Earlier he'd signed up to take his July vacation in Iowa, biking the 400 miles across that state on a seven-day bike tour known as "RAGBRAI," named for the sponsoring Des Moines Register newspaper.
Other philosophical works were: - Ueber den Ursprung der Sitten (1860 and 1867), Ueber die Ideen in der Geschichte (1865 and 1872); Zur Lehre von den Sinnestauschungen (1867); Ideale Fragen (1875 and 1885), Erziehung and Geschichte 0880; Unser Stand punkt (1881); Ueber die Reize des Spiels (1883).
For the philosophy of Aquinas, see Albert Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, ii.; B.
Lehre des Th.
Bruckner, Geschichte Russlands bis zum Ende des 18ten Jahrhunderts (Gotha, 1896); E.
He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
A full bibliography of the subject will be found in the article in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites, to which may be added R.
NOldeke, "Beitrage zur Geschichte des Alexanderromans" (Denkschriften der ksl.
des Archpresbyter Leo (Historia de proeliis), (Erlangen, 1885); Alexander's letter to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are included in the Teubner edition of Julius Valerius (ed.
Weymann, Die dthiopische and arabische Ubersetzungen des Pseudo-Kallisthenes (Kirchhain, 1901).
Havet's contention (in La Modernite des prophetes) that Gog represents the Parthians (40 B.C.) has little or nothing in its support.
In 1910 he had published a collection of his patriotic speeches, and a volume La Ligue des Patriotes containing further extracts from them appeared two years after his death.
He was brought up at Tarascon by his uncle, Hercule Audiffret, superior of the Congregation des Doctrinaires, and afterwards entered the order.
von Hahn, Albanesische Studien (Jena, 1854), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin and Vardar (Vienna, 1867); F.
Her famous letters to the pope are part of the history of Port Royal, and as long as she lived the nuns of Port Royal des Champs were left in safety.
On her death in 1679 she was buried with great splendour by her brother Conde, and her heart, as she had directed, was sent to the nuns of the Port Royal des Champs.
See also SainteBeuve, Portraits des femmes (1840).
Meyer, Geschichte des Konigreichs Pontos (1879).
Meyer, Entstehung des Judentums (1896).
The book of order, Discipline ecclesiastique des eglises reformees de France, regulated the organization and procedure of the churches.
When it refused to discuss points of doctrine a secession took place under the name of the Union des eglises evangeliques de France.
In 1858 there were 617 pastors and the Union des eglises evangeliques numbered 27 churches.
The churches of Notre-Dame des Champs and St Saturnin are modern buildings in the Gothic style.
Three societies demand special mention: the Union centrale des agriculteurs de France, to which the above syndicates are affiliated; the Sociit nationale dagriculture, whose mission is to further agricultural progress and to supply the government with information on everything appertaining thereto and the Socit des agriculteurs de France.
The Department of Waters i and Forests (Administration des Eaux et Forts) forms a branch of the min istry of agriculture.
The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.
A permanent body (the commission permanente des valeurs) fixes the average prices of the Imporis.
Mention may also be made of the Tribunal des Conflits, a special court whose function it is to decide which is the competent tribunal when an administration and a judicial court both claim or refuse to deal with a given case.
One of the sections is termed the chambre des mises en accusation.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
When the budget has passed both chambers it is promulgated by the president under the title of Loi des finances.
The Irsorier nearly always lives at the chief town of the department, and is assisted by a receveur particulier des finances in each arrondissement (except that in which the trsorier himself resides).
These comprise the tax on buildrngsf and the trade-licence tax (impt des patentes).
The administrative staff includes, for the purpose of computing the individual quotas of the direct taxes, a director assisted by contrleurs in each department and subordinate to a central authority in Paris, the direction gnrale des contributions directes.
The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
The Cour des Comptes, an ancient tribunal, was abolished in 1791, and reorganized by Napoleon I.
All these are nominated for life by the president of the republic. Besides the accounts of the state and of the communes, those of charitable institutionsi and training collegesi and a great variety of other public establishments are scrutinized by the Cour des Comptes.
Deposit and current accounts of Caisse des dpts, &c., including savings banks 15,328,840
The Hotel des Invalides founded by Louis XIV.
The most important free institution in this class is the cole des Sciences Politiques, which prepares pupils for the civil services and teaches a great number of political subjects, connected with France and foreign countries, not included in the state programmes.
At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
He also held the offices of librarian of the Bibliotheque du Roi, and of perpetual secretary of the Academie des Inscriptions.
In 1812 his Escuela de los maridos, a translation of Moliere's Ecole des maris, was produced at Madrid, and in 1813 El Medico a Palos (a translation of Le Medecin malgre lui) at Barcelona.
In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."
These were published in the Prix de l'Academie des Sciences.
de Maupertuis as associate geometer of the Academie des Sciences.
Montucla, Histoire des mathematiques (1802).
See P. von Kobbe, Geschichte and Landesbeschreibung des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Altona, 1836-1837); Duve, Mitteilungen zur Kunde der Staatsgeschichte Lauenburgs (Ratzeburg, 1852-1857), and the Archiv des Vereins far die Geschichte des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Ratzeburg, 1884 seq.).
Schonhals, Biographie des K.
The very fine torso of Athena in the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris, which has unfortunately lost its head, may perhaps best serve to help our imagination in reconstructing a Pheidian original.
Bouquet's Recueil de historiens des Gaules et de la France, 17, 381876).
P. Arend, Algemeane geschiedenis des vaderlands van de vroegste tijden (4 vols., 1840-1883); J.
de Burante, Histoire des ducs de Burgogne (1364-1477), (13 vols., 1824-1826); L.
Vanderkindere, Le Siecle des Artevelde (1879); J.
C. Kervyn de Lettenhove, Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de l'Angleterre sous le regne de Philippe II.
Carnero, Historia de las guerras civiles que ha avido en los estados de Flandres des del anno 1559 hasta el de 1609, y las Archduke already in course of formation, and not even the Matthias.
Mendota, Commentaires memorables des guerres de Flandres et Pays-Bas, avec une sommaire description des Pays-Bas 1567-1577 (1591); F.
Marx, Studien zur Geschichte des niederlandischen Aufstandes (1902); W.
The Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with towers at each end, was built in 1290, and among many other interesting buildings there are some old houses still in occupation which date back to the 13th century.
von Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches (Pest, 1840), where further authorities are cited.
He also delivered lectures, which were republished in his Philosophic des Lebens (1828) and in his Philosophie der Geschichte (1829).
Friedrich Schlegel's wife, Dorothea, was the author of an unfinished romance, Florentin (1801), a Sammlung romantischer Dichtungen des Mittelalters (2 vols., 1804), a version of Lother and Mauler (1805), and a translation of Madame de Stael's.
von Domaszewzki in Jahreshefte des Osterreich.
6, From Michaux, Histoire des clanes de l'Amerique.
Ireland (1905); Die Politik des Protectors Oliver Cromwell in der Auffassung and Tdtigkeit.
des Staatssekretdrs John Thurloe, by Freiherr v.
Every twenty years or so (last in 1889 and 1905) the Fete des Vignerons is held here by an ancient gild of vinedressers, and attracts much attention.
des chroniques nationales (Paris, 1824-1828).
des Theodoret von Kyrrhos (Halle, 1889).
The first edition of the history was published at Helmstadt in 1584, and a good edition is in the Recueil des historiens des croisades, tome iv.
von Sybel, Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (Leipzig, 1881); F.
Gonot, Catalogue des ouvrages imprimes et manuscrits concernant l'Auvergne (1849).
See further Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist., Topobibliographie, s.v.
Chassin, La Vendee et la Chouannerie (Paris, 1892 seq.); "L'Etat des services de Santerre dresse par lui-meme," in the third volume of Souvenirs et memoires (1899), published by Paul Bonnefon.
See Moller, Geschichte der vormaligen Grafschaft Linen (Lingen, 1874); Herrmann, Die Erwerbung der Stadt and Grafschaft Lingen durch die Krone Preussen (Lingen, 1902); and Schriever, Geschichte des Kreiges Lingen (Lingen, 1905).
Baumeister, Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, iii.
In Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner specifies the proportions of the string-band as 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, 8 double basses.
232, 28th September 1854; Du Moncel, Expose des Applications de l'Electricite (Paris), ii.
Students will find the chief materials in the following collections: Archiv fiir Litteratur and Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters (ed.
Goetz of Munich in a study entitled Die Quellen zur Geschichte des hl.
Ceillier's other work, Apologie de la morale des peres de l'eglise (Paris, 1718), also won some celebrity.
des Kirchenstaates (1880), i.
The Italian General Staff is said to have undertaken, in the event of war against France, to operate with two armies on the north-western frontier against the French arme des Alpes, of which the war strength is about 250,000 men.
Ruth, Geschichte des italienischen Volkes z0iter der napoleonzschen Herrschaft (Leipzig, 1859).
Stromberger, Bertold von Regensburg, der grässte Volksredner des deutschen Mittelalters (1877), K.
The effect of this point of view in regard to moral perceptions is that they represent an important relative truth, but that philosophy " passes " beyond them " into a higher region, where imputation of guilt is " absolutely " meaningless " 2 - enseits des Guten and Bosen.
Schiller, Geschichte des riimischen Kaiserreichs unter der Regierung des Nero (1872); E.
Meanwhile in England, which was ruled by Peter des Roches as justiciar, the discontent had been increasing rather than diminishing, and its volume became much larger owing to an event of May 1214.
His first works, Theorie des lois criminelles (1781) and Bibliotheque philosophique du legislateur (1782), were on the philosophy of law, and showed how thoroughly Brissot was imbued with the ethical precepts of Rousseau.
On this second visit he became acquainted with some of the leading Abolitionists, and founded later in Paris a Societe des Amis des Noirs, of which he was president during 1790 and 1791.
Woltereck, " Beitrage zur Ontogenie and Ableitung des Siphonophorenstocks," Zeitschr.
Historia trevirensis diplomatica et pragmatics (3 vols., Augsburg, 1750); Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier (5 vols., Trier, 1858-1864); Leonardy, Geschichte des trierischen Landes and Volkes (Saarlouis, 1871); Woerl, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Trier (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898).
In his Naturgeschichte des Himmels, in which he anticipated the nebular theory afterwards more fully developed by Laplace, Kant sought to explain the genesis of the cosmos as a product of physical forces and laws.
Nothing really new is produced in the living world, but the germs which develop have existed since the beginning of things; and nothing really dies, but, when what we call death takes place, the living thing shrinks back into its germ state.3 et celle des especes.
Mais cette imagination est bien eloignee de la nature des choses.
La Terre vient de sortir des Mains du Createur.
Des causes preparees par sa Sagesse font developper de toutes parts les Germes.
' As Billion has well said: - " L'idee de ramener l'explication de tons les phenomenes a des principes mecaniques est assurement grande et belle,ce pas est le plus hardi qu'on peut faire en philosophic, et c'est Descartes qui l'a fait."
Essai sur la formation des corps organises, 1751, xiv.
The Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, which sketches out Lamarck's doctrines, was published in 1802; but the full development of his views in the Philosophic zoologique did not take place until 1809.
1 Considerations philosophiques sur la gradation naturelle des formes de l'etre; ou les essais de la nature qui apprend d faire l'homme (1768).
Recherches sur les causes des principaux faits physiques, par J.
It would be interesting to know what brought about the change of opinion manifested in the Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, published only seven years later.
Voila ce que l'etat bien connu des choses me met maintenant a portee de demontrer.
Soc. xx.; Haacke, Schopfung des Menschen; Mitchell, " Valuation of Zoological Characters," Trans.
Wilmans, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Reichs unter K.
Gaudry, Traite de la legislation des cultes (Paris, 1854); W.
On the left bank of the Lys is the Oudeburg (s'Gravenstein, Château des Contes), the former castle of the first counts of Flanders, dating from 1180 and now restored.
was born, is commemorated only in the name of a street, the Cours des Princes.
Of modern buildings may be mentioned the University (1826), the Palais de Justice (1844), and the new theatre (1848), all designed by Roelandt, and the Institut des Sciences (1890) by A.
For a comprehensive bibliography, including monographs and published documents, see Ulysse Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist.
P. Augerstein, Der Konflikt des polnischen Konigs Boleslaw II.
Neumann, Reden des Gotamo Buddho (3 vols.; Leipzig, 1896-1898); Lieder der Monche and Nonnen (Berlin, 1899); Max Mtiller and V_ Fausboll, Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata (Oxford, 1881).
- See, for Baltic amber, P. Dahms, "Ueber die Vorkommen and die Verwendung des Bernsteins," Zeitsch.
In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences.
Dehaisnes, " Catalogue des manuscrits de Douai, in the Catalogue gene'ral des manuscrits des bibliothe'ques des departements, t.
Heron-Royer and C. Van Bambeke, "Le vestibule de la bouche chez les tetards des batraciens anoures d'Europe," Arch.
Gruppe in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and by P. Monceaux in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites; " Orphia " in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891), by L.
Baumeister, Denkmaler des classischen Altertums, ii.
Kraus, Realencyklopadie des christlichen Alterthums, ii.
Martigny, Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes (1889); A.
xxiv.; Fischer, Fixirung, Fdrbung and Bau des Protoplasmas (Jena, 1899); Flemming, Morphologic der Zelle, Ergebnisse der Anatomic und Entwickelungsgeschichte (i 896); Gardiner, The 1-listology of the Cell-Wall, with Special Reference to the iVlode of Connection of Cells, Proc. Roy.
(1893 and 1894); Die Morphologic and Physiologic des pflanziichen Zelikernes (Jena, 1898).
The reputation thus gained, confirmed by his translation of Horace (1750), led to his becoming a member of the Academie des Inscriptions (1754) and of the French Academy (1761).
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).
His last and most extensive work was a Cours d'etudes a l'usage des eleves de l'ecole militaire (45 vols.).
His Histoire des causes premieres was among the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the general attacks made against it.
See Dacier et Dupuy, "1 loges," in Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions.
als Ordner des romischen Freystaates (1834); T.
See Quix, Geschichte der Stadt Aachen (1841); Pick, Aus Aachens Vergangenheit (Aachen, 1895); Bock, Karts des grossen Pfalzkapelle (Cologne, 1867); and Beissel, Aachen als Kurort (1889).
Bronn's Klassen and Ordnungen des Thierreichs, vol.
Blanchard, " Recherches sur les caracteres osteologiques des oiseaux appliques a la classification," Ann.
Schultergurtel (Leipzig, 1864-1865); P. Harting, L'A ppareil episternal des oiseaux (Utrecht, 1864); T.
Mehnert, " Entwickelung des Ospelvis der Vogel," Morph.
31-32; P. Suschkin, " Zur Morphologie des Vogelskelets.
Vogel of Bronn's Klassen and Ordnungen des Tierreichs.
der Muskulatur des Beckens and der hinteren Gliedmasse der Ratiten, 4° (Jena, 1880); A.
Milne-Edwards, Recherches anatomiques et paliontologiques pour servir a l'histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France (Paris, 1867-1868), torn.
Meckel, "Anatomie des Gehirns der Vogel," in Meckel's Archiv f.
Lauth, " Memoire sur les vaisseaux lymphatiques des oiseaux," Ann.
Anatomie des Herzens der Vogel and Reptilien," Arch.
C. Sappey, Recherches sur l'appareil respiratoire des oiseaux (Paris, 1847); W.
Milne-Edwards, Recherches anatomiques et paleontologiques pour servir d l'histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France (Paris, 1867-1868); F.
See Lehmann, Geschichte des Herzogtums Zweibriicken (Munich, 1867).
His later years were occupied with a series of philosophical works, of which the most important were: Die Phantasie als Grundprincip des Weltprocesses (1877), Uber die Genesis der Menschheit and deren geistige Entwicklung in Religion, Sittlichkeit and Sprache (1883), and Ober die Organisation and Cultur der menschlichen Gesellschaft (1885).
Among his other works are: Die Perserkriege and die Burgunderkriege (Berlin, 1887); Historische and politische Aufscitze (1886); Erinnerungen, Aufsdtze and Reden (1902); Die Strategie des Perikles erldutert durch die Strategie Friedrichs des Grossen (1890); Die Polenfrage (1894); and Das Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Neithardt von Gneisenau (1882 and 1894).
The contents of the volumes of Migne's patrologies are given in the Catalogue general des livres de l'abbe Migne, and a useful list in alphabetical order of the writers in the Greek Patrologia has been compiled by Dr J.
This spirit of do ut des will be found to go closely with the gift-theory of sacrifice, and to be especially characteristic of those religions of middle grade that are given over to sacrificial worship as conducted in temples and by means of organized priesthoods.
Giesebrecht, Die alttestamentliche Schatzung des Gottesnamens (1901); W.
1238), besides being 1 The fullest account of them is to be found in Steinschneider's Hebrdische Ubersetzungen des Mittelalters (Berlin, 1893).
Steinschneider, Arabische Literatur der Juden (Frankfort-on-Main, 1902); Hebretische Zlbersetzungen des Mittelalters (Berlin, 1893).
In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
He was sent as a child to be educated at Port Royal, and there he received his final bent towards the life of a recluse, and even of a hermit, which drew him to establish himself in the neighbourhood of Port Royal des Champs.
In 1553, on the recommendation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, he was named master of the requests, and afterwards president of the chambre des comptes.
See also Desjardins, Geographie historique et administrative de la Gaule romaine (Paris, 18 77); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (Paris, 1877); for Caesar's campaigns, article CAESAR, JULIUS, and works quoted; for coins, art.
F.) For a bibliography of the Normans and Northmen see Ulysse Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist.
69 of the Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Chartes (Paris, 1908).
ii.; Jules Brunfaut, De l'Exploitation des soufres (2nd ed., 1874); Georgio Spezia, Sull' origine del solfo nei giacementi solfiferi della Sicilia (Turin, 1892).
Luchaire, Manuel des institutions francaises (Paris, 1892), and P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France au moyen age (1902); for their later status and privileges, A.
des deutschen Adels (2nd ed., Waldenburg, 1851); von Maurer, Uber das Wesen des dltesten Adds der deutschen Stdmme (Munich, 1846); Rose, Der Adel Deutschlands and seine Stellung im deutschen Reich (Berlin, 1883); G.
Meyer, Lehrbuch des deutschen Staatsrechts (5th ed., Leipzig, 1899), and the Gotha Genealogische Taschenbiicher.
Friedlein, Gerbert, die Geometrie des Boethius, and die indischen Ziffern, Erlangen, 1861, are edited by G.
des Mittelalters, i.
Nitzsch, Das System des Boethius and die ihm zugeschriebenen theologischen Schriften (Berlin, 1860), and art.
in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie (1897); C. Jourdain, De l'Origine des traditions sur le christianisme de Boece (1861); Gaston Boissier, " Le Christianisme de Boece," in Journal des Savants (1889),PP 449-4 62; A.
In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.
This discovery was followed by that of the calculus of partial differences, the first trials of which were published in his Reflexion sur la cause generale des vents (1747).
In 1752 he published an Essai d'une nouvelle theorie sur la resistance des / g uides, which contains a large number of original ideas and new observations.
His Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres avec les grands was a worthy vindication of the independence of literary men, and a thorough exposure of the evils of the system of patronage.
A treatise, Sur la destruction des Jesuites (1765), involved him in a fresh controversy, his own share in which was rendered very easy by the violence and extravagance of his adversaries.
The list of his more noteworthy literary works is completed by the mention of the Histoire des membres de l'Academie frangaise, containing biographical notices of all the members of the Academy who died between 1700 and 1772, the year in which he himself became secretary.
des missions etrangeres, Paris, ed.
Strauss-Durkheim, Anatomie comparee des animaux articulees (Paris, 1828).
Chapuis (Genera des Coleopteres, io vols., Paris, 1854-1874); J.
Among his publications may be mentioned: Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Guido Starhemberg (Vienna, 1863); Prinz Eugen von Savoyen (3 vols., ib.
Episoden aus seinem Leben 1835, 1848-1849 (1895); Johann Freiherr von Wessenberg, ein Oster- reichischer Staatsmann des 19.
Guiraud in the Bibliotheque des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome (Paris, 1892-1898).
des 13ten Jahrhunderts (Munster, 1891); P. Piacenza, Compendio della storia del b.
Werner, Die Scholastik des spdteren Mittelalters, i.
Seeberg, Die Theologie des Duns Scotus (1900), and in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie (1898), with bibliog.
in Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, Bd.
Kahl, Die Lehre vom Primat des Willens bei Augustinus, Duns Scotus, and Descartes (1886).
Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos' des Dunklen (Berlin, 1858; 2nd ed., 1892), which, however, is too strongly dominated by modern Hegelianism; Paul Schuster, Heraklit von Ephesus (Leipzig, 1873); Bernays, Die heraklitischen Briefe (Berlin, 1869); T.
Pfleiderer, Die Philosophie des Heraklitus von Ephesus im Lichte der Mysterienidee (Berlin, 1886); G.
Schafer, Die Philosophie des Heraklit von Ephesus and die moderne Heraklitforschung (Leipzig, 1902); Wolfgang Schultz, Studien zur antiken Kultur, i.; Pythagoras and Heraklit (Leipzig, 1905); O.
See Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des tsars, ii.
L'Empire des tsars, ii.
Wild, Temperatur-Verhdltnisse des Russ.
Bogdanov, Birds and Mammals of the Black-Earth Region of the Volga Basin (in Russian, Kazan, 1871); Karelin for the southern Urals; Kessler for fishes; Strauch, Die Schlangen des Russ.
For more detailed bibliographical information see Apercu des travaux zoo-ge'ographiques, published at St Petersburg in connexion with the Exhibition of 1878; and the index Ukazatel Russkoi Literatury for natural science, mathematics and medicine, published since 1872 by the Society of the Kiev University.
Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des Tsars, tome iii.
Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des tsars (3 vols., 1882-88; Eng.
de Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres (St Petersburg, from 1878 still incomplete), which contains valuable historical introductions based on unpublished sources; A.
Rambaud, Recueil des instructions aux ambassadeurs de France, vols.
bis zum Tode Peters des Grossen (Gotha, 1896); Gaston Crehange, Histoire de la Russie depuis la mort de Paul I.
des Russischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1874); F.
Waliszewski under the general title of Les Origines de la Russie moderne: L'Heritage de Pierre le Grand, 1725-41 (Paris, 1900), La Derniere des Romanov (1902), La Crise revolutionnaire, 1584-1614 (1906), Le Berceau d'une dynastie.
- Georges Alfassa, La Crise agraire en Russie (Paris, 1905); Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des Tsars (3 vols., Paris, 1882-88; Eng.
trans., 1896), an admirable account, partly historical, partly based on personal observation of the government, religion and the social and economic conditions of Russia; Combes de Lestrade, La Russie economique et sociale (Paris, 1896); " Nikolai " (pseudonym of Danielson), Histoire des developpement economique de la Russie depuis l'abolition du servage (Paris, 1899).
of Marquardsen's Handbuch des ofentlichen Rechts, Freiburg, 1888);; S.
Kovalevsky, Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia (London, 1891); Max von Ottingen, Abriss des russischen Staatsrechts (1899); F.
On practice concerning rates in continental Europe, see Ulrich, Des Eisenbahntarifwesen (Berlin, 1886).
Similarly in Europe they are often the property of the International Sleeping Car Company (Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits), and the supplementary fares required from those who travel in them add materially to the cost of a journey.
See also Guldenstubbe, De la realite des esprits (1857), p. 66; also Maxwell, Les Phenomenes psychiques (1903).
Hare, Experimental Investigations of the Spirit Manifestations (New York, 1856); Allan Kardec, Livre des esprits (1st ed., 1853); Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863), with preface by Professor De Morgan; Alfred Russel Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1876); W.
Flournoy, Des Indes a la Planete Mars (Geneva, 1900; there is an English translation published in London); Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, passim.
1885); Kompendium der Dogmatik (1865; 9th ed., 1893), Geschichte der christlichen Ethik (2 vols., 1888-1893), Gnade and Wahrheit (1874), Das Wort des Lebens (1877) and Gnade and Frieden (1880).
(Leben des Ministers Freiherrn vom Stein (6 vols., 1849-1855); also, in an abridged form, Aus Steins Leben (2 vols., 1856) ° Scale, 1:12,000,000 English Miles p 50 Boundaries of Departments & Provinces Capitals Departments & Prouinces Railways Tumbez Trujillo
Louis de Bougainville obtained a fuller acquaintance with the archipelago in 1768, and called them the Navigators' Islands (Iles des Navigateurs) .
P. Churchill, Samoa '0 - ma (London, 1902); Journal des museums Godeffroy (Hamburg, 1871-1874); G.
His works were published in 1693 by the Abbe Gallois, in the Recueil of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences.
This subject has been recently treated with admirable clearness by Marti in his useful treatise Die Religion des A.T.
die Bedeutung des Knechtes Jahwehs in Jes.
Giesebrecht, Der Knecht Jahwes des Deuterojesaja.
On Semitic religion generally: Wellhausen's Reste des arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.) and Robertson Smith's Religion of the Semites (2nd ed.) are chiefly to be recommended.
Budde's Die Religion des Volkes Israel bis zur Verbannung, as well as Addis's recent Hebrew Religion (1906), is a most careful and scholarly compendium.
Bousset's Religion des Judentums (2nd ed.), and Volz, Die jiidische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, are highly to be commended.
in height, greatly resembling the beech, except I See the description of the instrument and of other attempts to obtain the same result by Gottfried Weber, "Wichtige Verbesserung des Horns" in Allg.
and "Der Sturz des Cardinals Wolsey," by W.
See von Utzschneider, Kurzer Umriss der Lebensgeschichte des Herrn Dr J.
Villemain finds in it " peu de vues, nulle originalite surtout, mais une grande passion litteraire, l'amour des recherches savantes et du beau langage."
There were a number of important contributory conditions (enumerated in Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums) which Gibbon did not take into account.
It may be added that a special translation of the chapter on Roman Law (Gibbon's historische Ubersicht des romischen Rechts) was published by Hugo at GÃ¶ttingen in 1839, and has frequently been used as a text-book in German universities.
This work, the Traite des proprieks projectives des figures, which was published in 1822 (2d ed., 2 vols.
See Reusch, Sagen des preussischen Samlandes (2nd ed., Konigsberg, 1863); Jankowsky, Das Samland and seine Beviilkerung (Konigsberg, 1902); Hensel, Samland Wegweiser (4th ed., Konigsberg, 5905); and the Urkundenbuch des Bistums Samland, edited by Wolky and Mendthal (Leipzig, 1891-1904).
Lenormant in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites.
de la Soc. des antiquaires du centre, vol.
In his Christology he departed from the Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrine of the two natures by insisting on what he called the Vergotterung des Fleisches Christi, the deification or the glorification of the flesh of Christ.
This thesis he sustained brilliantly in his Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France, the first volume of which appeared in 1874.
In 1875 he was elected member of the Academie des Sciences Morales, and in 1880 reluctantly accepted the post of director of the Ecole Normale.
Shea (London, 1832) (Oriental Translation Fund); L'Histoire de la dynastic des Sassanides, by S.
by the same; Histoire des Sultans du Kharezm, in Persian, by Defremery (Paris, 1842); History of the Atabeks of Syria and Persia, in Persian, by W.
Morley (London, 1848); Historia Ghuridarum, Persian and Latin, by Mitscherlik (Frankfort, 1818); Histoire des Sultans Ghurides, trans.
Bouquet, Receuil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, tome 19 (Paris, 1738 ff.); J.
die Scholastik der letzten Jahrhunderte (Regensburg, 1861), and Stockl's Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, iii.
See also Lauchert, Geschichte des Physiologus (Strassburg, 1889) and E.
The violent personalities of a pamphlet entitled Marie Joseph Chenier et le prince des critiques (1844), in reply to Jules Janin, brought him a six months' sojourn in La Pelagic, in the cell just quitted by Lamennais.
i.; Ancel, Disgrace et proces des Caraffa (1909); Riess, Politik Pauls IV.
Miillenhoff (Kudrun, die echten Teile des Gedichts, 1845) rejected more than three-quarters of the whole as "not genuine."
Meyer, Entstehung des Judenthums, p. 19 seq.; cf.
des relig., 1888; and more recently by E.
- The most comprehensive of modern booksdealing with the period is Emil Scharer, Geschichte des Judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi (3 vols., Leipzig, 1901 foil.).
Giidemann Geschichte des Erziehungswesens and der Cultur der Juden (1880, &c.); A.
Philippson, Neueste Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes (1907, &c.); Nossig, Jiidische Statistik (1903); and such special works as H.
Vering, professor of law at Prague, Lehrbuch des katholischen, orientalischen and protestantischen Kirchenrechts (1893).
Heinekamp, Siegburgs Vergangenheit and Gegenwart (Siegburg, 1897); and Renard, Die Kunstdenkrndler des Siegkreises '(Dusseldorf, 1907).
Monfort, Les Tonga, on Archipel des Amis (Lyons, 1893); B.
Cayeux, " Les Lignes directrices des plissements de l'ile de Crete," C.R.
of Des Moines.
(Berlin, 1856, &c.); Daremberg-Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines, ii.
23-40), left no issue.2 See Mahaffy, The Empire of the Ptolemies (1895) and Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty (1899); Strack, Die Dynastie der Ptolemcier (1897); Bouche-Leclercq, Histoire des Lagides (1904, 1907); Meyer, Das Heerwesen der Ptolemder and Reimer (Leipzig, 1900).
In 1507 he took up his residence in the Benedictine Abbey of St Germain des Pres, near Paris; this was due to his connexion with the family of Brigonnet (one of whom was the superior), especially with William Brigonnet, cardinal bishop of St Malo (Meaux).
Flathe, Geschichte des Kurstaates and KOnigreichs Sachsen (Gotha, 1867-1873); R.
Ropell, Polen urn die Mitte des 18.
Noack, Die christliche Mystik des Mittelalters (1853); J.
Pfeiffer's Deutsche Mystiker des 14.
Pierre Huber's Traite des mceurs des fourmis indigenes (Geneve, 1810) is the most famous of the older memoirs.
He also wrote Don Karlos (Berlin, 1876); Gri ndung des deutschen Reiches 1859-1871 (Leipzig, 1892, and again 1902); and Geschichte der deutschen Kiinigswahlen (Leipzig, 1889).
R.G.S., 1897; Ney Elias and Ross, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, from the Tarskh-i-Rastisdi of Mirza Haidar (London, 1898); Grenard, Mission scientifique sur la Haute Asie (Paris, 1898); Dr Sven Hedin, Through Asia (London, 1898); Central Asia and Tibet (1903); Geographie des Hochlandes von Pamir (Berlin, 1894); Captain M.
For the case of Naundorff see his own narrative, Abrege de l'histoire des in fortunes du Dauphin (London, 1836; Eng.
Late in life he prepared a remarkable Essai sur la philosophie des sciences.
des mathematiques, i.
Ziegler, Regiomontanus ein geistiger Vorlaufer des Columbus (1874); J.
Berghaus, Landbuch des Herzogtums Pommern (Berlin, 1865-1876); the Codex Pomeraniae diplomaticus, edited by K.
von Sommerfeld, Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzogtums Pommern (Leipzig, 1896); F.
and xii.; Wechssler, Die verschiedenen Redaktionen des Graal-Lancelot Cycklus; J.
Scheele and named Olsiiss (principe doux des huiles - sweet principle of oils), and more fully investigated subsequently by M.
From them he heard plenty of abuse of stock-jobbing, and seizing their ideas he began to regard stock-jobbing, or agiotage, as the source of all evil, and to attack in his usual vehement style the Banque de St Charles and the Compagnie des Eaux.
"Paris n'en vent que l'argent; les provinces demandent des lois."
"11 est certain, d'ailleurs, qu'il faut une grande revolution pour sauver le royaume, que la nation a des droits, qu'elle est en chemin de les recouvrer tous, et qu'il faut non seulement les retablir, mais les consolider."
his fame as an historian rests, is his Deutsche Geschichte vom Tode Friedrichs des Grossen bis zur Griindung des deutschen Bundes (Leipzig, 18 5418 57, 4 vols.).
In 1859 he again took part in politics, resuming his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the project of Austria for the reform of the Confederation brought forward in the assembly of princes at Frankfort, in his book Die Reform des deutschen Bundestages, and becoming one of the leaders of the "little German" (kleindeutsche) party, which advocated the exclusion of Austria from Germany.
Oncken in the Geschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation (1869, 2nd ed.
See Berendt, Geologie des Kurischen Haffs (Konigsberg, 1869); Sommer, Das Kurische Haff (Danzig, 1889); A.
Bion, Traite des instrumens de mathematique; also L' Usage des globes celestes; Sedillot, Memoire sur les instrumens; J.
See James Sully, Pessimism: A History and a Criticism (1877); Caro, Le Pessimisme au xix e siecle (1878); Saltus, The Anatomy of Negation (1886); Tulloch, Modern Theories on Philosophy and Religion (1884); William James, The Will to Believe; Duhring, Der Werth des Lebens (1865); Meyer, Weltelend and Weltschmerz (1872); E.
des Weltschmerzes (1876); Huber, Der Pessimismus (1876); von Golther, Der moderne P. (1878); Paulsen, Schopenhauer, Hamlet, Mephistopheles (1900); Kowalewski, Studien zur Psychologie des P. (1904).
Even in its last phase, the Order did not forget its original purpose: it maintained several great hospitals in its new home on the south-east shore of the Baltic, in addition to an hotel des invalides at Marienburg for its sick or aged brethren.
(fn1) Rohricht, Geschichte des Konigreichs Jerusalem, p. 242.
(fn2) Rohricht, Geschichte des Konigreichs Jerusalem, p. 542.
Loserth, Geschichte des spateren Mittelalters (Munich and Berlin, 1903).
Voigt has traced the history of the Order previous to 1526 in his Geschichte Preussens (Konigsberg, 1827-1839), and he has dealt with the organization of the Order, and with its history in Germany from 1525 to 1858, in his Geschichte des deutschen Ritterorden in seinen zwolf Balleien in Deutschland (Berlin, 1857-1859).
So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.
At last in 1710 the controller-general, Nicolas Des - marets, established a new impost, the "tenth" (dixieme), which had some analogy with the project of Boisguilbert.
Boisguilbert's works were collected by Daire in the first volume of the Collection des grands economistes.
His letters are in the Correspondance des controleurs generaux, vol.
des sciences (Paris, 1768), Histoire, p. 167 (G.
des sciences, vii.
p. 385; and Le Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1770).
In 1752 he became substitut, and later conseiller in the parlement of Paris, and in 1753 maitre des requetes.
Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.
It was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray.
Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
Schelle, in Journal des economistes, July 1888).
Moreover, the commerce des bles had been a favourite topic of the salons for some years past, and the witty Galiani, the opponent of the physiocrats, had a large following.
The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
In April disturbances arose at Dijon, and early in May took place those extraordinary bread-riots known as the" guerre des farines,"which may be looked upon as a first sample of the Revolution, so carefully were they organized.
He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.
See Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, ii., §§ 86, 87; Schrader, Die Entwicklung des Archdiakonats bis zum Ir.
His object in the Traite des verites premieres (1717), his best-known work, is to discover the ultimate principle of knowledge.
Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, i.
Delehaye, Nouvelles Recherches sur Henri de Gand (1886); C.Werner, Heinrich von Gent als Reprdsentant des christlichen Platonismus irn 13ten Jahrh.
Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.
Lastly, one of his pieces (Le Baron des Fondrieres) contests the honour of being the first which was hissed off the stage.
The school of practical artillery and engineering was transferred to Fontainebleau from Metz by a decree of 1871, and now occupies the part of the palace surrounding the cour des offices.
to E.N.E.; they comprise the Cour du Cheval Blanc or des Adieux (thus named in memory of the parting scene between Napoleon and the Old Guard in 1814), the Cour de la Fontaine, the Cour Ovale, built on the site of a more ancient château, and the Cour d'Henri IV.: the smaller Cour des Princes adjoins the northern wing of the Cour Ovale.
The creator of the present edifice was Francis I., under whom the architect Gilles le Breton erected most of the buildings of the Cour Ovale, including the Porte Doree, its southern entrance, and the Salle des Fetes, which, in the reign of Henry II., was decorated by the Italians, Francesco Primaticcio and Nicolo dell' Abbate, and is perhaps the finest Renaissance chamber in France.
After Francis I., Fontainebleau owes most to Henry IV., to whom are due the Cour d'Henri IV., the Cour des Princes, with the adjoining Galerie de Diane, and Galerie des Cerfs, used as a library.
The palace is surrounded by gardens and ornamental waters - to the north the Jardin de l'Orangerie, to the south the Jardin Anglais and the Parterre, between which extends the lake known as the Bassin des Carpes, containing carp in large numbers.
Dummler, Geschichte des ostfrankischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1887-1888); G.
Reichling, "Beitrage zur Charakteristik des Alex.
Erhard, Geschichte des Wiederauf blahens wissenschaftlicher Bildung (1826); C. Krafft and W.
Crecelius, "Alexander Hegius and seine Schuler," from the works of Johannes Butzbach, one of Hegius's pupils, in Zeitschrift des bergischen Geschichtsvereins, vii.
Wellhausen, "fiber den geschichtlichen Wert des 2ten Makkabaerbuchs," Nachrichten d.
See Besler, Geschichte des Schlosses, der Herrschaft and der Stadt Forbach (1895).
itiber die Dinge des Himmels and des Jenseits (1851, 2nd ed.
Boutan, " La Cause principale de l'asymetrie des mollusques gasteropodes," Arch.
Robert, " Recherches sur le developpement des Troques," Arch.
fiber die Grundlehren des Glaubens, an attempt at reconstruction (1835).
(1837); Kruger, "Uber das Verhaltnis des Orig.
Lehre von der Auferstehung des Fleisches (1851); Knittel, "Orig.
(1872); Schultz, "Christologie des Orig.," in the Jahrb.
From L'Esprit des lois of Montesquieu he learnt suggestive thoughts like the following: "L'objet de la guerre, c'est la victoire; celui de la victoire, la conquete; celui de la conquete, l'occupation."
The incident reawakened the interest which had early been aroused in the young Corsican by converse with the savant Volney, author of Les Ruines, ou meditation sur les revolutions des empires.
Oncken, Das Zeitalter der Revolution, des Kaiserreichs, and der Befreiungskriege (2 vols., Berlin, 1880); A.
Thierry, Le Complot des Libelles, 1802 (Paris, 1903); Memoires historiques sur la catastrophe du duc d'Enghien (Paris, 1824); H.
Lefebvre, Histoire des cabinets de l'Europe pendant le consulat et l'empire (3 vols., Paris, 1845-1847); C. Auriol, La France, l'Angleterre, et Napoleon, 1803-1806 (Paris, 1905); B.
(Munich, 1899) and Politik and Kriegfiihrung wdhrend des Feldzuges von 1814 (Berlin, 1891); A.
Mahler, in Wiener Zeitschrift fill' die Kunde des Morgenlands, 1901, xv.
1 In April 1792 Desmoulins founded with Stanislas Freron a new journal, La Tribune des patriotes, but only four numbers appeared.
With Robespierre he was now more than ever associated, and the Histoire des Brissotins, the fragment above alluded to, was inspired by the arch-revolutionist.
Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894); Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab.
This attack is followed up in his most important work, Das Wesen des Christentums (1841), which was translated into English (The Essence of Religion, by George Eliot, 1853, 2nd ed.
des Soubbas (Paris, 1880).
Siouffi's E tudes sur la religion des Soubbas (Paris, 1880).
Chevallier, Repertoire des sources hist.
Voigt, Die Wiederbelebung des klass.
Masius, Ober die Stellung des Kamaldulensers Ambrogio Traversari zum Papst Eugen IV.
His book, Uber den Gegensatz des Protestantismus and des Catholicismus (1833), called forth a reply from Baur, and he was one of those who attacked D.
Palmen, Zur Morphologie des Tracheensystems (Leipzig, 1877); F.
Leuckart, Zur Kenntnis des Generationswechsels and der Parthogenesis bei den Insekten (Frankfurt, 1858); N.
i., London, two); C. Brongniart, Insectes fossiles des temps primaires (St-Etienne, 1894) A.
2 Meanwhile the study received a great impulse from the appearance, at Zurich in 1555, of the third book of Conrad Gesner's Historia Animalium " qvi est de Auium natura," and at Paris in the same year of Pierre Belon's (Bellonius) Histoire de la nature des Oyseaux.
in a Dictionnaire raisonne et universel des animaux, published at Paris in 1759.
His Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 he brought out, with the assistance of Guenau de Montbeillard, 3 the first volume of his great Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.
Latham entered, so far as the limits of his work would allow, into the 1 They were drawn and engraved by Martinet, who himself began in 1787 a Histoire des oiseaux with small coloured plates which have some merit, but the text is worthless.
ment, especially as a new edition was called for in 1790, the ornithological portion of which was begun by Bonnaterre, who, however, had only finished three hundred and twenty pages of it when he lost his life in the French Revolution; and the work thus arrested was continued by Vieillot under the slightly changed title of Tableau encyclopedique et methodique des trois regnes de la Nature - the Ornithologie forming volumes four to seven, and not completed till 1823.
In 1783 Boddaert printed at Utrecht a Table des planches enlumineez, 9 in which he attempted to refer every species of bird figured in that extensive series to its proper Linnaean genus, and to assign it a scientific name if it did not already possess one.
It was reserved for Georges Cuvier, who in 1798 published at Paris his Tableau elementaire de l'histoire naturelle des ani-.
i s the Histoire naturelle d'une pantie d'oiseaux nouveaux et cares de l'Amerique et des Indes, a folio volume 2 published in 1801 by Le Vaillant.
The first volume of a Histoire naturelle des perroquets, a companion work by the same author, appeared in the same year, and is truly a monograph, since the parrots constitute a family of birds so naturally severed from all others that there has rarely been anything else confounded with them.
Between 1803 and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style two volumes with the title of Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de Paradis et des rolliers, suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it is,.was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the same scale, the Histoire naturelle des promerops et des guepiers, des couroucous et des touracos, for herein are found jays, waxwings, the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola), and what not besides.
His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.
published a Histoire naturelle des tangaras, des manakins esmarest.
et des todiers, which, though belonging to the same category as all the former, differs from them in its more scientific treatment of the subjects to which it refers; and, in 1808, K.
Temminck, whose father's aid to Le Vaillant has already been noticed, brought out at Paris a Histoire naturelle des pigeons illustrated by Madame Knip, who had drawn the plates for Desmarest's volume.3 Since we have begun by considering these large illustrated works in which the text is made subservient to the coloured plates, it may be convenient to continue our notice of such others of similar character as it may be expedient to mention here, though thereby we shall be led somewhat far afield.
A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.
The Galerie des oiseaux, a rival work, with plates by Oudart,' seems to have been begun immediately after the former.
Though the three works last mentioned fairly come under the same category as the Planches enluminees and the Planches coloriees, no one of them can be properly deemed their rightful Des Murs.
The claim to that succession was made in 1845 by Des Murs for his Iconographie ornithologique, which, containing seventy-two plates by Prevot and Oudart l (the latter of whom had marvellously improved in his drawings since he worked with Vieillot), was completed in 1849.
The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.
des environs de Nice (5 vols.
For Belgium the Faune belge of Baron De Selys-Longchamps (8vo, 1842), old as it is, remains the classical work, though the Planches colorises des oiseaux de la Belgique of M.
et des arts, xcii.
3 " Beschreibung des Gerippes eines Casuars nebst einigen beildufigen Bemerkungen fiber die flachbriistigen Vogel," Abhandl.
3-93) the " Recherches sur l'appareil sternal des Oiseaux," which the precept and example of his master had prompted him to undertake, and Cuvier had found for him the means of executing.
At the very beginning of the year 1832 Cuvier laid before the Academy of Sciences of Paris a memoir on the progress of ossifi cation in the sternum of birds, of which memoir an cuvier abstract will be found in the Annales des sciences and naturelles (xxv.
p. 21), and its first portion in another (Journal des Decouvertes, i.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
Its basis is the classification of Cuvier, the modifications of which by Des Murs will seldom commend themselves to systematists whose opinion is generally deemed worth having.
Oologists have no reason to be thankful to Des Murs, notwithstanding his zeal in behalf of their study.
The attempt of Des Murs was praiseworthy, but in effect it has utterly failed, notwithstanding the encomiums passed upon it by friendly critics (Rev. de Zoologie, 1860, pp. 176-183,313-325,370-373).2 Until about this time systematists, almost without exception, may be said to have been wandering with no definite purpose.
359-367; Remusat, Me noires sur les relations politiques des princes chretiens.
fete des fous), the name for certain burlesque quasi-religious festivals which, during the middle ages, were the ecclesiastical counterpart of the secular revelries of the Lord of Misrule.
Konig, "Der Nordfuss des Daghestan," in Petermanns Mitteil., Erganzungsheft, No.
Three of Pithou's brothers acquired distinction as jurists: Jean (1524-1602), author of Traite de police et du gouvernement des republiques, and, in collaboration with his twin brother Nicolas (1524-1598), of Institution du mariage chretien; and Franccois (1543-1621), author of Glossarium ad libros capitularium (1588), Traite de ?excommunication et de l'interdit, &c. (1587).
Kruger, Die Apologien Justins des Mdrtyrers (3rd ed.
Freppel, St Justin (3rd ed., 1886); Moritz von Engelhardt, Das Christentum Justins des Mdrtyrers (1878); T.
Wehofer, Die Apologie Justins des Philosophen and Mdrtyrers in litterarhistorischer Beziehung zum ersten Male untersucht (1897); Alfred Leonhard Feder, Justins des Mdrtyrers Lehre von Jesus Christus (1906).
Der Traum vom Standpunkt des transcendentalen Idealismus).
Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1879); G.
Charles, Roger Bacon, sa vie, ses ouvrages, ses doctrines d'apres des textes inedits (1861).
des Roger Bacon and Die Kosmologie.
des Roger Bacon (Vienna, 1879); S.
du moyen age" (reprinted from Journal des savans, 1848); E.
Aristotle, admitting its usefulness, rightly describes ostracism as in theory tyrannical; Montesquieu (Esprit des lois, xii.
See Ritz, Die iiltere Geschichte des Veste and der Stadt Recklinghausen (Erzen, 1904).
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
Sudenhorst's principal writings are Dorfleben im 18 Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1877); Hans Ulrich, Fiirst von Eggenberg (Vienna, 1880); Die Politik der Republic Venedig wdhrend des dreissigjdhrigen Krieges (Stuttgart, 1882-85); Venedig als Weltmacht and Weltstadt (Bielefeld, 1899 and 1906); Kriegsbilder aus der Zeit der Landsknechte (Stuttgart, 1883); Die bfentliche Meinung in Deutschland im Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV.
He edited the Bibliothek deutscher Geschichte, writing for this series, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Griindung des preussischen Konigtums (Stuttgart, 1887-94); and Deutsche Geschichte von der Auflosung des alten bis zur Griindung des neuen Reiches (Stuttgart, 1897-1905).
Systematical, including Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie; Kategorienlehre; Das sittliche Bewusstsein; Die Philosophie des Schonen; Die Religion des Geistes; Die Philosophie des Unbewussten (3 vols., which now include his, originally anonymous, self-criticism, Das Unbewusste vom Standpunkte der Physiologie and Descendenztheorie, and its refutation, Eng.
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
C. Popular - Soziale Kernfragen; Moderne Probleme; Tagesfragen; Zwei Jahrzehnte deutscher Politik; Das Judentum in Gegenwart and Zukunft; Die Selbstzersetzung des Christentums; Gesammelte Studien; Der Spiritismus and Die Geisterhypothese des Spiritismus; Zur Zeitgeschichte.
If a statement of the condition of the property (etat des lieux) has been prepared, the lessee must give it up such as he received it according to the statement, except what has perished or decayed by age or by means of force majeure (Art.
In the absence of an etat des lieux, the lessee is presumed to have received the thing hired in a good state of tenantable repair, and must so yield it up, saving proof to the contrary (Art.
Baur, Urkunden zur hessischen Landes-, Ortsand Familiengeschichte (Darmstadt, 1846-1873); Steiner, Geschichte des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 18 3318 34); Klein, Das Grossherzogtum Hessen (Mainz, 1861); Ewald, Historische Ubersicht der Territorialverdnderungen der Landgrafschaft Hessen and des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 1872); F.
Soldan, Geschichte des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Giessen, 1896); H.
Weber, Verfassungs-und Verwaltungsrecht des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 1894-1897); H.
Quibell was charged by the Service des Antiquites solely with the excavations in this vast necropolis.
5 Schrader, "Die Sargonstele des Berliner Museums," in Abh.
Certainly no miracles occur, but there is enough of the wonderful and the inexplicable " (Das Wesen des Christentums, p. 18).
as interruptions of the continuity of nature " (Das Wesen des Christentums, p. 17).
" Les miracles discernent la doctrine, et la doctrine discerne les miracles " (Pascal's Pense'es des miracles).
A still more extended an elaborate monograph than either of the preceding followed in 1822, Der Heilige Johannes Chrysostomus and die Kirche, besonders des Orients in dessen Zeitalter, and again, in 1824, another on Tertullian (Antignostikus).
In addition to all these he published Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des Christentums (1823-1824, 2 vols., 1825, 3 vols., 1846); Das Eine and Mannichf altige des christlichen Lebens (1840); papers on Plotinus, Thomas Aquinas, Theobald Thamer, Blaise Pascal, J.
His first great work, an historico-critical introduction to the Old Testament, Historisch-kritisch onderzoek naar het onstaan en de verzameling van de boeken des Ouden Verbonds (3 vols., 1861-1865; 2nd ed., 1885-1893; German by T.
An excellent article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (3rd ed.), "Briider des gemeinsamen Lebens," supplies copious information with references to all the literature; see also Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1897), ii.
i., 1897); and in 1900 appeared his popular lectures, Das Wesen des Christentums (5th ed., 1901; English translation, What is Christianity?
One of his more recent historical works is Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902; English translation in two volumes, 1904-1905).
See Brochard, Les Sceptiques grecs (1887); Pappenheirn, Lebens- .verhaltnisse des Sextus Empiricus (Berlin, 1875); Jourdain, Sextus Empiricus (Paris, 1858); Patrick, Sextus Empiricus and the Greek Sceptics (1899, with trans.
But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli.
But, as Prutz remarks, Philip of Novara lehrt nicht die Wissenschaft des Rechts, sondern die des Unrechts: he does not explain the law so much as the ways of getting round it.
"Les vices du gouvernement avaient ete plus puissants que les vertus des gouvernants."
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
1 In the Chanson des che'tifs and the Chanson d'Antioche the legend of the Crusades more certainly finds its expression.
His work is usefully supplemented by the narrative (La Prise de Constantinople) of On the bibliography of the Second Crusade see Kugler, Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, 1866).
Under the head of laws come the assizes of the Kingdom, edited by Beugnot in the Recueil des historiens des croisades; and the assizes of Antioch, printed at Venice in 1876.
The genealogy of the Levant is given in Le Livre des lignages d'outre-mer (published along with the assizes).
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
Michaud's Bibliographic des croisades (Paris, 1822).
There is a Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzugs (Innsbruck, 1901), a Geschichte des Konigreichs Jerusalem (ibid.
On the constitutional and 1 The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke, Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges (Breslau, 1875).
social history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem Dodu's Histoire des institutions du royaume latin de Jerusalem is very useful; E.
anc. des peuples de l'orient classique (1897-1898); W.
- Education is given in schools founded by missionary societies, of which the chief is the Societe des Missions Evangeliques de Paris.
In 1833 Moshesh invited the missionaries of the Societe des Missions Evangeliques of Paris to settle in his country, and from that day until his death proved their firm friend.