A matching china cabinet held fine china, crystal and silverware.
In 1966, Mao Zedong closed the universities in China and sent their students and professors to the country to farm.
Throughout Japan, China, Siam, and the Malay countries, normal long-tailed cats are indeed seldom seen.
She showed me a tiny atze that very rich ladies in China wear because their feet never grow large.
There were linen napkins, two china plates and champagne flutes on top.
She didn't like putting her mother's old China in the dishwasher.
More people are learning English in China than there are people who speak it in the United States.
He devoted many years to carrying out a project for organizing the fur trade from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean, and thence by way of the Hawaiian Islands to China and India.
After all, China grows more than three times the amount of food we do in the United States, with less land under cultivation.
"These--yes, these must go among the carpets," she said, referring to the Saxony china dishes.
The dining room table was set with a linen tablecloth under a handmade lace cover, fine china, Waterford crystal and brass chargers.
It is said that in ancient China, doctors were paid when their patients were well.
the Malay Land), a lozenge-shaped strip of land projecting into the China Sea, and forming the most southerly portion of the continent of Asia.
The population of the peninsula includes about 850,000 Chinese, mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the southern provinces of China, of whom about 300,000 reside in the colony of the Straits Settlements, 365,000 in the Federated Malay States,.
Everything from the table napkins to the silver, china, and glass bore that imprint of newness found in the households of the newly married.
He might not appreciate the china the way she did, but he would understand and support her desire to make use of it.
Ah, here they are--the mixed metaphors mocking and strutting about before me, pointing to the bull in the china shop assailed by hailstones and the bugbears with pale looks, an unanalyzed species!
For a while she had stood beside Sonya while the china was being packed and tried to help, but soon gave it up and went to her room to pack her own things.
by the China Sea.
of China, p. 9, 1871).
Mr. Drew says little girls in China cannot talk on their fingers but I think when I go to China I will teach them.
It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
Immigrants from Europe, and to some extent from North America and China, poured into Melbourne, where the arrivals in 1852 averaged 2000 persons in a week.
The Euhemerist theory mainly appeals to ancestor worship - a fact of undoubted importance in the history of religion, especially in China and in ancient Rome.
Maps of the 16th and 17th centuries often show Cambaluc in an imaginary region to the north of China, a part of the misconception that has prevailed regarding Cathay.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
On the east coast the force of the north-east monsoon, which beats upon the shores of the China Sea annually from November to February, has kept the land for the most part free from mangroves, and the sands, broken here and there by rocky headlands thickly wooded, and fringed by casuarina trees, stretch for miles without interruption.
The Asiatic elephant inhabits the forest-lands of India, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Cochin China, Ceylon and Sumatra.
In China at the present day many Taoist gods are (or are given out as) men deified for service to the state.
The china chattered in her trembling hands.
The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.
by the China Sea, and on the W.
Next comes China, with the second highest number of hungry people at 130.4 million.
And the great tragedy is: During these three years, China exported more than twelve million tons of grain along with a literal cornucopia of other agricultural products.
CAMBALUC, the name by which, under sundry modifications, the royal city of the great khan in China became known to Europe during the middle ages, that city being in fact the same that we now know as Peking.
There was also much china standing on the tables, and still more was being brought in from the storeroom.
The city is the largest in British Columbia, and is the chief Canadian shipping port for Japan, China, Australia and the islands at which the C.P.R.
A city occupying approximately the same site had been the capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols in northern China, viz.
She opened one cabinet, not surprised to see white bone china.
of the province of Yunnan, China.
KIAOCHOW BAY, a large inlet on the south side of the promontory of Shantung, in China.
The fleet is divided into the Mediterranean squadron, the Northern squadron, the Atlantic division, the Far Eastern division, the Pacific division, the Indian Ocean division, the Cochin China division.
Pipeclay and china clay, from Kingsteighton, are shipped for the Staffordshire potteries, while coal and general goods are imported.
Shortly afterwards his term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the despatch of an Italian expedition, 2000 strong, to aid in repressing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests in the Far East (July 1900).
galbanum, myrrh, stacte, frankincense, calamus, cassia and cinnamon, were all of them used in perfumes, even the myrrh being probably the kind distinguished at the present time in the Bombay market as perfumed myrrh or bissabol, which still forms an ingredient of the joss sticks used as incense in the temples in China.
Thus the doctrine of signatures is evident in the use of the celebrated Ginseng root of China, which, like that of the mandrake (Gen.
Once widely distributed in the Jurassic penod throughout the world, they are now dying out: the former is represented by the solitary maiden-hair tree of China and Japan; the latter by some ten species confined to the southern hemisphere, once perhaps their original home.
Its eastern limit in Europe is a line from Konigsberg to the Caucasus; thence through China it is continued by varietal forms to Japan.
The Chino-Japanese sub-region.Of the vegetation of China till recently very little has been known.
In 1873 Elwes pointed out that the Himalayan avifauna extended into north-west China and established the Himalo-Chinese sub-region.
And we now know that, excluding the southern tropical area, it has the same character throughout the whole of China proper.
Of four genera which Hooker singles out as the largest in Sikkim, in China Corydalis has 76 species, Saxifraga 58, Pedicularis 129, and Primula 77.
China has no Cistus or heath, only a single Ferula, while Astragalus is reduced to 35 species.
China has 66 species of Quercus, 35 of Vitis, 2 of Aesculus, 42 of Acer, 33 Magnoliaceae (including two species of Liriodendron), 12 Anonaceae, 71 Ternstroemiaceae (including the tea-plant), and 4 of Clethra, which has a solitary western representative in Madeira.
Taxodium (with single species in China and Mexico) is represented by the deciduous cypress (T.
The Ismdo-Malayan sub-region includes the Indian and Malayan peninsulas, Cochin-China and southern China, the Malayan archipelago, and Philippines, with New Guinea and Polynesia, excluding the Sandwich Islands.
The Proteaceous genus Helicia reaches as far north as China, but whether it is starting or returning must as inothercases be left an open question.
It was, however, in the reigns of Severus and his immediate successors that Roman intercourse with India was at its height, and from the writings of Pausanias (c. 174) it appears that direct communication between Rome and China had already taken place.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.
Masudi, a great traveller who knew from personal experience all the countries between Spain and China, described the plains, mountains and seas, the dynasties and peoples, in his Meadows of Gold, an abstract made by himself of his larger work News of the Time.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
Among them was Nicolo Conti, who passed through Persia, sailed along the coast of Malabar, visited Sumatra, Java and the south of China, returned by the Red sea, and got home to Venice in 1444 after an absence of twenty-five years.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
Their missionaries were received at the court of Akbar, and Benedict Goes, a native of the Azores, was despatched on a journey overland from Agra to China.
He started in 1603, and, after traversing' the least-known parts of Central Asia, he reached the confines of China.
In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.
The result was a more accurate map of China than existed, at that time, of any country in Europe.
The next journey was that of Fathers Grueber and Dorville about 1660, who succeeded in passing from China, through Tibet, into India.
He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.
The fossil egg of a struthious bird, Struthiolithus, has been found near Cherson, south Russia, and in north China.
The Palaearctic Subregion is, broadly speaking, Europe and Asia, with the exception of India and China.
The Himalo-Chinese or Transgangetic province shows the characteristics of its avifauna also far away to the eastward in Formosa, Hainan and Cochin China, and again in a lesser degree to the southward in the mountains of Malacca and Sumatra.
Indo-China is especially rich in Eurylaemidae, China proper and the Himalayas in pheasants.
The Ahoms, together with the Shans of Burma and Eastern China and the Siamese, were members of the Tai race.
20 a N., by China (Dzungaria, Kulja, Aksu and Kashgaria) on the E.
There is a trade with China, valued at less than half a million sterling annually.
HU-NAN, a central province of China, bounded N.
Among these is the Heng-shan, one of the Wu-yo or five sacred mountains of China, upon which the celebrated tablet of Yu was placed.
Next after cottons come woollens, silk, cloth, chemicals, machinery, paper, furniture, hats, cement, leather, glass and china and other products.
The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
A ship of an English squadron which was trying First to reach China by the North-East passage, entered the relations northern Dvina, and her captain, Richard Chancellor, with journeyed to Moscow in quest of opportunities for trade.
By the treaty of Aigun (May 28, 1858), and without any military operations, the cession of a great part of the basin of the Amur was obtained from China.
In Asia, after the accession of Nicholas II., the expansion of Russia, following the line of least resistance and stimulated by the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway, took the direction of northern China and the effete little kingdom of Korea.
Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced.
56,181 Although more than half of the total mileage of Asia is in British India, it is probable that the greatest proportionate gains in the near future will be in China, Siberia and Manchuria, and Central Russia in Asia.
In proportion to its population China has the least railway development of any of the great countries of the world; the probability that its present commercial awakening will extend seems large, and in that case it will need a vast increase in its interior communications.
P3 3.6 Siberia and Manchuria 0-II 9.8 China 0 I 0.12 Korea.
561 Cochin China Cambodia Annam Tonkin 1,761 Pondicherry Malacca Philippines.
The town is celebrated for its manufacture of agate and carnelian ornaments, of reputation principally in China.
He devised the plan of persuading the viceroy of Portuguese India to despatch an embassy to China, in whose train he might enter, despite the law which then excluded foreigners from that empire.
The right to send a ship to trade with China was one for which large sums were paid, and Pereira, as commander of the expedition, would enjoy commercial privileges which Ataide had, ex officio, the power to grant or withhold.
-A Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia (2 vols., London, 1870); S.
Smith, China in Convulsion (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1902).
CYPRESS (Cupressus), in botany, a genus of fifteen species belonging to the tribe Cupressineae, natural order Coniferae, represented by evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs indigenous to the south of Europe, western Asia, the Himalayas, China, Japan, north-western and north-eastern America, California and Mexico.
C. funebris is a native of the north of China, where it is planted near pagodas.
KIANG-SI, an eastern province of China, bounded N.
The black "Kaisow" teas are brought from the Ho-kow district, where they are grown, down the river Kin to Juy-hung on the lake, and the Siu-ho connects by a navigable stream I-ning Chow, in the neighbourhood of which city the best black teas of this part of China are produced, with Wu-ching, the principal mart of trade on the lake.
The principal products of the province are tea, China ware, grasscloth, hemp, paper, tobacco and tallow.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
Others of the more important totals are: France 95,000 (besides Algeria 63,000 and Tunis 62,000); Italy 52,000; Persia 49,000; Egypt 39,000; Bulgaria 36,000; Argentine Republic 30,000; Tripoli 19,000; Turkestan and Afghanistan 14,000; Switzerland and Belgium each 12,000; Mexico 90oO; Greece 8000; Servia 6000; Sweden and Cuba each 4000; Denmark 3500; Brazil and Abyssinia (Falashas) each 3000; Spain and Portugal 2500; China and Japan 2000.
In China he made extensive surveys which, however, were interrupted by the Boxer outbreak; and he, together with his wife, were among those besieged at Tientsin.
Phajinae, includes 15 genera chiefly tropical Asiatic, some- Phajus and Calanthe - spreading northwards into China and Japan.
On the south the coast-line is far more irregular, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the China Sea reaching about to the northern tropic at the mouths of the Indus, of the Ganges and of the Canton river; while the great peninsulas of Arabia, Hindostan and Cambodia descend to about 10° N., and the Malay peninsula extends within a degree and a half of the equator.
In like manner a great circle drawn through East Cape and the extremity of the Malay peninsula, passes nearly over the coasts of Manchuria, China and Cochin-China, and departs comparatively little from the eastern boundary.
South of this enclosed depression is another great hydrographic barrier which parts it from the low plains of the Amur, of China, Siam and India, bordered by the shallows of the Yellow Sea and the shoals which enclose the islands of Japan and Formosa, all of them once an integral part of the continent.
China lies between the eastern flank of the Tibetan plateau and the North Pacific, having its northern and southern limits about on 40° and 20° N.
The country, though generally broken up with mountains of moderate elevation, China.
in a southerly direction, which, spreading outwards as they go south, reach the sea at various points in Cochin- Indo- China, the Malay peninsula, and the east flank of Bengal.
The two great rivers of China, the Hwang-ho and the Yang-tsze-kiang take their rise from the eastern face of Tibet, the former from the north-east angle, the latter from the south-east.
The main stream of this last is called Dichu in Tibet, and its chief feeder is the Ya-lung-kiang, which rises not far from the Hwang-ho, and is considered the territorial boundary between China and Tibet.
The Philippine Islands lie between 5° and 20° N., between Borneo and southern China.
Formosa, which is situated under the northern tropic, near the coast of China, is traversed by a high range of mountains, reaching nearly 13,000 ft.
peaks of Nepal, and they now branch outwards towards western China and into Siam.
He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.
In 1871-1873 the great Russian explorer, Nicolai Prjevalsky, crossed the Gobi desert from the north to Kansu in western China.
Holdich, Colonel St George Gore and Sir Adelbert Talbot; and when Ney Elias crossed from China through the Pamirs and Badakshan to the camp of the commission, identifying the great " Dragon Lake," Rangkul, on his way.
In 1885 Arthur Douglas Carey and Andrew Dalgleish, following more or less the tracks of Prjevalsky, contributed much that was new to the map of Asia; and in 1886 Captain (afterwards Sir Francis) Younghusband completed a most adventurous journey across the heart of the continent by crossing the Murtagh, the great mountain barrier between China and Kashmir.
Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
Captain William Gill, of the Indian survey, first made his way across China to eastern Tibet and Burma, and subsequently delighted the world with his story of the River of Golden Sand.
The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.
On the western edge of the Kashgar plains, the political boundary between Russia and China is defined by the meridional range of Sarikol.
Farther east no part of Asia has been brought under more careful investigation than the hydrography of the strange mountain wilderness that divides Tibet and Burma from China.
Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
Eastwards of this the great Kashgar depression, which includes the Tarim desert, separates Russia from the vast sterile highlands of Tibet; and a continuous series of desert spaces of low elevation, marking the limits of a primeval inland sea from the Sarikol meridional watershed to the Khingan mountains on the western borders of Manchuria, divide her from the northern provinces of China.
The Kuen-lun, Nan-shan and the mountain ranges of southern China are, perhaps, of earlier date, but nevertheless they lie in the same belt.
North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Over a large part of Siberia and in the north of China, even the Cambrian beds still lie as horizontally as they were first laid down.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Thus it appears that from the Arctic Ocean there stretches a broad area as far as the south of China, in which no marine deposits of later date than Carboniferous have yet been found, except in the extreme north.
Between India and China there is a broad belt in which marine deposits of Mesozoic and Tertiary age are well developed.
Similar flows on a smaller scale occur in Manchuria, Korea and northern China.
In northern China, at Peking, it is 55°, reduced to 30° at Canton, and to 20° at Manila.
The China Sea is fully exposed to both monsoons, the normal directions of which nearly coincide with the centre of the channel between the continent of Asia and the eastern islands.
Among the more remarkable phenomena of the hotter seas of Asia must be noticed the revolving storms or cyclones, which are of frequent occurrence in the hot months in the Indian Ocean and China Sea, in which last they are known under the name of typhoon.
The cyclones of the China Sea also occur in the hot months of the year, but they advance from north-east to south-west, though occasionally from east to west; they originate near the island of Formosa, and extend to about the 10th degree of N.
between the Volga and the Lena in Manchuria and northern China, rather more considerable increase in Korea, Siam and Japan.
A similar affinity exists between the life of the southern parts of Europe and that in the zone of Asia extending from the Mediterranean across to the Himalaya and northern China.
The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.
North China and Japan also have many forms of life in common.
Much still remains to be done in the exploration of China and eastern Asia; but it is known that many of the special forms of this region extend to the Himalaya, while others clearly indicate a connexion with North America.
On the other islands similar characteristics are to be observed, Australian genera extending to the Philippines, and even to southern China.
The analysis of the Hong Kong flora indicates that about threefifths of the species are common to the Indian region, and nearly all the remainder are either Chinese or local forms. The number of species common to southern China, Japan and northern Asia is small.
The cultivated plants of China are, with a few exceptions, the same as those of India.
South China, therefore, seems, botanically, hardly distinct from the great Indian region, into which many Chinese forms penetrate, as before noticed.
Very little is known of the plants of the interior of northern China, but it seems probable that a complete botanical connexion is established between it and the temperate region of the Himalaya.
Consequently the Quadrumana, or monkeys, are nearly unrepresented, a single species occurring in Japan, and one or two others in northern China and Tibet.
The Sciaenidae extend from the Bay of Bengal to China, but are not known to the westward.
The Stromateidae, or pomfrets, resemble the dory, a Mediterranean form, and extend to China and the Pacific. The sword fishes, Xiphiidae, the lancet fishes, Acanthuridae, and the scabbard fishes, Trichuridae, are distributed through the seas of south Asia.
The sturgeons, which abound in the Black Sea and Caspian, and ascend the rivers that fall into them, are also found in Asiatic Russia, and an allied form extends to southern China.
The insects of all southern Asia, including India south of the Himalaya, China, Siam and the Malayan Islands, belong to one.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
Modern missions have made no great conquests there, and in earlier times the Nestorians and Jacobites who penetrated to central Asia, China and India, received respectful hearing, but never had anything like the success which attended Buddhism and Islam.
In many parts of southern Asia are found semi-barbarous races representing the earliest known stratum of population, such as the Veddahs of Ceylon, and various tribes in China General a nd the Malay Archipelago.
Some connexion between Babylonia and China is generally admitted, and all Indian alphabets seem traceable to a Semitic original borrowed in the course of commerce from the Persian Gulf.
These countries, except Japan, have all been at some time at least nominal tributaries of China.
The cumbrous Chinese script maintains itself in the Far East, but has not advanced west of China proper and Annam.
But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.
(vi.) The conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai.
(vii.) The later conquest of China by the Manchus.
To these may be added numerous lesser invasions of India, China and Persia.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
This is the oldest of existing states, though its authentic history does not go back much beyond 1000 B.C. It is generally admitted that there was some connexion between the ancient civilizations of China and Babylonia, but its precise nature is still uncertain.
It is clear, however, that the Chinese came from the west, and entered their present territory along the course of the Hwang-ho at an unknown period, possibly about 3000 B.C. In early historical times China consisted of a shifting confederacy of feudal states, but about 220 B.C. the state of Tsin or Chin (whence the name China) came into prominence, and succeeded in forming a homogeneous empire, which advanced considerably towards the south.
The subsequent history of China is mainly a record of struggles with various tribes, commonly, but not very correctly, called Tatars.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
Confucianism is an ethical rather than a religious system, and hence was able to co-exist, though not on very friendly terms, with Buddhism, which reached China about the 1st century A.D.
The second half of the 16th century was a period of ferment and anarchy, marked by the arrival of the Portuguese and the rise of some remarkable adventurers, one of whom, Hideyoshi, conquered Korea and apparently meditated the invasion of China.
The nation hardly came into existence till China and India had passed their prime, and remained secluded and free from the continual struggle against barbarian invaders, which drained the energies of its neighbours.
Unlike the Chinese and Indians, they have hitherto not had the smallest influence on the intellectual development of Asia, and though they have in the past sometimes shown themselves intensely nationalist and conservative, they have, compared with India and China, so little which is really their own that their assimilation of foreign ideas is explicable.
Korea received its civilization and religion from China, but differs in language, and to some extent in customs. An alphabet derived from Indian sources is in use as well as Chinese writing.
The country was at most periods independent though nominally tributary to China.
In the 16th century the Japanese occupied it for a short period, and in 1894 they went to war with China on account of her claims to suzerainty.
Cochin China was once the seat of a kingdom called Champa, which appears to have had a hinduized Malay civilization and to have been subsequently absorbed by Annam.
(iv.) The Siamese or Thai, who speak a monosyllabic language of the Chinese type, but written in an Indian alphabet, represent a late invasion from southern China, whence they descended about the 13th century.
It has entirely escaped Islam, and though it is a nominal vassal of China, direct Chinese influence has not been strong.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
Both China and Japan have felt through Buddhism the influence of Indian art, which contains at least two elements - one indigenous and the other Greco-Persian.
Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.
Alexander's conquests resulted in the foundation of a Perso-Greek kingdoms in Asia, which not only hellenized their own area but influenced the art and religion of India and to some extent of China.
Portugal was first on the scene, and in the r6th century established a considerable littoral empire on the coasts of East Africa, India and China, fragments of which still remain, especially Goa, where Portuguese influence on the natives was considerable.
Proc. R.G.S., 1887; Henry Lansdell, Through Central Asia (London, 1887); Archibald Colquhoun, Report on Railway Connexion between Burma and China (London, 1887); Major C. Yate, Northern Afghanistan (Edinburgh, 1888); Captain F.
It grows in marshy places; and is cultivated in China, the fruit having a supposed value as a diuretic and anti-phthisic. It was cultivated by John Gerard, author of the famous Herball, at the end of the 16th century as a tender annual.
Armillae are said to have been in early use in China.
in Denmark, Sweden, France, Italy, India and China.
Derby is also celebrated for its china, and silk-throwing is the principal industry of the town.
The Derby porcelain or china manufactory was started about 1750.
SUIDUN (Chinese, Sui-din-chen), a town of China, capital of the province of Kulja.
Oriental types range far northwards into China and Japan.
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
In 1844 he left China, and, returning by India,.
The chief luxuries of the ancient world, silks, jewels, pearls, perfumes, incense and the like, were drawn from India, China and southern Arabia.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
The simplest cotton gin in extensive use is the " churka," used from early times, and still largely employed in India and China.
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D.
There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China.
The mollusc itself is often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan.
and between 116° and 134° E., and is wedged in between China and Mongolia on the west and north-west, and Korea and the Russian territory on the Amur on the east and north.
As in the north of China, the rivers are frozen up during the four winter months.
The great plain in Sheng-king is in many parts swampy, and in the neighbourhood of the sea, where the soil emits a saline exudation such as is also common in the north of China, it is perfectly sterile.
This bird is exported in large numbers to northern China, where it is much prized on account of its extraordinary power of imitation.
Under the RussoJapanese treaty of August 1905, after the war, supplemented by a convention between Japan and China concluded in December of the same year, Japan took over the line from Port Arthur as far as Kwang-cheng-tsze, now known as the Southern Manchurian railway (508 m.).
In the southwest of Manchuria a line of the imperial railways of Northern China gives connexion from Peking, and branches at Kou-pang-tsze to Sin Population.
The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.
Scotland, North of England, and Midlands, Wales, France, Belgium, Carniola, Moravia, Elsass, Saxony, Perm, Sizran, China, Cape Colony, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Kansas, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Tasmania, Victoria (Permo-Carboniferous), West Australia (Permo-Carboniferous).
Nothing came of either of these missions; but through them Europe first began to know the interior of Asia, for Carpini was conducted by the Mongols as far as Karakorum, the capital of the great khan, on the borders of China.
Other exports are tin and copper, granite, serpentine, vegetables and china clay.
Oberlin is primarily an educational centre, the seat of Oberlin College, named in honour of Jean Frederic Oberlin, and open to both sexes; it embraces a college of arts and sciences, an academy, a Theological Seminary (Congregational), which has a Slavic department for the training of clergy for Slavic immigrants, and a conservatory of music. In 1909 it had twenty buildings, and a Memorial Arch of Indiana buff limestone, dedicated in 1903, in honour of Congregational missionaries, many of them Oberlin graduates, killed in China in 1900.
In 1874, while captain of the "Audacious," he served for three years as flag-captain to viceadmiral Ryder in China; and finally he was appointed, in 1880, to command the "Thunderer" in the Mediterranean.
FORMOSA (called Taiwan by the Chinese, and following them by the Japanese, into whose possession it came after their war with China in 1895), an island in the western Pacific Ocean, between the Southern and the Eastern China Sea, separated from the Chinese mainland by the Formosa Strait, which has a width of about 90 m.
It forms part of the long line of islands which are interposed as a protective barrier between the Asiatic coast and the outer Pacific, and is the cause of the immunity from typhoons enjoyed by the ports of China from Amoy to the Yellow Sea.
Rice is grown in such quantities as to procure for Formosa, in former days, the title of the " granary of China "; and the sweet potato, taro, millet, barley, wheat and maize are also cultivated.
Pheasants, ducks, geese and snipe are abundant, and Dr C. Collingwood in his Naturalist's Rambles in the China Seas mentions .Ardea prasinosceles and other species of herons, several species of fly-catchers, kingfishers, shrikes and larks, the black drongo, the Cotyle sinensis and the Prinia sonitans.
But, influenced by medical views and by the almost insuperable difficulty of enforcing any drastic import veto in the face of Formosa's large communications by junk with China, the Japanese finally adopted the middle course of licensing the preparation and sale of the drug, and limiting its use to persons in receipt of medical sanction.
On the expulsion of the Ming dynasty in China, a number of their defeated adherents came over to Formosa, and under a leader called in European accounts Coxinga, succeeded in expelling the Dutch and taking possession of a good part of the island.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.
Si-ngan-fu), the capital of China, was equal to 225 °, which Ptolemy reduced to 177°, but which in reality only amount to 126°.
In China, maps in the olden time were engraved on bronze 1 M.
For China we are still largely dependent upon careful compilations like Baron F.
von Richthofen's Atlas von China (1:750,000, and Spain.
has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of [[[Topographical Surveys]] Berlin, 1885-1890) or Bretschneider's Map of China (1:4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900.
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
The hairless dogs of Central Africa are greyhounds employed chiefly in hunting antelopes, and there are somewhat similar varieties in China, Central and South America.
In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886),(1886), Ceylon (1896).
Amongst other works may be mentioned Histoire de la raison d'etat, La China et l'Europa, Corso d'istoria degli scrittori politici italiani.
He used his influence with the emperor of Russia, as also with the emperors of China and Japan and with the shah of Persia, to secure the free practice of their religion for Roman Catholics within their respective dominions.
Since 1710 Meissen has been the seat of the manufacture of Dresden china.
The trade of the United States with the island was as great in 1900-1907 as with Mexico and all the other West Indies combined; as great as its trade with Spain, Portugal and Italy combined; and almost as great as its trade with China and Japan.
There is also a unique collection of Swansea and Nantgarw china.
One portion of the tribe emigrated to China and was there exterminated; the remainder have disappeared among the Tuba Tatars and the Soyotes.
The climate of Cambodia, like that of Cochin China, which it closely resembles, varies with the monsoons.
It is not known as a wild plant in China or Japan.
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has been cultivated there from time immemorial; it has entered into the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by a distinct name, "to" or "tao," a word found in the writings of Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings dating from the 10th century before the Christian era.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
While the peach has been cultivated in China for thousands of years, the almond does not grow wild in that country and its introduction is supposed not to go back farther than the Christian era.
(British), the Compania Sud-America (Chilean), the Kosmos and Roland lines (German), the Merchants line (New York), and a Japanese line from the ports of Japan and China.
The famous china manufactory of Nymphenburg, founded in 1754 at Neudeck by a potter named Niedermeyer, was shortly afterwards removed hither and, after being long under royal patronage, is now a private undertaking.
It is an important feature as affording foothold for the Janglam (the great high road of southern Tibet connecting Ladakh with China), which is denied by the actual valley of the Brahmaputra.
lower terrace is fringed by a massive border-range - the Khinganwhich runs in a north-easterly direction from the Great Wall of China to the sources of the Nonni-ula, A narrow alpine region (40 to 50 m.), consisting of a series of short secondary chains parallel to the border-range, fringes this latter on 'its eastern face.
The total trade between Russia and China amounts to about £5,500,000 annually, of which 87% stands for imports into Russia and 13% for exports to China.
Prior to the building of the trans-Siberian railway a fairly active trade was carried on between China and the Amur region; but since the opening of that railway (in 1902-1905) the Amur region has seriously and rapidly declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity and civilization.
The accomplished fact was recognized by China in 1857 and 1860 by a treaty.
' coast of the Shan-tung peninsula, China, about 40 m.
Port Arthur having in the spring of that year been acquired by the Russian government under a lease from China, a similar lease was granted of Wei-hai-wei to the British government,.
Wei-hai-wei is used by the China squadron as a sanatorium and exercising ground.
From this city as their base the Arabs, under Kotaiba (Qotaiba) ibn Moslim, early in the 8th century brought under subjection Balkh, Bokhara, Ferghana and Kashgaria, and penetrated into China as far as the province of Kan-suh.
His most important mission was in 1884, when he was sent as French minister to China to regularize the French dominion in Annam.
After arranging at Hue with the king of Annam the condition of the French protectorate, he proceeded to Shanghai to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of Tongking by the Chinese troops.
The negotiation failed, and the French admiral resumed hostilities against China in August.
Otheii genera are Funkia, native of China and Japan, cultivated in the open air in Britain; Hemerocallis, a small genus of central Europe and temperate Asia - H.
Convallaria is lily of the valley; Aspidistra, native of the Himalayas, China and Japan, is a well-known pot plant; its flowers depart from the normal arrangement of the order in having the parts From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of in fours (tetraGustav Fischer.
Throughout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is called the Dza-Chu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the great east and west caravan route from China to Lhasa.
From here to its outfall in the China Sea the river winds for some 400 m.
through the French territories of Cambodia and Cochin China, and to its annual overflow these countries owe their extraordinary fertility.
long, and here all the great ocean liners from Europe, China and Japan are berthed, while to the great wharf in Woolloomooloo Bay, 3000 ft.
At the beginning of 1857 tidings from China reached England of a rupture between the British plenipotentiary in that country and the governor of the Canton provinces in reference to a small vessel or lorcha called the "Arrow," which had resulted in the English admiral destroying the river forts, burning 23 ships belonging to the Chinese navy and bombarding the city of Canton.
From China proper on the S.
From Manchuria and China it is separated by the border ridge of the plateau - the Great Khingan, while in the south-west it runs up to the foot of the high northern border ridges of the Tibetan plateau - an artificial frontier separating it from east Turkestan and Dzungaria.
Inner Mongolia, lying between the desert of Gobi, China proper and Manchuria, is divided into 24 aimaks.
Potanin, Sketches of North-West Mongolia (1881-1883); The Tangut-Tibet Border of China and Central Mongolia (1893 seq.); V.
Grum Grzimailo, Description of a Journey to Western China (1898-1899); V.
Obrucheff, Central Asia, Northern China and the Nanshan (1900-1901); Z.
(1873); Baron Richthofen, China (1877); J.
From the Dorah eastwards the crest of the Hindu Kush again becomes the boundary till it effects a junction with the Murtagh and Sarikol ranges, which shut off China from Russia and India.
From the Oxus (loon ft.) to Faizabad (4000 ft.) and Zebak (850o ft.) the course of the Kokcha offers a high road across Badakshan;, between Zebak and Ishkashim, at the Oxus bend, there is but an insignificant pass of 9500 ft.; and from Ishkashim by the Panja, through the Pamirs, is the continuation of what must once have been a much-traversed trade route connecting Afghan Turkestan with Kashgar and China.
History There is something almost pathetic in the childish wonder and delight with which mankind in its earlier phases of civilization gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in Albertus Magnus, and even at the present day in the popular treatises of Japan and China.
From this region started an important trade route eastward by the Thyssagetae among the southern Urals, the Iyrcae on the Tobol and Irtysh to the Kirgiz steppe, where dwelt other Scyths, regarded as colonists of those in Europe: then by the Argippaei in the Altai and the Issedones in the Tarym basin, to the one-eyed Arimaspi on the borders of China, who stole their gold from the watchful griffins, and who marched with goat-footed men and Hyperboreans reaching to the sea.
Closely allied with the Lao are a number of tribes found throughout the hill regions of the upper Mekong, between Yunnan and Kwangsi in China and the upper waters of the Menam in Siam.
the south-west from the highland districts of southern China, which has produced so many recruits for the peopling of the Indo-Chinese peninsula.
Among other interesting features it contains information about the Nestorian Church of China in the 13th century - Yabhalaha was a native of Peking - an account of a journey through Central Asia, and a description of a visit to Europe by Rabban Sauma, the friend of the catholicus."
It has long been cultivated in Persia and Kashmir, and is supposed to have been introduced into China by the Mongol invasion.
by the China Sea, S.W.
According to their own annals and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical characteristics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with the Chams and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China.
China, and in what is now Tongking and northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent from the Chinese imperial family.
kiddah) the Cinnamomum Cassia of China; cinnamon (Heb.
olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.
Its use was obviously continued by the Buddhists during the prevalence of their religion in India, for it is still used by them in Nepal, Tibet, Ceylon, Burma, China and Japan.
These countries all received Buddhism from India, and a large proportion of the porcelain and earthenware articles imported from China and Japan into Europe consists of innumerable forms of censers.
China, Asia >>
It may be said to spring from the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir, where it unites with the great meridional system of Sarikol stretching northwards, and the yet more impressive mountain barrier of Murtagh, the northern base of which separates China from the semi-independent territory of Kanjut.
On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.
It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India, Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length.
The Burmese are supposed by modern philologists to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm, from western China to the head waters of the Irrawaddy and then separated, some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to press southwards into the 1 See also, for geology, W.
The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China.
The boundary with Siam was demarcated in 1893, and that with China was completed in 1900.
- The history of the manufacture of glass in China is obscure, but the common opinion that it was learnt from the Europeans in the 17th century seems to be erroneous.
The Wei dynasty, to which Tsaou-tsaou belonged, reigned in northern China, and at this day a considerable manufacture of glass is carried on at Po-shan-hien in Shantung, which it would seem has existed for a long period.
Williamson (Journeys in North China, i.
of glass in China was an original discovery of that ingenious people, or was derived via Ceylon from Egypt, cannot perhaps be now ascertained; the manufacture has, however, never greatly extended itself in China.
In the manufacture of ornamental glass the leading idea in China seems to be the imitation of natural stones.
The development of other species of Vitis, such as the curious succulent species of the Soudan and other parts of equatorial Africa, or the numerous kinds in India and Cochin China, is of course possible under suitable conditions; but it is obvious that an extremely long period must elapse before they can successfully compete with the product of many centuries.
Friar Odoric was despatched to the East, where a remarkable extension of missionary action was then taking place, about 1316-1318, and did not return till the end of 1329 or beginning of 1330; but, as regards intermediate dates, all that we can deduce from his narrative or other evidence is that he was in western India soon after 1321 (pretty certainly in 1322) and that he spent three years in China between the opening of 1323 and the close of 1328.
From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalan or Great China (Mahachin).
In China his mention of Canton by the name of Censcolam or Censcolam (Chin-Kalan), and his descriptions of the custom of fishing with tame cormorants, of the habit of letting the finger-nails grow extravagantly, and of the compression of women's feet, are peculiar to him among the travellers of that age; Marco Polo omits them all.
The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source of sugar.
The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?
The term clay is often used by chemists to denote hydrated silicate of alumina (Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2.2H 2 O), of which kaolin or china clay is a fairly pure form.
HANG - CHOW-FU, a city of China, in the province of ChehKiang, 2 M.
These canals pass through the richest and most populous districts of China, and in particular lead into the great silk-producing districts.
From the 10th to the 13th century (960-1272) the city, whose real name was then Ling-nan, was the capital of southern China and the seat of the Sung dynasty, which was dethroned by the Mongolians shortly before Marco Polo's visit.
The cultivation is widespread throughout Southern China.
The exports of manufactured tobacco, such as Manila cheroots, find their principal market in China, British India, Australasia and the United Kingdom, whilst of the leaf tobacco fully three-quarters goes to Spain.
In Ceylon tobacco is grown in the northern portion of the island; the produce is but little suited to the European market and is mainly exported to southern India and Cochin China.
HU-CHOW-FU, a city of China, in the province of Cheh-Kiang (30 48' N., 120° 3' E.), a little S.
The excitement caused at Paris by an unimportant reverse of the French troops at Lang-son caused his downfall (30th of March 1885), but the treaty of peace with China (9th of June 1885) was his work.
They showed a zeal for evangelization which resulted in the establishment of their influence throughout Asia, as is seen from the bishoprics founded not only in Syria, Armenia, Arabia and Persia, but at Halavan in Media, Mer y in Khorasan, Herat, Tashkent, Samarkand, Baluk, Kashgar, and even at Kambaluk (Pekin) and Singan fu Hsi`en fu in China, and Kaljana and Kranganore in India.
Early evidence of Nestorian missions in China is extant in the tablet found in 1625 at Chang`an in the district of Hsi`en-fu, province of Shensi.
It commemorates "the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta t'sin in the Middle Kingdom," and beneath an incised cross sets out in Chinese and Syriac an abstract of Christian doctrine and the course of a Syrian mission in China beginning with the favourable reception of Olopan, who came from Judaea in 636.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
NGAN' '-HUI (AN -HwEI or GAN-Hwuy), an eastern province of China, which, together with Kiang-su and Kiang-si, forms the vice-royalty of Kiang-nan.
Nganhui is one of the most productive provinces of China.
The only other river of importance is the Hwai-ho (see China: The Country).
HONG-KONG (properly Hiang-Kiang, the place of "sweet lagoons"), an important British island-possession, situated off the south-east coast of China, opposite the province of Kwang-tung, on the east side of the estuary of the Si-kiang, 38 m.
An agreement was entered into in 1898 whereby China leased to Great Britain for ninety-nine years the territory behind Kowloon peninsula up to a line drawn from Mirs Bay to Deep Bay and the adjoining islands, including Lantao.
There is also a large paper currency in the form of notes issued by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Hong-Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the National Bank of China, Limited.
Formerly an integral part of China, the island of Hong-Kong was first ceded to Great Britain in 1841, and the cession was confirmed by the treaty of Nanking in 1842, the charter bearing the date 5th of April 1843.
Hertslet, Treaties between Great Britain and China and China and Foreign Powers (London, 1896); A.
Colquhoun, China in Transformation (London, 1898); Colonial Possessions Report, No.
Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.
He was received with distinguished honours in England and on the continent of Europe, g whence he made his way to India, China and Japan.
WUCHANG, the capital of the combined provinces of Hup-eh and Hu-nan, China.
province of China, bounded N.
WATER-DEER, a small member of the deer-tribe from northern China differing from all other Cervidae except the muskdeer (with which it has no affinity) by the absence of antlers in both sexes.
Formosa and the Pescadores were ceded to Japan by China after the war of 1894-1895, and the southern half of Sakhalinthe part south of 500 N.was added to Japan by cession from Russia in 1905.
the delusion that nature as represented in the classical pictures (bunjingwa) of China and Japan exists only in the artists imagination.
These have their origin, for the most part, in the China Sea, especially in the vicinity of Luzon.
Starlings (muku-dori) are numerous, and so are the wagtail (sekirei), the swallow (tsubame) the martin (ten), the woodchat (mozu) and the jay (kakesu or kashi-dori), but the magpie (tOgarasu), though common in China, is rare in Japan.
The gad-fly (abu), the housefly (hai), the mosquito (ka), the flea (nonzi) and occasionally the bedbug (called by the Japanese kara-mushi because it is believed to be imported from China), are all fully represented, and the dragon-fly (tombO) presents itself in immense numbers at certain seasons.
For edible purposes the most valuable of the Japanese echinoderms is the sea-slug or bche de mer (namako), which is greatly appreciated and forms an important staple of export to China.
The first and most important is the Manchu-Korean type; that is to say, the type which prevails in north China and in Korea.
Small in stature, with a well-knit frame, the cheekbones prominent, the face generally round, the nose and neck short, a marked tendency to prognathism, the chest broad and well developed, the trunk long, the hands small and delicate this Malay type is found in nearly all the islands along the east coast of the Asiatic continent as well as in southern China and in the extreme south-west of Korean peninsula.
Iwleanwhile an inquirer is confronted by the strange fact that of three neighboring countries between which frequent communication existed, one (China) never deviated from an ideographic script; another (Korea) invented an alphabet, and the third (Japan) devised a syllabary.
Antiquaries have sought to show that Japan possessed some form of script before her first contact with either Korea or China.
Very different was the case when China presented her noble code of Confucian philosophy and the literature embodying it.
There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.
810, a celebrated Buddhist priest, Kkai, who had spent several years studying in China, compounded out of Buddhism, Confucianism and ShintO a system of doctrine called Ryobu Shinto (Dual Shinto), the prominent tenet of which was that the ShintO deities were merely transmigrations of Buddhist divinities.
The latter were often little more than historical novels founded on facts; and the former, though nominally intended to engraft the doctrines of Buddhism and Shinto upon the philosophy of China, were really of rationalistic tendency.
The real beginnings of the study of painting and sculpture in their higher branches must be dated from the introduction of Buddhism from China in the middle of the 6th century, and for three centuries after this event there is evidence that the practice of the arts was carried on mainly by or under the instruction of Korean and Chinese immigrants.
Sessh (1421-1507) was a priest who visited China and studied painting there for several years, at length returning in 1469, dis-.
He was the boldest and most original of Japanese landscape artists, leaving powerful and poetic records of the scenery of his own land as well as that of China, and trusting more to the sure and sweeping stroke of the brush than to color.
It has been practised to some extent in China and Korea, but there is no evidence of its antiquity in these countries.
It is a golden yellow bronze, called seniokuthis being the Japanese pronunciation of Suen-t, the era of the Ming dynasty of China when this compound was invented.
In the forefront of the new movement are to be found men like Yoneharu Unkai and Shinkai Taketaro; the former chiselled a figure of Jenner for the Medical Association of Japan when they celebrated the centenary of the great physician, and the latter has carved life-size effigies of two Imperial princes who lost their lives in the war with China (1894 95).
Architects, turners, tilemakers, decorative artists and sculptors, coming from China and from Korea, erected grand temples for the worship of Buddha enshrining images of much beauty and adorned with paintings and carvings of considerable merit.
In the I3th century, however, the introduction 01 tea from China, together with vessels for infusing and serving it revealed to the Japanese a new conception of ceramic possibilities for the potters of the Middle Kingdom had then (Sung dynasty) fully entered the road which was destined to carry them ultimately to a high pinnacle of their craft.
It had long been customary in Japan to send students to China for the purpose of studying philosophy and religion, and she now (1223) sent a potter, Kato Shirozaemon, who, on his return, opened a kiln at Seto in the province of Owari, and began to produce little jars for preserving tea and cups for drinking it.
Nearly three centuries elapsed before a radically upward movement took place, and on this occasion also the inspiration came from China.
The existence of porcelain clay in Hizen was not discovered for many years, and Shonzuis pieces being made entirely with kaolin imported from China, their manufacture ceased after his death, though knowledge of the processes learned by him survived and was used in the production of greatly inferior wares.
Many of the pieces are distinguished by a peculiar creamy whiteness of glaze, suggesting the idea that they were intended to imitate the soft-paste wares of China.
Seto, in fact, acquired such a widespread reputation for its ceramic productions that the term seto-mono (Seto article) came to be used generally for all pottery and porcelain, just as China is in the West.
But, speaking generally, Japanese blues do not rank on the same decorative level with those of China.
Taking the renowned yao-pien-yao, or transmutation ware of China as a model, the Takatori potters endeavoured, by skilful mixing of coloring materials, to reproduce the wonderful effects of oxidization seen in the Chinese ware.
Directing his efforts at first to reproducing the deep green and straw-yellow glazes of China, he had exhausted almost his entire resources before success came, and even then the public was slow to recognize the merits of his ware.
He took for his models the raku faience of KiOto, the masterpieces of Ninsei and Kenzan, the rococc wares of Korea, the enamelled porcelain of China, and the blue-andwhite ware of Delft.
No faience produced either in China or any other Oriental country can dispute the palm with really representative specimens of Satsuma ware.
value attaching to the incomparable red glazes of China, not only in the country of their origin but also in the United States, where collectors showed a fine instinct in this matter, seems to have suggested to Miyagawa the idea of imitation.
Seifu YOhei, however, has the special faculty of manufacturing monochromatic and jewelled porcelain and faience, which differ essentially from the traditional Kioto types, their models being taken directly from China.
It cannot be said, indeed, that his cladon shows the velvety richness of surface and tenderness of color that distinguished the old Kuang-yao and Lungchuan-yao of China, or that he has ever essayed the moss-edged crackle of the beautiful Ko-yao.
Hirado That, however, is an achievement of no small consequence, especially since it had never previously been essayed outside China.
The sum of the matter is that the modern Japanese ceramist, after many efforts to cater for the taste of the Occident, evidently concludes that his best hope consists in devoting all his technical and artistic resources to reproducing the celebrated wares of China.
Yet it is remarkable that China, at the close of the Ioth century, should have again furnished models to Japanese eclecticism.
Lacquer.Japan derived the art of lacquering from China (probably about the beginning of the 6th century), but she ultimately carried it far beyond Chinese conception.
All students of the ceramic art know that the monochrome porceMonochro- lains of China owe their beauty to the fact that the;afic t color is in the glaze, not under it.
They have passed entirely out of use, and are now to be seen in museums only, but the type still exists in China.
The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, woollen and cotton goods, silk ribbons, paper, tobacco, leather, china, glass, clocks, jewellery and chemicals.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.
In regard to the fetishism of the Gold Coast NoII' of Africa, Jevons (Introduction to the History of J (y f Religion, pp. 165-166) maintains that" public opinion does not approve of the worship by an individual of a suhman, or private tutelary deity, and that his dealings with it are regarded in the nature of ` black art ' as it is not a god of the community."In China there is a" classical or canonical, primitive and therefore alone orthodox (tsching) and true XIII.
museum of arms, containing trophies of the wars with China and Russia.
and Papa (earth) can be paralleled in China, India and Greece, and more remotely in Egypt and Babylonia.
' America, Ceylon, the Malay Islands and Indo China.
The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.
Since then the proportion furnished by these countries has been greatly lowered by the supplies from South Africa, Canada, India and China.
The gold production of China was estimated for 1899 at £1,328,238 and for 1900 at £860,00o; it increased in 1901 to about £1,700,000, to fall to £340,000 in 1905; in 1906 and 1907 it recovered to about £1,000,000.
The other cereal crops consist of mandua (a grass-like plant producing a coarse grain resembling rice), wheat, barley, and china, a rice-like cereal.
babylonica, it is really a native of China, from which it has been widely spread by man; the willow of the Euphrates (Ps.
Their food consists of meat, chiefly pork, turnips, rice, barley-meal and tea made from the brick-tea of China.
Macau), a Portuguese settlement on the coast of China, in 22° N., 132° E.
This diplomatic difficulty prevented the conclusion of a commercial treaty between China and Portugal for a long time, but an arrangement for a treaty was come to in 1887 on the following basis: (1) China confirmed perpetual occupation and government of Macao and its dependencies by Portugal; (2) Portugal engaged never to alienate Macao and its dependencies without the consent of China; (3) Portugal engaged to co-operate in opium revenue work at Macao in the same way as Great Britain at Hong-Kong.
This may be Aquilaria agallochum, a native of East India and China, which supplies the so-called eagle-wood or aloes-wood, which contains much resin and oil.
Though the /see' are thus strictly portions of solar time, yet what is remarkable, though not peculiar to China, they give their name to the lunar months, each month or lunation having the name of the chung-ki or sign at which the sun arrives during that month.
Kanishka and other monarchs were zealous but probably by no means exclusive Buddhists, and the conquest of Khotan and Kashgar must have facilitated the spread of Buddhist ideas to China.
It is also probable that the Yue-Chi not only acted as intermediaries for the introduction of Greek and Persian ideas into India, and of Indian ideas into China, but left behind them an important element in the population of N.
end of the valley of the Clanis (China).
Count Muraviev's policy was vacillating; in China his hands were forced by Germany's action at Kiaochow.
But he acted with singular legerete with regard at all events to his assurances to Great Britain respecting the leases of Port Arthur and Talienwan from China; he told the British ambassador that these would be "open ports," and afterwards essentially modified thin pledge.
We may without hesitation follow the opinion of Mommsen, who maintains that the limes was not intended, like Hadrian's Wall between the Tyne and the Solway, and like the great wall of China, to oppose an absolute barrier against incursions from the outside.
(2) (From Tamil kasu, Sinhalese kasi, a small coin, adopted by Portuguese as caixa, a box, and similarly assimilated in English to "cash" above), a name given by English residents in the East to native coins of small value, and particularly to the copper coinage of China, the native name for which is tsien.
It is the universal medium of exchange throughout China for all retail transactions.
The four fringing seas of eastern Asia, those of Bering, Okhotsk, Japan and East China, are arranged parallel to the main lines of dislocation in the neighbouring land-masses, and so are the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of California.
The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
In the Bering Sea the trough north of Buldir in the Aleutian Islands sinks to 2237 fathoms, and in the Sea of Okhotsk, north-west of the Kuriles, to 1859 fathoms. Similar conditions prevail in the East China Sea and the Andaman Sea.
This variety surrounds the tropical parts of the continental shelves of South America, South Africa and eastern China.
Thus in the Malay Sea the various minor seas or basins are homothermic below the depth of the rim, at the temperature prevailing at that depth in the open ocean: in the China Sea below 875 fathoms with 36.5° F.; in the Sulu Sea (depth 2550 fathoms) below 400 fathoms with 50 5° F.; in the Celebes Sea below 820 fathoms with 38.6° F.; in the Banda Sea below 902 fathoms with 37.9° F.
in 1 9 08 (see CHINA: §§ Finance).
This personage was a prince of the Khitai or Khitaian dynasty of Liao, which had reigned over northern China and the regions beyond the Wall during a great part of the 10th and 11th centuries, and from which came the name Khitai (Cathay), by which China was once known in Europe and still is known in Russia.
This Unc was in fact the prince of the Kerait, called by the Chinese Tuli, and by the Persian historians of the Mongols Toghral, on whom the Kin emperor of north China had conferred the title of "wang" or king, whence his coming to be known as Awang or Ung Khan.
They are widely distributed throughout China Proper, but those of the province of Shansi appear to be the richest.
CHIH-LI (" Direct Rule"), the metropolitan province of China, in which is situated Peking, the capital of the empire.
This province forms part of the great delta plain of China proper, 20,000 sq.
He was, however, appointed later in the same year commissioner of the United States to China, holding this position until 1845, and in 1844 negotiating the first treaty between China and the United States.
City of the Peaceful Waves), a great city of China, the principal emporium of trade in the province of Chehkiang, standing in a fine plain bounded by mountains towards the west, on the left bank of the Ning-po river, about 16 M.
It is regularly visited by the vessels of the China Navigation Company and the Chinese Merchants' Steam Navigation Company.
Straw or grass hats, straw mats, samshu (from the Shao-sing district), Chinese drugs, vegetable tallow and fish are among the chief exports; in 1904 the hats numbered 2,125,566, though in 1863 they had only amounted to 40,000, and the mats, mainly despatched to south China, average from 1,000,000, to 2,000,000.
Missions are maintained in Ning-po by the Roman Catholic church, by the Church Missionary Society (1848), the American Presbyterians, the Reformed Wesleyans, the China Inland Mission (1857), &c. A mission hospital was instituted in 1843.
WEN-CHOW-FU, a prefectural city in the province of Chehkiang, China, and one of the five ports opened by the Chifu convention to foreign trade, situated (28° 1' N., 120° 31' E.) on the south bank of the river Gow, about 20 m.
Trade with China and India from Salem was begun in 1785 (first voyage from New York, 1784), and was first controlled there, and afterwards in Boston till the trade was lost to New York.
He entered the Society of Jesus in 1737 and was sent in 1750 as a missionary to China.
The loquat, an introduction from China, thrives admirably.
rupicapra), broadly distinguished by its well-known hook-like horns, and the Asiatic gorals (Urotragus) and serows (Neinorhaedus), which are represented by numerous species ranging from Tibet, the Himalaya, and China, to the Malay Peninsula and islands, being in the two latter areas the sole representatives of both antelopes and goats.
In China, moreover, an enumeration of somewhat the same nature was an ancient institution in connexion with the provincial revenues and military liabilities.
Going outside Europe, an extreme instance of the results of combining a census with more definite administrative objects may be found in the census of China in 1711, when the population enumerated in connexion with a poll-tax and liability to military service, was returned as 28 millions; but forty years later, when the question was that of the measures for the relief of widespread distress, the corresponding total rose to 103 millions!
It embraced a population second to that of India alone, as China, probably the most populous country in the world, has not yet been subjected to this test.
How far back in prehistoric times this system has been practised it is impossible to say, but in China it is said to have existed 3000 years before Christ,' and in Greek literature it is treated even in the most ancient writings as well-known belief.
At the present day palmistry is practised in nearly all parts of China.
Coining originated independently in China at a later date than in the western world, and spread from China to Japan and Korea.
In China 26 mints were at work in 1906.
In 1856 he commissioned the "Acorn" brig for the China station, and arrived in time to take part in the destruction of the junks in Fatshan creek on the 1st of June 1857, and in the capture of Canton in the following December, for which, in February 1858, he received a post-captain's commission.