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competition

competition

competition Sentence Examples

  • The competition of France ceased for a time to be an important factor.

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  • It's not a competition, he said simply.

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  • "We've got competition," Betsy announced as I stepped out of the shower.

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  • By the way, your competition met his maker.

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  • Competition, in the Darwinian sense, is characteristic not only of modern industrial states, but of all living organisms; and in the narrower sense of the " higgling of the market " is found on the Stock Exchange, in the markets of old towns, in medieval fairs and Oriental bazaars.

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  • For instance, if you have a Facebook friend Abigail in Albania whom you only met once at a rock-paper-scissors competition years ago, you will generally regard Abigail's first-hand account as authoritative, even though you don't really know Abigail all that well.

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  • The competition included both men and women, and all were having a great time dousing the watchers—and even the paraders passing in the opposite direction—with water guns.

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  • The six ladies-in-waiting of the Dean for Sheriff brigade cupped their hands and booed the competition, to the delight of the crowd.

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  • The competition for this cannon-shaped tube, now preserved in the old town hall, took place annually - with a great festival every seven years - until 1831.

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  • The two most prominent causes assigned for the depression were bad seasons and foreign competition, aggravated by the increased cost of production and the heavy losses of live stock.

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  • In the modern age, we have simply transferred the competition to a new arena: the business world.

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  • In 1879, at Kilburn, the competition was of railway waggons to convey perishable goods long distances at low temperatures.

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  • In 1861 the United Kingdom Telegraph Company began a competition with the other companies on the basis of a is.

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  • The thought of going to college took root in my heart and became an earnest desire, which impelled me to enter into competition for a degree with seeing and hearing girls, in the face of the strong opposition of many true and wise friends.

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  • They figure Josh is tough competition - but do you really think Josh could scare them off if they knew you were interested?

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  • The wool-growing industry has been almost entirely destroyed by the competition of Australia and the West, and the people are now engaged mainly in dairy-farming, timbering, graniteand marble-quarrying, and in keeping summer boarders.

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  • At the same time Dr. Bell added that I could rest content and fight my way through Radcliffe in competition with seeing and hearing girls, while the great desire of my heart was being fulfilled.

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  • But in the development of the railway business it soon became evident that no such dependence on free competition was possible, either in practice or in theory.

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  • Such partial competition, with the discrimination it involves, is liable to be worse for the public than no competition at all.

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  • supply, the value of land is in proportion to the number of permanent labourers settled on it, and the landed proprietors naturally try to attract to their estates as many peasants as possible; and in this competition the large proprietors have evidently an advantage over their humbler and weaker rivals.

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  • This need for competition existed in the past the same as it does in the present.

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  • Both in England and in America this process of consolidation has been obstructed by all known legislative devices, because of the widespread belief that competition in the field of transportation was necessary if fair prices were to be charged for the service.

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  • It is equally impossible for the majority of shippers to enjoy the competition of parallel lines.

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  • It is equally impossible for the majority of shippers to enjoy the competition of parallel lines.

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  • In 1895 the Smithfield Club instituted a carcase competition in association with its annual show of fat stock, and it has been continued each year since.

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  • While considering that a really efficient Post Office service would afford the best means for securing such competition, it recommended that general, immediate and effective competition should at once be undertaken either by the Post Office or by local authorities.

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  • So marked are these evils that such partial competition is avoided by agreements between the competing lines with regard to rates, and by divisions of traffic, or pools, which shall take away the temptation to violate such rate agreements.

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  • It forbids a railway which has reduced its rates while in competition with a water route to raise them again when the competition has ceased, unless the Commission permits it to do so because of other changed conditions.

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  • Another educational reform, the opening of the Indian civil service to competition, took place at the same time, and Jowett was one of the commission.

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  • The P0 valley and the valleys of Emilia and the Romagna are best adapted for rice, but the area is diminishing on account of the competition of foreign rice and of the impoverishment of the soil by too intense cultivation.

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  • For a large number of those who use a railway, competition in its more obvious forms does not and cannot exist.

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  • The delicate fabric made by hand on the pillow was long in demand; its sale was, however, greatly diminished by the competition of cheaper machine-made goods, and a school of lace-making was opened to promote its recovery.

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  • Competition, in the sense in which the word is still used in many economic works, is merely a special case of the struggle for survival, and, from its limitation, does not go far towards explaining the actual working of modern institutions.

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  • The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.

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  • The principal reasons for the general decrease are the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation.

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  • The Labour movement in Australia may be traced back to the early days when transportation was in vogue, and the free immigrant and the time-expired convict objected to the competition of the bond labourer.

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  • The Post Office proposed to engage in active competition with the telephone companies, but the Treasury at that time opposed this policy on the ground that the state should at most be ready to supplement and not to supersede private enterprise.

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  • A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.

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  • The cattle and sheep entered for this competition are shown alive on the first day, at the close of which they are slaughtered and the carcases hung up for exhibition, with details of live and dead weights.

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  • The society holds annual shows, publishes annually the Shire Horse Stud Book and offers'_gold and silver medals for competition amongst Shire horses at agricultural shows in different parts of the country.

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  • The cattle and sheep entered for this competition are shown alive on the first day, at the close of which they are slaughtered and the carcases hung up for exhibition, with details of live and dead weights.

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  • The society holds annual shows, publishes annually the Shire Horse Stud Book and offers'_gold and silver medals for competition amongst Shire horses at agricultural shows in different parts of the country.

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  • The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for powers to lay wires underground; public discontent with inadequate telephone services was expressed, and at the same time the competition of the telephone with the Post Office telegraph became more manifest.

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  • In short, all-round competition was authorized, and the Post Office decided to establish a telephone system in London in competition with the company.

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  • The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for powers to lay wires underground; public discontent with inadequate telephone services was expressed, and at the same time the competition of the telephone with the Post Office telegraph became more manifest.

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  • The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements.

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  • In 1901, at Cardiff, competition was invited in portable oil engines, agricultural locomotive oil engines and small ice-making plant suitable for a dairy.

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  • As regards the pressure of foreign competition, it was stated to be greatly in excess of the anticipations of the supporters, and of the apprehensions of the opponents of the repeal of the Corn Laws.

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  • But the general tendency to regulate rates by authority of the state has apparently rendered unnecessary the old plan of rate regulation through competition, even if it had not been demonstrated often and again that this form of regulation is costly for all concerned and is effective only during rare periods of direct conflict between companies.

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  • This action had the effect, through the necessities of competition, of causing travellers in the cheaper classes to be better treated on other railways, and the condition of the third-class passenger was still further improved when Parliament, by the Cheap Trains Act of 1883, required the railways to provide " due and sufficient " train accommodation at fares not exceeding id.

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  • But the general tendency to regulate rates by authority of the state has apparently rendered unnecessary the old plan of rate regulation through competition, even if it had not been demonstrated often and again that this form of regulation is costly for all concerned and is effective only during rare periods of direct conflict between companies.

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  • Another source of weakness is the fact that Italy is a country of transit and the Italian mercantile marine has to enter into competition with the ships of other countries, which call there in passing.

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  • Another source of weakness is the fact that Italy is a country of transit and the Italian mercantile marine has to enter into competition with the ships of other countries, which call there in passing.

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  • But if rates are to be fixed by agreement, and not by competition, what principle can be recognized as a legitimate basis of railway rate-making?

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  • The competition thus constitutes what is termed a " block test," and it is instructive in affording the opportunity of seeing the quality of the carcases furnished by the several animals, and in particular the relative proportion and distribution of fat and lean meat.

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  • A state system will be compelled, by the exigencies of the public treasury, to arrange its rates to pay interest on its securities; a private company will generally be prevented, by the indirect competition of railways in other parts of the country which it serves, from doing very much more than this.

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  • There are also remains of a third pediment, which may have been produced in competition, but never placed on the temple.

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  • Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.

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  • The competition of the sugar-beet has been felt severely.

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  • Apparently Julia considered her to be some kind of competition.

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  • Maybe he didn't like competition.

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  • Why should I feed the competition?

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  • Spying on your election competition?

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  • I don't have any competition.

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  • The two boys across from her had managed to make messes of themselves and the table in what might have been a competition.

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  • I have every intention of marrying Alex, and I'm ready and willing to face a little competition.

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  • She had stopped by that afternoon but when she heard the music and the doorbell went unanswered, she assumed Fred was entertaining the competition.

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  • Maybe he doesn't like the competition.

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  • Two years later the same prize was conferred on him without competition.

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  • The government contracted to buy the company's plant in 1911, thus in effect annulling the act of 1899 which had failed to accomplish its object of establishing all-round competition.

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  • Sulphur mining M h 1 supplies large industries of sulphur-refining and grinding, - in spite of American competition.

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  • The political and the commercial proposals were alike received with coldness, because the native diplomatists had aims which could not be reconciled completely with the policy of any other country, and the native merchants were afraid of foreign competition.

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  • Mo.) Economics And Legislation It was at one time an axiom of law and of political economy that prices should be determined by free competition.

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  • The principle was patented, but the company owning the patent undertook to permit its free use by railway companies which were members of the Master Car Builders' Association, and thus threw open the underlying principle to competition.

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  • Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.

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  • Turgot was opposed to all labour associations of employers or employed, in accordance with his belief in free competition.

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  • The stock-breeders and graziers of the United Kingdom have, equally with the corn-growers, to face the brunt of foreign competition.

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  • In 1888, at Nottingham, hay and straw presses for steam-power, horse-power and handpower were the subjects of competition.

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  • In 1893, at Chester, self-binding harvesters and sheep-shearing machines (power) were the appliances respectively in competition.

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  • Economic motives, again, are as varied as the forms of competition, and their development is coeval with that of human society.

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  • Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.

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  • When the aim of the man of affairs and the hypothesis of the economist was unrestricted competition, and measures were being adopted to realize it, general theory such as the classical economists provided was perhaps a sufficiently trustworthy guide for practical statesmen and men of business.

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  • The success of Edwards's very respectable work seems to have provoked competition, and in 1765, at the instigation of Buffon, the younger d'Aubenton began the publication known as the Planches enlumineez d'histoire naturelle, which appearing in forty-two parts was not completed till 1780, when the plates' it contained reached the number of 1008 - all coloured, as its title intimates, and nearly all representing birds.

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  • Boston also feels the competition of Montreal and Portland; the Canadian roads being untrammelled in the matter of freight differentials.

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  • The weaving industry and the manufacture of fine Dacca muslins have greatly fallen off, owing to the competition of European piece goods.

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  • America had re-entered the field of competition, and was rapidly gaining ground so as to be able to bid defiance to the world.

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  • One gain accruing to Lancashire from the Canal, however, is that its competition has brought down railway rates.

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  • Tobacco culture, which declined after 1860 on account of the competition of Cuba and Sumatra, has revived since 1885 through the introduction of Cuban and Sumatran seed; the product of 1907 (6,937,500 lb) was more than six times that of 1899, the product in 1899 (1,125,600 lb) being more than twice that of 1889 (470,443 lb), which in turn was more than twenty times that for 1880 (21,182 lb)-the smallest production recorded for many decades.

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  • Of the more immediate successors of Newton in Great Britain Maclaurin is probably the only one who can be placed in competition with the great mathematicians of the continent of Europe at the time.

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  • The competition of the water lines is felt by all the railways, and the importance of water transportation is rapidly increasing.

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  • Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.

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  • In the markets of the world Cuban tobacco has always suffered less competition than Cuban sugar, and still less has been done than in the case of sugar cane in the study of methods of cultivation, which in several respects are far behind those of other tobacco-growing countries.

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  • The berries are of fine quality, and despite the competition of Brazil there is no (agricultural) reason why the home market at least should not be supplied from Cuban estates.

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  • Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.

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  • Considerable competition ensued for the railway concessions under this system.

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  • Of the total importations of all kinds of coal to Hamburg, that of British coal, particularly from Northumberland and Durham, occupies the first place, and despite some falling off in late years, owing to the competition made by Westphalian coal, amounts to more than half the total import.

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  • Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.

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  • His success encouraged the Academy to propose, in 1766, as a theme for competition, the hitherto unattempted theory of the Jovian system.

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  • Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.

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  • The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.

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  • It has suffered considerably in modern times from the competition of other towns in this industry, especially since the introduction of the breech-loading rifle.

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  • He was elected interim president in June 1820, on the death of Sir Joseph Banks; but he did not care to enter into competition with Sir Humphry Davy, and the latter was elected president at the anniversary meeting in November 1820.

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  • This was due partly to the excessive proselytizing energy of the Angevins, which provoked rebellion on the part of their Greek-Orthodox subjects, partly to the natural dynastic competition of the Servian and Bulgarian tsars, and partly to the emergence of a new nationality, called Walachia was regarded by the Magyars as part of the banate of Szoreny.

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  • The problem was both economic and racial, and on both grounds South Africans showed a determination to exclude the competition of Indians and other Asiatics.

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  • Finally a great triennial competition decides the elections.

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  • There are few manufacturing industries in Venezuela, and these usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition.

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  • In 1906 the London County Council obtained parliamentary sanction for the erection of a county hall on the south bank of the Thames, immediately east of Westminster Bridge, and in 1908 a design submitted by Mr Ralph Knott was accepted in competition.

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  • The company's management did not give satisfaction, and the use of the telephone was consequently restricted in the metropolis, when in 1898 a Select Committee on Telephones reported that " general immediate and effective " competition by either the government or local authority was necessary to ensure efficient working.

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  • Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.

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  • But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.

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  • Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.

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  • Exportation had long ceased, partly owing to the bountied competition of beet sugar, and partly because the people had become able to afford the consumption of a greater quantity than they produced; and German and Austrian sugars were pouring into the country to supply the deficiency.

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  • In 1760 the manufacture of silk was introduced, and dyeing with Turkey-red in 1780; but it was not till the end of the century that its industries developed into importance under the influence of Napoleon's continental system, which barred out British competition.

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  • This programme was based upon the idea of a liberal reconstruction: he aimed at the reduction and simplification of the State schools combined with a more rigorous method of teaching, and at affording all facilities to, and indeed inviting the competition of, private instruction, fearless of the confessional school, which in his view would be compelled to modernize itself in order to maintain competition with the State school.

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  • The ordinances of a gild merchant thus aim to protect the brethren from the commercial competition of strangers or non-gildsmen.

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  • The medieval form of association was incompatible with the new ideas of individual liberty and free competition, with the greater separation of capital and industry, employers and workmen, and with the introduction of the factory system.

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  • To guard against this competition, the export of tobacco seed from Turkey was prohibited in 1907.

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  • This mission enrolled a very large number of adherents drawn from the old Church, the Protestant Nestorians, and the UniatChaldeans, but it can hardly be said to have commenced any active work, although the Anglican mission withdrew from competition by closing its schools in the dioceses occupied by the Russians.

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  • Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.

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  • In the 15th century the League, with increasing difficulty, held a defensive position against the competition of strong rivals and new trade-routes.

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  • Complaint was made of South German competition in the Netherlands.

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  • The whole system was designed to suppress the competition of outsiders, but the divergent interests of individuals and towns, the pressure of competition and changing commercial conditions, in part the reactionary character of the legislation, made enforcement difficult.

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  • Since then it has greatly declined, owing to the silting up of its harbour and the competition of Taganrog.

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  • Its commercial classes constantly complain of the increasing competition of the provinces, and of the progressive industrial emancipation of Hungary.

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  • A year later he was appointed professor of natural philosophy in Edinburgh University, in succession to Sir John Leslie and in competition with Sir David Brewster, and during his tenure of that office, which he did not give up till 1860, he not only proved himself an active and efficient teacher, but also did much to improve the internal conditions of the university.

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  • Millions of commercial articles in metal-work, wood and ivory flood the European markets, and may be bought in any street in Europe at a small price, but they offer a variety of design and an excellence of workmanship which place them almost beyond Western competition.

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  • But for this he would hardly have established so absolute an antithesis between industrial and military competition, and have shown himself readier to recognize that the law of the struggle for existence, just because it is universal and equally (though differently) operative in every form of society, cannot be appealed to for guidance in deciding between the respective merits of an industrial or military and of an individualist or socialist organization of society.

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  • The English Illustrated Magazine (1883) was brought out in competition with the American Harper's and Century.

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  • He studied medicine in Paris at the newly established Ecole de Medecine, and was appointed by competition prosector when only eighteen years of age.

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  • In the 12th century the significant feature is the growing use of the various national languages in competition with the hitherto universal Latin.

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  • It is therefore the restless, the unsuccessful, or at least those not fitted for the strenuous competition of the older countries, who are tempted to go.

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  • (b) Immigration sometimes increases the competition in the labour market, and thus lowers wages.

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  • that after a number of years English should be the language of the courts as well as of education, and to protect those belonging to the old order of knowledge from the competition of young Maltese better educated than themselves, whose rapid rise everywhere would be assured by knowing English thoroughly.

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  • As they were dependent on the protection of the landlords, the Mahommedans were docile tenants, and their competition weighed heavily on the Christians.

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  • The total value of farm products in 1900 was $9,190,777, an increase of 30% over that of 1890, while the cultivation of cereals suffered on account of the competition of the western states.

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  • For the present he was able to hold his own against all competition.

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  • In spite of the powerful competition of Shanghai, Ning-po has a valuable foreign trade.

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  • The first competition in connexion with alcohol as a fuel for motor vehicles took place in France in 1901, followed in the next year by German investigations, but its employment for this purpose did not make much headway.

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  • Government scholarships enable youths to be educated for competition in the Rhodes scholarships to Oxford University.

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  • Zwingli had never meant to remain at Einsiedeln long, and he now threw himself into a competition for the place of people's priest at the Great Minster of Zurich, and obtained it (1518) after some opposition.

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  • Although New York has lost in the competition with the Western States in the production of most of the grains, especially wheat and barley, and in the production of wool, mutton and pork, it has made steady progress in the dairy business and continues to produce great crops of hay.

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  • In competition with the railways, traffic on the existing canals suffered a marked decline.

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  • In order to minimize competition between prison labour and free labour, articles manufactured in the state prisons, the reformatories and the penitentiaries, are sold only to the institutions and departments of the state and its political divisions.

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  • In other directions, too, the teachings of Maholnet were to be judiciously revised, on the principle that the Prophet himself would never have allowed observance of any of his precepts to put his followers at a permanent disadvantage in competition with infidels.

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  • He built the first independent pipe line, in competition with the Standard Oil Co., through Pennsylvania.

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  • The coarser kinds only are now made, owing to the keen English competition in the finer varieties.

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  • To meet this situation Germany set up central boards (Zentralen), and Austria followed suit, partly at the request of the German Government, which wished to avoid the competition of Austrian agents.

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  • Administrative reform and an advanced railway policy have made of Siam a market for the trade of Europe, which has become an object of keen competition.

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  • The use of slave labour, and the application of the corvee system to natives who were nominally free, enabled the company to lower the cost of production, while the absence of competition enabled it to raise prices.

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  • In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.

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  • The silk manufacture, as to which the first great changes had been made in 1824, and on whose products the duties had been kept higher in previous acts than on other manufactures, was thus compelled, notwithstanding violent opposition, to face unfettered foreign competition.

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  • Successive governments in France made endeavours to break with the prohibitive system, but naturally met with strong opposition from the manufacturing interests, not prepared to meet the competition of Great Britain, whose industries had made, and were continually making, rapid strides.

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  • Then the great improvements in transportation caused competition in agricultural products to be felt, especially from the United States.

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  • The agricultural interest in France, hitherto indifferent about duties, now began to demand protection against competition from beyond the sea.

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  • Bismarck broke with the National Liberals, who were the champions of free trade; at the same time the agricultural depression set in, and the agricultural interest demanded protection against American and other foreign competition.

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  • The factors which have brought about this reaction have been, as was already noted, partly economic, partly political: on the one hand, the pressure of competition from distant countries in agricultural products, a consequence chiefly of improved transportation; on the other hand, the revival of national sentiment and prejudice.

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  • He attributes all the evils that afflict society to the pressure of competition, whereby the weaker are driven to the wall.

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  • It synchronized with, and was partly determined by, the new political system which was spreading all over Europe, the system of dynastic diplomatic competition and the unscrupulous employment of unlimited secret service funds.

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  • The Polish crown first became an object of universal competition in 1573, when Henry of Valois was elected.

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  • But the competition of cheaper labour in other countries reduced the profits on this plant and the product of 1899 was a decrease from 78,818,000 lb in 1859.

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  • Towards the natural price as a centre the market-price, regulated by competition, constantly gravitates.

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  • The same circumstances detertnine the variation of profits, but in an opposite direction; the increase of stock, which raises wages, tending to lower profit through the mutual competition of capitalists.

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  • In what are commonly called loans of money, it is not really the money, but the money's worth, that the borrower wants; and the lender really assigns to him the right to a certain portion of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country, As the general capital of a country increases, so also does the particular portion of it from which the possessors wish to derive a revenue without being at the trouble of employing it themselves, and, as the quantity of stock thus available for loans is augmented, the interest diminishes, not merely "from the general causes which make the market price of things commonly diminish as their quantity increases," but because, with the increase of capital, "it becomes gradually more and more difficult to find within the country a profitable method of employing any new capital" - whence arises a competition between different capitals, and a lowering of profits, which must diminish the price which can be paid for the use of capital, or in other words the rate of interest.

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  • Food competition among mammals, especially intensified on islands, and the introduction of Carnivora constitute another class of causes.

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  • It is said that Pallas, Hephaestus, and Poseidon entered into a competition as to which of them could create the most useful thing.

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  • This industry was ruined by the competition of chemical dyes, and a substitute was found in the cultivation of coffee.

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  • The indigo and cotton plantations yield little profit, owing to foreign competition, and have in most cases been converted to other uses.

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  • A more probable cause is found in the fineness of the prairie soil, which is inimical to the growth of young trees in competition with the grasses and annual plants.

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  • There are also annual agricultural exhibitions of a highly important character, where improvements in connexion with agricultural and horticultural products, live-stock, implements, &c., are shown in competition.

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  • A donation by him of $10,000, distributed to boys and girls on Canadian farms for prizes in a competition for the selection of seed grain, as recommended by Professor J.

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  • The woollen trade once promised to reach considerable dimensions, but towards the end of the 18th century was superseded by the linen (for which flax came to be largely grown); and when this in turn collapsed before the products of the mills of Dundee, Dunfermline and Glasgow, straw-plaiting was taken up, though only to be killed in due time by the competition of the south.

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  • The principal cereals cultivated are Indian corn (product, 53,75 0, 000 bushels in 1908) and wheat; the cultivation of the latter, formerly remunerative, declined on account of the competition of the Western States, but revived after 1899, largely owing to the efforts of the Georgia Wheat Growers' Association (organized in 1897), and in 1908 the yield was 2,208,000 bushels.

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  • Under the Ptolemies, the inland cities declined in comparison with the maritime ones, and the Cyrenaica began to feel the commercial competition of Egypt and Carthage, whence easier roads lead into the continent.

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  • Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself, bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan population.

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  • These are only a few of the moths from which silks of various usefulness can be produced; but none of these presents qualities, saving perhaps cheapness alone, which can put them in competition with common silk.

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  • Rice was the second product in importance until competition with Japan, Louisiana and Texas made the crop a poor investment; improved culture and machinery may restore rice culture to its former importance.

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  • The Corfiotes were encouraged to enrich themselves by the cultivation of the olive, but were debarred from entering into commercial competition with Venice.

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  • He had always admitted the onesidedness of the English free-trade system, and had supported the desirability of retaliating against unfair competition and "dumping" by foreign countries.

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  • The new compact was indicated in Mr Balfour's letter, in which he declared that "fiscal reform is, and must remain, the first constructive work of the Unionist party; its objects are to secure more equal terms of competition for British trade and closer commercial union with the colonies; and while it is at present unnecessary to prescribe the exact methods by which these objects are to be attained, and inexpedient to permit differences of opinion as to these methods to divide the party, though other means are possible, the establishment of a moderate general tariff on manufactured goods, not imposed for the purpose of raising prices, or giving artificial protection against legitimate competition, and the imposition of a small duty on foreign corn, are not in principle objectionable, and should be adopted if shown to be necessary for the attainment of the ends in view or for purposes of revenue."

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  • The growth of national kingdoms, the anti-clerical tendencies of the emancipated middle classes, the competition of lay imperialisms, and all the other elements of resistance which had been encountered by the papacy in its progress and had at first tended only to shackle it, now presented an insurmountable barrier.

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  • The exigencies of competition prompted the discovery that if yarn were sold by weight fresh from the spindle its comparative dryness made such early sale less profitable than if it were allowed to "condition."

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  • Various finishing processes, and particularly the mercerizing of yarn and cloth, have increased the possibilities in cotton materials, and while staples still form the bulk of our foreign trade, it seems that as the stress of competition in these grows acute, more and more of our energy may be transferred to the production of goods which appeal to a growing taste or fancy.

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  • Competition produced in Lehigh county the first successful Portland cement plant in the United States in 1870.

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  • However until increased facilities of transport brought more desirable stones into competition they were used extensively in Philadelphia and.

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  • Lichens are found growing in various situations such as bare earth, the bark of trees, dead wood, the surface of stones and rocks, where they have little competition to fear from ordinary plants.

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  • Moreover, it must be remembered that the conditions most favourable to plants are not always those to which they are subjected in nature, for, owing to the competition of other forms in the struggle for existence, liability to injury from insects, and other adverse circumstances, plants may actually be excluded from the localities best suited for their development.

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  • Many specimens of these Panathenaic vases have been found; on one side is the figure of Athena, on the other a design showing the nature of the competition in which they were given as prizes.

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  • Rock containing 22% of gold is an extraordinarily rich gold ore; that with 21% of copper is a profitable one to-day; that containing 21% of iron is not so to-day, for the sole reason that its iron cannot be extracted with profit in competition with the existing richer ores.

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  • The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance.

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  • We know that Peisistratus ruled by controlling the archonship, which was always held by members of his family, and the archonship of Isagoras was clearly an important party victory; we know further the names of three important men who held the office between Cleisthenes' reform and the Persian War (Hipparchus, Themistocles, Aristides) from which we infer that the office was still the prize of party competition.

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  • Its author himself, in tracing its filiation, points to the phrase "struggle for existence" used by Malthus in relation to the social competition.

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  • A type of vessel, specially designed for the rapid carrying of tea from China to England via the Cape of Good Hope, was introduced, known as the "China Clipper," and the competition was always keen as to which ship should make the most rapid passage.

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  • Romance was no more, although there was extreme competition in building steamers with great power and speed to land their cargoes rapidly by the new route.

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  • In its bazaars an active trade in agricultural produce, glass, pottery, saddlery, and copper and iron ware is carried on; but the manufacture of fire-arms, for which Prizren was long famous throughout European Turkey, has suffered greatly from foreign competition.

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  • The increased demand for manufactured articles will stimulate industrial production, while wider home markets and the trade of Asia will consume the larger food supplies and effectually prevent Western competition with Eastern agriculture.

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  • was more than sufficient for the population; as long as they exported corn, potatoes and cattle, they required no protection from foreign competition, and they enjoyed the advantages of being able to purchase colonial goods and manufactured articles cheaply.

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  • After the year 1873, a strong movement in favour of protective duties made itself felt among the Austrian manufacturers who were affected by the competition of German, English and Belgian goods, and Austria was influenced by the general movement in economic thought which about this time caused the reaction 2 Matlekovits, Die Zollpolitik der osterreichish-ungarischen Monarchie (Leipzig, 1891),., gives the Hungarian point of view; Bazant, Die Handelspolitik OsterreichUngarns (1875-1892, Leipzig, 1894).

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  • The cultivation of cotton, which spread during the American War of Secession, is now rare, since it has not been able to withstand the competition of more favoured countries.

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  • Up to 1896 the sulphur industry was in a state of crisis due to the competition of pyrites, to the subdivision of the mines, to antiquated methods, and to a series of other causes which occasioned violent oscillations in and a continual reduction of prices.

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  • The fine exhibits from the Trenton potteries at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876 greatly stimulated the demand for these wares and increased the competition among the manufacturers; and since that date there has been a marked development in both the quantity and the quality of the product.

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  • Much of its commercial and political importance has been lost, also, through the decay of industrial activity in the state, and through the more vigorous competition of the agricultural states of the south.

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  • The competition for employment in the army is still severe.

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  • There can, indeed, be no doubt that the Danish and Norwegian merchants at the end of the i 6th century flourished exceedingly, despite the intrusion and competition of the Dutch and the dangers to neutral shipping arising from the frequent wars between England, Spain and the Netherlands.

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  • In England and Scotland the industry has greatly fallen off under the competition of the rock-salt works of Cheshire.

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  • The best known of his military works is his History of Modern Cavalry (London, 1877), which was awarded first prize by the Russian government in an open competition and has been translated into German, Russian and Japanese.

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  • The sub-commissioners who reported to the Royal Commission on Agriculture in 1895 found nearly everywhere a demand, sometimes competition for farms, persisting throughout the crisis.

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  • In Perth, Fife, Forfar and Aberdeen the average was 30%; but in nearly all the counties, towards the end at least of the period of depression, the coexistent demand and competition for farms were observable.

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  • These changes included the transference of the initiative in university legislation from the sole authority of the heads of houses to an elected and representative body, the opening of college fellowships and scholarships to competition by the removal of local and other restrictions the non-enforcement at matriculation of subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles, and various steps for increasing the usefulness and influence of the professoriate.

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  • He also hinted at the necessity for European combination to resist American competition.

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  • From 1850 until 1879 Illinois also led in the production of wheat; the competition of the more western states, however, caused a great decline in both acreage and production of that cereal, the state's rank in the number of bushels produced declining to third in 1889 and to fourteenth in 1899, but the crop and yield per acre in 1902 was larger than any since 1894; in 1905 the state ranked ninth, in 1906 eighth and in 1907 fifth (the crop being 40,104,000 bushels) among the wheat-growing states of the country.

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  • The first public competitive examination for the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, took place in 1855, and in 1870 the principle of open competition for the civil service was adcpted as a general rule.

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  • Tobacco-planting is encouraged by the Spanish government, and the sugar trade is maintained, despite severe competition.

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  • In spite of high tariffs and civil wars, and the competition of Matanzas, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and other Cuban ports opened to foreign trade in modern times, the commerce of Havana has steadily increased.

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  • The Roman conquest of Achaea enhanced the prosperity of Argos by removing the trade competition of Corinth.

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  • It is limited to about a thousand members, who are chosen by open competition in England between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-four.

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  • A large share of the produce is consumed in the form of gur or unrefined sugar, and the market for this preparation i= independent of foreign competition.

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  • But though India has special advantages in home-grown cotton and cheap labour, the labour is so inefficient as to make competition with Europe difficult.

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  • The tea outlook was good, and the coffee industry was recovering from the effects of plant disease and Brazilian competition.

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  • The Dutch were already too strongly entrenched in the Indian archipelago for English competition to avail there, and the intense rivalry between the two nations led to the tragedy of Amboyna in 1623, when Governor Van Speult put to torture and death nine Englishmen on a charge of conspiring to take the Dutch forts.

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  • The competition of beet-sugar and the effect of bounties granted by various countries then began to tell on the production in Mauritius, the average crop for the seven years ending1900-1901being only 150,449 tons.

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  • These figures when compared with those in years before the beet and bounty-fed sugar had entered into severe competition with cane sugar, show how greatly the island had thereby suffered.

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  • Towards the close of the 19th century this industry suffered from labour troubles, from the competition of Tampa, Florida, and from the commercial improvement of Havana, Cuba; but soon after 1900 the tobacco business of Key West began to recover.

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  • The indoor manufactures followed in British prisons are not so varied as the foregoing and have been limited by the protests and objections raised by free or outside labour against alleged unfair competition.

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  • But even in this field the competition of the oil-engine and the gas-engine is too formidable to leave to the air-engine more than a very narrow chance of employment.

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  • A state railway commission controls transportation rates, which are also somewhat checked by the competition of river freights.

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  • his assassination seems to voice his appreciation of the change in popular sentiment regarding the tariff laws of the United States and is the more remarkable as coming from the foremost champion for years of a form of tariff legislation devised to stifle international competition.

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  • The iron ore from this district obtained the grand prize at the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893, in competition with iron ores from all parts of the world.

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  • The exploitation of the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines.

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  • The highly theatrical manner of recitation which was fostered by the spirit of competition, and by the example of the stage, cannot have done justice to the even movement of the epic style.

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  • It has recently been maintained that modern European history is chiefly an affair of competition between confederated states for the possession of lands revealed by Columbus and Da Gama.

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  • From 1875 to 1878 he was employed in a city office, but he entered the civil service by open competition as a clerk in the War Office in 1878, became 1 See Leinendamastmuster des XVII.

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  • With the end of the Napoleonic wars in Europe the industries of the old world revived, and Americans began to feel their competition.

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  • in 1889) has applied the principles of natural competition and natural selection to explain the struggle of ideals against each other within society: moral evil, says Professor Alexander, is in great part a defeated variety of moral ideal.

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  • the royal family, and contributors of £50o or more to the funds), of the council of almoners (which administers the endowments), or of certain of the city companies; (2) by competition, on the nomination of a donation governor (for boys only), or from public elementary schools in London, certain city parishes and certain endowed schools elsewhere.

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  • At last, when the competition for the Grand Prix came on, Delaroche gave Millet to understand that he intended to secure the nomination of another, and thereupon Millet withdrew himself, and with his friend Marolle started in a little studio in the Rue de 1'Est.

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  • It has been shown b�arwin that, in the case of most animals and plants in a state of nature, the competition of other organisms is a tar more efficient agency in limiting their distribution than the mere influence of climate.

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  • Indeed, up to1830-1840there was little or no competition with hand labour for this class of material.

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  • In 1841 he published under the title Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik two essays which he had sent in 1838-1839 in competition for prizes offered.

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  • But proportionate to his exultation in this first recognition of his merit was the depth of his mortification and the height of his indignation at the result of the second competition.

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  • His essay, though it was the only one in competition, was refused the prize on the grounds that he had failed to examine the chief problem (i.e.

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  • There are also extensive glass factories, but these have suffered from German competition, and many have been closed.

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  • They have been restricted principally to articles of necessity - food preparations, beverages, textiles and wearing apparel, leather and leatherwork, woodwork, pottery, chemicals, ironware, &c. In earlier days, when Chile had less competition in the production of wheat, flour mills were to be found everywhere in the wheat-producing provinces, and flour was one of the leading exports.

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  • The 1 Even Huxley, the most ardent of all opponents of fishery legislation, while denying that oyster-beds had been permanently annihilated by dredging, practically admitted that a bed may be reduced to such a condition that the oyster will only be able to recover its former state by a long struggle with its enemies and competition - in fact that it must re-establish itself much in the same way as they have acquired possession of new grounds in Jutland, a process which, according to his own statement, occupied thirty years (Lecture at the Royal Institution, May 11th, 1883, printed with additions in the English Illustrated Magazine, i.

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  • Thus they became at onceuniversal and capable of extension by propaganda; and, with this, of entering into keen competition one with the other.

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  • These traits are most clearly marked in Judaism; but, after the Achaemenid period, they are common to all Oriental creeds, though our information as to most is scanty in the extreme, In this competition of religions that of Iran played a most spirited part.

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  • minds that there was soon a keen competition among the younger poets as to who should produce the most successful imitation of that classic model; and this competition has gone on under different forms through all the following centuries, even to the most recent times.

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  • Despite competition from the Mersey tunnel, these ferries continue to transport millions of passengers annually, and have a considerable share in the heavy goods traffic.

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  • These latter so accumulated that the temple became a rich museum, among the chief treasures of which were the figures of Amazons sculptured in competition by Pheidias, Polyclitus, Cresilas and Phradmon, and the painting by Apelles of Alexander holding a thunderbolt.

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  • Meanwhile the Dutch East India Company had been formed in Holland, and the Dutch had entered keenly into the competition for the glittering prizes of Eastern commerce.

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  • Hence there was jealousy and competition between the Cape and Natal and a tendency to use the railways (which were state owned), by means of rebates, to counteract the effects of common customs dues.

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