistle was in its original form of much larger extent, and that the author of the Acts took out of it the matter for the speeches which he makes Mani deliver during his disputation with Bishop Archelaus.
The celebrated passage about the three heavenly witnesses inserted in the Epistle of St John (v.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Epistle on Demosthenes and Aristotle (chap. 5), gives the following sketch of his life: - Aristotle ('ApeaToTE ujs) was the son of Nicomachus, who traced back his descent and his art to Machaon,son of Aesculapius; his mother being Phaestis, a descendant of one of those who carried the colony from Chalcis to Stagira.
After a dedicatory epistle to Alexander (chap. I) the opening of the treatise itself (chap. 2) is as follows: - " There are three genera of political speeches; one deliberative, one declamatory, one forensic: their species are seven; hortative, dissuasive, laudatory, vituperative, accusatory, defensive, critical."
It is possible then that Aristotle may have written the dedication to Alexander about 34 0 and treated him as if he were king in the dedicatory epistle.
At the same time, as such prefaces are often forgeries, not prejudicing the body of the treatise, it does not really matter whether Aristotle actually dedicated his work to Alexander in that epistle about that year or not.
His Commentaries on St John's Gospel (1881), on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889) and the Epistles of St John (1883) resulted from his public lectures.
The following is a bibliography of Westcott's more important writings, giving the date of the first editions: - Elements of the Gospel Harmony (1851); History of the Canon of First Four Centuries (1853); Characteristics of Gospel Miracles (1859); Introduction to the Study of the Gospels (1860); The Bible in the Church (1864); The Gospel of the Resurrection (1866); Christian Life Manifold and One (1869); Some Points in the Religious Life of the Universities (1873); Paragraph Psalter for the Use of Choirs (1879); Commentary on the Gospel of St John (1881); Commentary on the Epistles of St John (1883); Revelation of the Risen Lord (1882); Revelation of the Father (1884); Some Thoughts from the Ordinal (1884); Christus Consummator (1886); Social Aspects of Christianity (1887); The Victory of the Cross: Sermons in Holy Week (1888); Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889); From Strength to Strength (1890); Gospel of Life (1892); The Incarnation and Common Life (1893); Some Lessons of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1897); Christian Aspects of Life (1897); Lessons from Work (1901).
It was to him that Southwell addressed his Epistle of Comfort.
The prayer in the burial service, as in the Communion service, contained distinct intercessions for the departed; and a form of Holy Communion was provided for use at funerals with proper introit, collect, epistle and gospel.
The exception is in the little treatise commonly called the Epistle of Barnabas, probably composed about A.D.
in 1552, and was made vicar of Sunningwell, and public orator of the university, in which capacity he had to compose a congratulatory epistle to Mary on her accession.
Epistle to the Colossians >>
EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS, one of the books of the New Testament.
Probably, then, the original and limited address, or rather salutation, was never copied when this treatise in letter form, like the epistle to the Romans, passed into the wider circulation which its contents merited.
In any case the Roman Church, where the first traces of the epistle occur, about A.D.
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