His arguments were concise, simple, and clear.
Then he attacks the arguments, one after another.
After reading my arguments, you may or may not believe the future I describe is inevitable, as I say it is.
But these differences between Dalton's views and our present ones do not impair the accuracy of the arguments which follow.
If we try to know the real world, we find ourselves distracted by opposite arguments (" ` Antithetic of Pure Reason "), plausible and resistless in attack, helpless in defence.
It seems impossible to deny that the tendency of his principles and his arguments is mainly in the line of a metaphysical absolute, as the necessary completion and foundation of all being and knowledge.
Her arguments seemed so wise and practical, that I could not but yield.
A member of the Hofkriegsrath from Vienna had come to Kutuzov the day before with proposals and demands for him to join up with the army of the Archduke Ferdinand and Mack, and Kutuzov, not considering this junction advisable, meant, among other arguments in support of his view, to show the Austrian general the wretched state in which the troops arrived from Russia.
All Moscow repeated Prince Dolgorukov's saying: "If you go on modeling and modeling you must get smeared with clay," suggesting consolation for our defeat by the memory of former victories; and the words of Rostopchin, that French soldiers have to be incited to battle by highfalutin words, and Germans by logical arguments to show them that it is more dangerous to run away than to advance, but that Russian soldiers only need to be restrained and held back!
Chicheley now became the subject of a leading case, the court of king's bench deciding, of ter arguments reheard in three successive terms, that he could not hold his previous benefices with the bishopric, and that, spite of the maxim Papa potest omnia, a papal bull could not supersede the law of the land (Year-book ii.
But Intuitionalism has further arguments for the doubter.
He teaches free will and immortality; and the design and cosmological arguments are both traceable in him.
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
Consequently, although small bodies of individuals no doubt came back to Judah from time to time, and some special mark of favour may have been shown by Cyrus, the opinion has gained ground since the early arguments of E.
All right then, not the cavalry, but a marshaling of arguments and observations that will show how the end of war is inevitable, or nearly so.
His son made no rejoinder, but it was evident that whatever arguments were presented he was as little able as his father to change his opinion.
Still I could not shut my eyes to the force and weight of their arguments, and I saw plainly that I must abandon--'s scheme as impracticable.
Arguments concerning contact with tip lines became heated as well.
In 1639 he published a series of arguments against atheism, in which the Cartesian views were not obscurely indicated as perilous for the faith, though no name was mentioned.
The doctrine of the circulation of the blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably did much to popularize the discovery.
Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
A Latin abridgment of philosophy, dated 1784, tells us that the innate ideas of Descartes are founded on no arguments, and are now universally abandoned.
Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.
He is said to have convinced their king Sigeberht of the truth of Christianity by his arguments, and at his request sent Cedd, a brother of Ceadda, on a mission to Essex.
Modern criticism of the history of Sabbath observance among the Hebrews has done nothing more than follow out these arguments in detail, and show that the result is in agreement with what is known as to the dates of the several component parts of the Pentateuch.
This article is confined to summarizing the philosophical or scientific arguments for, and objections to, the doctrine of the persistence of the human soul after death.
Ritchie, " that, in the various dialogues in which Plato speaks of immortality, the arguments seem to be of different kinds, and most of them quite unconnected with one another.
Fairbairn, " Plato's arguments for immortality, isolated, modernized, may be feeble, even valueless, but allowed to stand where and as he himself puts them, they have an altogether different worth.
In stating constructively the doctrine of immortality we must assign altogether secondary importance to the metaphysical arguments from the nature of the soul.
Such arguments as the indivisibility of the soul and its persistence can at most indicate the possibility of immortality.
To this belief, many and good as are the arguments which can be advanced for it, a confident certainty is given by Christian faith in the Risen Lord, and the life and immortality which he has brought to light in his Gospel.
Furtwangler proposes to find in a statue of which the head is at Bologna, and the body at Dresden, a copy of the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias; but his arguments (Masterpieces, at the beginning) are anything but conclusive.
It is divided into three books, the first containing his proofs of the divine existence, and the remaining two the theological and philosophical arguments for immortality based on that postulate.
The country was flooded with Jesuits and friars, whose arguments were reinforced by quartering troops, veterans of the Indian wars in Mexico, on the refractory inhabitants.
In October of this last year, however, the duke of Savoy, who came then to assist in person at the great religious feasts which celebrated the return of the country to unity of faith, expatriated such of the leading men as obstinately refused even to listen to the Catholic arguments.
Fichte, in short, advocates an ethical theism, and his arguments might easily be turned to account by the apologist of Christianity.
It is characteristic of Fichte's almost excessive receptiveness that in his latest published work, Der neuere Spiritualismus (1878), he supports his position by arguments of a somewhat occult or theosophical cast, not unlike those adopted by F.
There was also the danger that Austria might join the allies first and Piedmont be, left isolated; but there were also strong arguments on the other side, for while the Radical party saw no obvious reason why Piedmont should fight other peoples battles, and therefore opposed the alliance, there was the risk that Austria might join the al]iance together with Piedmont, which would have constituted a disastrous situation.
He was to draw up a written treatise, stating the course he proposed, and defending it by arguments from scripture, the fathers and the decrees of general councils.
The fixed given points of intuitionalism furnish Hamilton with one of his arguments in his unexpected development towards a sceptical or " faith philosophy."
He will not have the Ontological argument; but he asserts Natural Law, and relies upon the cosmological and design arguments - with various refinements and distinctions, differently stated in his two Summae.
Rene Descartes, a faithful though not an unsuspected Roman Catholic, founded modern philosophy by his startingpoint of universal doubt and by his arguments in reply.
Whatever one may think of the cogency of such arguments, it seems safe to conclude that thinkers, who dislike constructive idealism, but accept time and space as boundless given quanta, reach in that way the thought of infinity, and if they are theists, necessarily connect their theism with reflexions on the nature of Time and Space.
Kant puts together, as belonging to " Rational Theology," three arguments - he is critic of fond of triads, though they have not the significance for him which they came to have for Hegel.
A more entirely novel and more general principle of Kant's attack upon theism is the challenge of our right to build up the idea of God bit by bit out of different arguments.
The arguments had been regarded as alternative or else as cumulative proofs, all pointing to one conclusion - God exists.
A great deal of popular theism is undoubtedly hard hit by it; for popular theism is apt to throw its arguments together in very random fashion.
Hegel inherits from Kant the three arguments, and takes them as stages in one developing process of argu- thought.
Finally the Ontological argument sums up the truth in the two previous arguments, and gives it worthier utterance in its vision of the philosophical Absolute.
- The arguments, as already noted, may be differently combined.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
Those have found little favour who brought to the debate only formal criticisms or amplifications of the Darwinian arguments, or re-marshallings of the Darwinian facts, however ably conducted.
earth by three arguments, two of which could be tested by observation.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
His great work, the forcing into common law of the principles of civil law, was unaccomplished; but Story says "he seemed about to accomplish [it]; for his arguments before the Supreme Court were crowded with the principles of the Roman Law, wrought into the texture of the Common Law with great success."
When such exclusively " external " arguments are urged, the contents of Christianity go for next to nothing.
Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.
Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.
There are strong arguments against Robert Wedderburn's authorship, as maintained by Laing and others.
Pavilliard's description of the " thin little figure, with a large head, disputing and arguing, with the greatest ability, all the best arguments that had ever been used in favour of popery."
He continued to reside at Avignon despite the arguments of envoys and the verses of Petrarch, but threw a sop to the Romans by reducing the Jubilee term from one hundred years to fifty.
He had already, in 1859, as the result of a visit to Budapest, made certain modifications in the Bach system by way of concession to Magyar sentiment, and in 1861 he had had an interview with Dek, during which, though unconvinced by that statesmans arguments, he had at least assured himself of his loyalty.
Their concessions continue to become ever more significant, and all that follows from them should be carefully noticed by those who are impressed by their arguments.
The arguments of conservative writers involve concessions which, though often overlooked by their readers, are very detrimental to the position they endeavour to support, and the objections they bring against the theory of the introduction of new law-books (under a Josiah or an Ezra) apply with equal force to the promulgation of Mosaic teaching which had been admittedly ignored or forgotten.
He had read a pamphlet published in America attacking the proposed order, which was to form a bond of association between the officers who had fought in the American War of Independence against England; the arguments struck him as true and valuable, so he re-arranged them in his own fashion, and rewrote them in his own oratorical style.
On the last point, however, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, and there Webster, presenting principally arguments of his colleagues at the state trial and making a powerful appeal to the emotions of the court, won the case for the college and for himself the front rank at the American bar.
In the following year Webster delivered his oration in commemoration of the second and third presidents of the United States - John Adams and Thomas Jefferson - who died on the 4th of July 1826; it is particularly remarkable for Adams's imaginary reply in the Continental 'Congress to the arguments against a Declaration of Independence, beginning with the familiar quotation: "Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I gave my hand and my heart to this vote."
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
It is not too much to say that the conviction of the justice of their cause that carried the northern states successfully through the Civil War was largely due to the arguments of Webster.
On the much agitated question about the employment of horses or oxen in labour, the most important arguments are distinctly stated.
Defects in their arguments have been exposed to view by those who are most concerned to defend their reputation.
The real state of the case is certainly unsuspected by Origen himself; but many of his opponent's arguments he is unable to meet except by a speculative reconstruction of the church doctrine in question.
i it was largely rebuilt, and arguments have been brought forward by DOrpfeld to show that features of the second type were then introduced.
In theology he followed Zwingli, and at the sacramentarian conferences of Heidelberg (1560) and Maulbronn (1564) he advocated by voice and pen the Zwinglian doctrine of the Lord's Supper, replying (1565) to the counter arguments of the Lutheran Johann Marbach, of Strassburg.
The cogent arguments against this view are set forth in the article on Arthropoda.
Muller, Facts and Arguments for Darwin (trans.
It must not, however, be forgotten that Justin is here speaking as the apologist of Christianity to an educated Pagan public, on whose philosophical view of life he had to base his arguments, and from whom he could not expect an intimate comprehension of the religious position of Christians.
Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
In regard to both assizes, it, is most important to bear in mind that we possess not laws, but law-books or custumals - records made by lawyers for their fellows of what they conceived to be the law, and supported by legal arguments and citations of cases.
For the Heteronemertines arguments have been adduced to prove that here they have the physiological significance of a special respiratory apparatus for the central nervous tissue, which in all these forms is strongly charged with haemoglobin.
Berengar's belief was not shaken by their arguments and exhortations, and hearing that Lanfranc, the most celebrated theologian of that age, strongly approved the doctrine of Paschasius and condemned that of " Scotus " (really Ratramnus), he wrote to him a letter expressing his surprise and urging him to reconsider the question.
This last book contains a summary of the arguments on either side, a full bibliography of works on the subject, and facsimiles of the title pages, with full descriptions of the various extant copies.
His analogical arguments resemble those found in the Bampton Lectures of Dean Mansel.
Part of his numerous pamphlets and addresses were collected in his Speeches, Arguments and Miscellaneous Papers (3 vols., 1884-1890).
As a borough of the Palatinate Hartlepool was not represented in parliament until the 19th century, though strong arguments in its favour were advanced in the Commons in 1614.
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
He assumed that if we have one atom 1 It is now established that ortho compounds do exist in isomeric forms, instances being provided by chlor-, brom-, and amino-toluene, chlorphenol, and chloraniline; but arguments, e.g.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
He accordingly raised the question of its apostolic origin; and by reviving old difficulties, with ingenious arguments of his own, he carried his point.
About 1607 Schoppe entered the service of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., who found him very useful in rebutting the arguments of the Protestants, and who sent him on several diplomatic errands.
But these arguments have been shown to be shaky if not baseless, and the identification is now generally abandoned.
A similar theory holds for relations which arise from the consideration of propositional functions with two or more variable arguments.
But France's influence, backed by the strong personality of her ambassador, General Sebastiani, was sufficient to enable the sultan to withstand these arguments, and the British ambassador broke off relations and withdrew to the fleet at Tenedos (February 1807).
It is probable that the electrical effects constitute the strongest arguments in favour of the theory.
forma), in general, the external shape, appearance, configuration of an object, in contradistinction to the matter of which it is composed; thus a speech may contain excellent arguments, - the matter may be good, while the style, grammar, arrangement, - the form - is bad.
If the arguments chiefly relied on for an early date are so precarious or can even be turned against their inventors, there are others of an unambiguous kind which make for a date in the Persian period.
The arguments used were, however, of no avail with the regent, and the decree was promulgated on the r3th of May 1888.
Against the system of non-difference Abelard has a number of logical and traditional arguments to bring, but it is sufficiently condemned by his fundamental doctrine that only the individual exists in its own right.
But Aquinas, though he holds the fact of creation to be rationally demonstrable, regards the beginning of the world in time as only an article of faith, the philosophical arguments for and against being inconclusive.
The facts of the relationships of animals to one another, which had been treated as the outcome of an inscrutable law by most zoologists and glibly explained by the transcendental morphologists, were amongst the most powerful arguments in support of Darwin's theory, since they, together with all other vital phenomena, received a sufficient explanation through it.
Whilst simple evidence of the fact of the transmission of an acquired character is wanting, the a priori arguments in its favour break down one after another when discussed.
We need not, however, spend much time on the well-worn but inconclusive arguments of the older critics.
[True, there was not so much said about Babylon as we should have expected even in the first book; the paucity of references to the local characteristics of Babylonia is in fact one of the negative arguments urged by older scholars in favour of the Isaianic origin of the prophecy.] Israel himself, with all his inconsistent qualities, becomes the absorbing subject of the prophet's meditations.
In all the others, and especially in the last three, the continuity of the argument is frequently broken by passages which must have been inserted after the first draft of the arguments was written out.
Smith has, however, still stronger arguments, which he states as follows: " Throughout the entire line of the old bridge, the bed of the river was found to contain ancient wooden piles; and when these piles, subsequently to the erection of the new bridge, were pulled up to deepen the channel of the river, many thousands of Roman coins, with abundance of broken Roman tiles and pottery, were discovered, and immediately beneath some of the central piles brass medallions of Aurelius, Faustina and Commodus.
Further, it is certain that Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic, of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st century B.C. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's date are (1) the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that the 1st century A.D.
The totally unexpected AngloPrussian alliance had justified the arguments of his enemies that England was impossible, while his hatred of France prevented him from adopting the only alternative of an alliance with her.
It is not possible within the limits at our command to specify the facts and arguments by which these theories are respectively supported.
This, however, does not disturb the tenor of the following arguments.
The configurations of the pentaand tetra-aldoses have been determined by similar arguments; and those of the ketoses can be deduced from the aldoses.
By these and similar arguments he arrives at the fundamental principle of Scepticism, the radical and universal opposition of causes; panti logo logos antikeitai.
The two ministers of Delft, who had debated the point with him, had, the better to turn his arguments, descended from the supralapsarian to the infralapsarian position, i.e.
It is usually maintained that this work was written before the Old Testament poems. The arguments for this view are that the Heliand contains no allusion to any foregoing poetical treatment of the antecedent history, and that the Genesis fragments exhibit a higher degree of poetic skill.
The exegetical arguments are, in short, the final court of appeal, and their verdict tells rather in favour of the epistle's integrity.
The chief arguments to be urged against this late date are the character of the Hebrew style (Driver, op. cit., p. 233) and the alleged close of the prophetic canon by 200; but perhaps neither of these can be regarded as very convincing.
The angry tyrant, unable to refute her arguments himself, sent for pagan scholars to argue with her, but they were discomfited.
But in Lent his celebrated sermons upon Amos were delivered in the duomo, and again he urged the necessity of reforming the church, striving by ingenious arguments to reconcile rebellion against Alexander with unalterable fidelity to the Holy See.
The philosophic principles and religious deductions of Dean Mansel he disliked as much as those of Newman, but he respected his arguments more.
When this building of railways began in Japan, much discussion was taking place in England and India as to the relative advantages of the wide and narrow gauges, and so strongly did the arguments in favor of the latter appeal to the English advisers of the Japanese government that the metre gauge was chosen.
His arguments were felicitous, and his choice of language was the theme of constant admiration.
At the express request of Malesherbes he furnished some arguments to the materials collected for the defence of the king.
There the more liberal theology rapidly made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, and Macleod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social improvement of the people.
While most of the "Broad Churchmen" were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the dogma of everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed.
It is evident from these arguments that no general answer can be given to the question.
Morin does not deal fully with the arguments from internal evidence which point back to the beginning of the 5th century as the date of the creed.
His arguments and exhortations may be gathered from many of his epistles and from his tract Adversus Helvidium, in which he defends the perpetual virginity of Mary against Helvidius, who maintained that she bore children to Joseph.
He had been chosen to meet Hamilton in controversy, with a view to convincing him of his errors, but the arguments of the Scottish proto-martyr, and above all the spectacle of his heroism at the stake, impressed Alesius so powerfully that he was entirely won over to the cause of the Reformers.
Hence all the elaborate arguments based on the supposition that Moses probably could not write fall to the ground.
In it he collected with great fulness and discussed with marked moderation the arguments against Johannine authorship. This called forth a number of replies.
After full hearing of arguments they gave their decision against both the practices in question.
The arguments of Dionysius were repeated by Eusebius, who ascribed the work to the presbyter John mentioned by Papias (Eus.
When, however, we combine the preceding arguments with that of the early church tradition, the evidence for the Domitian date outweighs that for any other.
His arguments, as summed up by Swete (op. cit., p. cxiv seq.), are as follows: "John the Evangelist abstains from mentioning his own name, but John the Apocalyptist names himself more than once at the very outset of his book, and again near its end.
The second part of the book is taken up with a number of metaphysical arguments to prove the impossibility of an external world.
Lightfoot, however, has proved that Polycarp's statements may equally well be directed against Corinthianism or any other form of Docetism, while some of his arguments are absolutely inapplicable to Marcionism.
But, as Gwatkin 13 has pointed out, Harnack's arguments are by no means decisive.
It is true that Harnack has adduced arguments which cannot be discussed here to prove that Irenaeus was not born till about 140; 15 but against this we may quote the decision of Lipsius, who puts the date of his birth at 130, 16 while Lightfoot argues for 120.17 The fact that Irenaeus never quotes Polycarp does not count for much.
To direct attention to the true nature of revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right of liberty is interwoven with the very existence of man as an intelligent agent, to point out the inherent progressiveness of state arrangements, and the consequent necessity of reform or amendment, such are the main objects of the Beitrage; and although, as is often the case with Fichte, the arguments are too formal and the distinctions too wiredrawn, yet the general idea is nobly conceived and carried out.
The arguments of the atomists, and their replies to the objections of Anaxagoras, are to be found in Lucretius.
This was the state of opinion when the celebrated arguments against the possibility of motion, of which that of Achilles and the tortoise is a specimen, were propounded by Zeno, and such, apparently, continued to be the state of opinion till Aristotle pointed out that time is divisible without limit, in precisely the same sense that space is.
" It was easy to attempt to apply similar arguments to matter.
The Aristotelian dialectic, however, deals with the universal laws (Kocval apxai) of reasoning, which can be applied to the particular arguments of all the sciences.
These arguments, reinforced by those of the royalist agent de Vitrolles, convinced the tsar; and Talleyrand, on the 1st of April, convened the French senate (only 64 members out of 1 4 0 attended), and that body pronounced that Napoleon had forfeited the crown.
From these three arguments he developed an elaborate theosophy which was a syncretism of oriental mysticism and pure Greek metaphysic, and may be regarded as representing the climax of Jewish philosophy.
The Latin doctors by arguments as good as those usually put forth in such controversies have no difficulty in proving that Christ instituted all seven.
The Manicheans' answer to such arguments was that miracles worked by Christ and the Apostles in the material world were only apparitional and not real, while those of the Old Testament were satanic.
Siricius (384-389), Leo the Great (440-461), and Gelasius (492-496) left little for their successors to add to the arguments in favour of the papal supremacy.
himself stoutly maintained the headship of the pope, and, as is well known, after examining the arguments of Luther, published his Defence of the Seven Sacraments in 1521, which won for him from the pope the glorious title of "Defender of the Faith."
But others were won over by the news that it had been ratified by New Hampshire and Virginia or by the telling arguments of Hamilton, and on the 26th of July the motion to ratify was carried by a vote of 30 to 27.
Sometimes quoting, sometimes paraphrasing, sometimes merely referring, he reproduces and replies to all Celsus's arguments.
It must be judged not only by theoretical but by practical arguments, in its relations either to the individual or to a society.
Shepard, meant to sell it for one cent, but under the arguments of Greeley he was persuaded to fix the price at two cents.
In 1902 her position was strengthened by the alliance with England; in 1903 her army, though in the event it proved almost too small, was considered by the military authorities as sufficiently numerous and well prepared, and the arguments of the Japanese diplomatists stiffened with menaces.
It is wrong, therefore, to impute to Kant, as is often done, the view that human reason is, on ultimate subjects, at war with itself, in the sense of being impelled by equally strong arguments towards alternatives contradictory of each other.
His strongest arguments are that the wind would easily develop into the messenger of the gods (Len oU pos), and that it was often thought to promote fertility in crops and cattle.
But many of Roscher's arguments are forced, and his method of interpretation is not altogether sound.
This gives certain of his arguments an air of pedantry, and seems to lead him to find evidences of continuity in institutions which in reality and spirit were different from what they once had been.
Ray adopted Grew's views, and states various arguments to prove their correctness in the preface to his work on European plants, published in 1694.
His views were not, however, adopted at once by all, for we find Charles Alston stating arguments against them in his Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants.
Valdemar's skilful diplomacy, reinforced by golden arguments, did indeed induce the dukes of Brunswick, Brandenburg and Pomerania to attack the confederates in the rear; but fortune was persistently unfriendly to the Danish king, 1 Rostock, Greifswald, Wismar and Stralsund.
Moreover, the arguments by which Heraclitus supported this theory of the universal flux are employed by Protagoras to undermine the possibility of objective truth, by dissolving all knowledge into the momentary sensation or persuasion of the individual.
His arguments were drawn from the dialectic which the Eleatics had directed against the existence of the phenomenal world.
Even Hume, in various passages of his Treatise, speaks of himself as recovering cheerfulness and mental tone only by forgetfulness of his own arguments.
The theological application and development of Hamilton's arguments in Mansel's Bampton Lectures On the Limits of Religious Thought marked a still more determined attack, in the interests of theology, upon the competency of reason.
Sceptical reflection rather than systematic scepticism is what meets us in Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), though the elaborate presentation of sceptical and relativistic arguments in his " Apologie de Raimond-Sebond " (Essais, ii.
In his " tesmoynages de nostre imbecillite " he follows in the main the lines of the ancients, and he sums up with a lucid statement of the two great arguments in which the sceptical thought of every age resumes itself - the impossibility of verifying our faculties, and the relativity of all impressions.
No arguments can be brought against it, simply because the scepticism rests on nothing more than the empty possibility of doubting.
for two centuries, was peacefully accomplished by Jagiello within a single generation, the Lithuanians, for the most part, willingly yielding to the arguments of a prince of their own blood, who promptly rewarded his converts with peculiar and exclusive privileges.
Denying the existence of a deity, and refusing to admit as evidence all a priori arguments, Holbach saw in the universe nothing save matter in spontaneous movement.
In this table (93) sin 20=Ca, where a is a function tabulated for the two arguments, V the initial velocity, and R/C the reduced range in yards.
The stamp distributor was driven out, and the arguments of Daniel Dulany (1721-1797), the ablest lawyer in the province, against the act were quoted by speakers in parliament for its repeal.
For though the Reformers were critical of the authority of ecclesiastical tradition in the matter of 2 His arguments are stated briefly (and in order to be refuted) by Jerome in his commentary on Daniel.
So far back as it can be traced it is, therefore, an Alexandrian MS., and palaeographical arguments point in the same direction.
nearly] fifty years old ": but both his arguments are probably derived from a single source, Papias's interpretation of John viii.
It can be said confidently that the truth is between these two extremes (though in what exact year it is not easy to say), as will be evident from a consideration of the arguments urged, which in each case appear less to prove one extreme than to disprove its opposite.
The arguments, then, brought forward in favour of A.D.
Arguments for an Early Date, A.D.
Of these arguments, then, the first, so far as it is valid, is an argument for the summer, not of A.D.
In the result, then, the arguments brought forward in favour of each extreme fail to prove their case, but at the same time prove something against the opposite view.
16, where the argument rests upon the word " seed " (and not the plural " seeds ") in the proof-text, and the same word in Rabbinical writings is used to support other arguments.
Apropos of this law the Rabbinical arguments are worth noticing.
The latter observes (p. 203): " the arguments by which Paul tried to convince his opponents of the true meaning of the Old Testament as pointing forward to Christ, are those which they would themselves have employed for another purpose; and to some extent we need not doubt that they were selected for that very reason.
They were the arguments which were best calculated to appeal to them."
As an advocate his sharpness and rapidity of insight gave him a formidable advantage in the detection of the weaknesses of a witness and the vulnerable points of his opponent's case, while he grouped his own arguments with an admirable eye to effect, especially excelling in eloquent closing appeals to a jury.
Eberhard stated the arguments for the broader view with dignity, acuteness and learning, but the liberality of the reasoning gave great offence to the strictly orthodox divines, and is believed to have obstructed his preferment in the church.
arguments which were afterwards adopted by the Christian image-worshippers.
They both urged society towards the abolition of the previously prevailing industrial policy of European governments; and their arguments against that policy rested essentially on the same grounds.
The interval of the arguments is io", and the results are given to 8 places; in Napier's canon the interval is 1', and the number of places is 7.
The supreme court holds one general term each year at Concord and on the first Tuesday of every month except July and August sits to hear arguments, make orders and render decisions; the superior court holds one or two sessions a year in every county.
Because of Daniel Webster's arguments in the Dartmouth College Case, and because his party had favoured the support of the Congregational Church by public taxation, he became very unpopular in this his native state.
Luzio, whose account in Profili e bozzetti storici (Milan, 1906) gives the latest information on the subject, has demolished Amante's arguments.
One of his arguments, however, calls for special criticism, - his assertion that it is selfevident that nothing that has a beginning can be without a cause is an unwarranted assumption of the very point at issue.
But its general character may be gathered from the arguments addressed to the tribunal.
The arguments against the genuineness of some of the above writings do not seem to the present writer to have weight.
It divides (chap. 8) evidences (7r1aTEts) into two kinds (I) evidence from arguments, actions and men (ai j s v E air&v Tcev Xhywv cal Twv 7rpit aw cal TWV avOpcoirwv); (2) adventitious evidences (ai S' iIriOETOtTOLs X yo,u vots cal Tois rpm-To/lb/0a).
Now, from the outset of his Rhetoric Aristotle himself claims to be the first to distinguish between artificial evidences from arguments and other evidences which he regards as mere additions; and he complains that the composers of arts of speaking had neglected the former for the latter.
2, 372 b 9) quotes the De Sensu (c. 3), and therefore, on Zeller's arguments, ought to follow one of the Parva Naturalia.
I, 1 355 a 33-35); rhetoric, since its artificial evidences involve characters, passions and reasoning, is called a kind of offshoot of dialectic and morals, and a copy of dialectic, because neither is a science of anything definite, but both faculties (SvvItyas) of providing arguments (i.
2, 1356 a 33); and, since rhetorical arguments are examples and enthymemes analysed in the Analytics, rhetoric is finally regarded as a compound of analytic science and of morals, while it is like dialectical and sophistic arguments (i.
Rhetoric is a faculty on any subject of investigating what may be persuasive (acOavov), which is the work of no other art; its means are artificial and inartificial evidences (7riorecs), and, among artificial evidences, especially the logical arguments of example and enthymeme.
.l'archeveque de Malines (1869), containing a clear exposition of the historical arguments against the doctrine of papal infallibility.
The developed form of this idea is almost certainly a product of the polemic with Christianity, in which the Rabbins were hard pressed by arguments from passages (especially Isa.
He had specially prepared himself, as he thought, for "teaching imaginative men, and political men, and legal men, and scientific men who bear the world in hand"; and he did not attempt to win their attention to abstract and worn-out theological arguments, but discussed the opinions, the poetry, the politics, the manners and customs of the time, and this not with philosophical comprehensiveness, not in terms of warm eulogy or measured blame, but of severe satire varied by fierce denunciation, and with a specific minuteness which was concerned primarily with individuals.
The arguments that had weaned him from his Zwibiglian simplicity did not satisfy his unpromoted brethren, and Jewel had to refuse admission to a benefice to his friend Laurence Humphrey (q.v.), who would not wear a surplice.
On the strength of the consilience of arguments for evolution in the organic world, he carries back the process in the whole world, until he comes to a cosmology which recalls the rash hypotheses of the Presocratics.
Lange (q.v.) by his History of Materialism has exercised a profound influence, which is due partly to its apparent success in answering materialism by Kantian arguments, and partly to its ingenious attempt to give.
Ward on the whole follows this triple scheme, but modifies it by new arguments founded on later German phenomenalism.
He applies universal experience to explain how we come, falsely in his opinion, to believe that the object of experience is an independent thing; and he uses three arguments, which are respectively those of Schuppe, Avenarius and Wundt.
Hence his really valuable arguments from Nature to God sink to the problematic form - there may be Nature; if so, there is God.
Gellius describes his arguments as scita et teretia.
The close resemblance of the Tibetan characters " with heads " to the Gupta inscriptions of Allahabad shows them to have been derived from the monumental writing of the period; and various arguments appear to show that the other Tibetan letters came from the same Indian character in the style in which it was used in common life.
His arguments were marked by incisive humour and fertility of ideas.
He revived the old arguments of the Academy, and advanced them with much ingenuity against Malebranche's doctrine.
In spite of her first refusal to submit, she was induced by the arguments of the vice-chamberlain, Sir Christopher Hatton, to appear before this tribunal on condition that her protest should be registered against the legality of its jurisdiction over a sovereign, the next heir of the English crown.
One of the immediate results of this triumph of his policy was the increase of Oldenbarneveldt's influence and authority in the government of the Republic. But though Maurice and his other opponents had reluctantly yielded to the advocate's skilful diplomacy and persuasive arguments, a soreness remained between the statesman and the stadholder which was destined never to be healed.
Driver in Zechariah in Century Bible, pp. 259, 271), puts them forward as arguments.
Existence of any fact, not present as a perception, can only be proved by arguments from cause or effect.
Cleanthes, who maintains that the doctrine of the incomprehensibility of God is hardly distinguishable from atheism, is compelled by the arguments of Philo to reduce to a minimum the conclusion capable of being inferred from experience as regards the existence of God.
MacCosh published a short pamphlet (1884) containing interesting but perhaps not conclusive arguments on the Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley.
under the name of "Benoit Vaillant, Advocate of the Holy Faith," and also, in 1594, in his own name) Les Trois Verites, in which by methodical and orthodox arguments, he seeks to prove that there is a God and a true religion, that the true religion is the Christian, and that the true church is the Roman Catholic..
Harnack's theory is based upon the following arguments: (a) The silence of the genuine Epistles of St Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
These arguments, however, are not absolutely decisive.
Arguments for a preMaccabean date may be derived (a) from the fact that the book contains apparently no reference to the Maccabean struggles, (b) from the eulogy of the priestly house of Zadok which fell into disrepute during these wars for independence.
Aristotle, who speaks highly of the sincerity of Eudoxus's convictions, while giving a qualified approval to his arguments, considers him wrong in not distinguishing the different kinds of pleasure and in making pleasure the summum bonum.
It is of the essence of an active mind like Pascal's to explore and state all the arguments which make for or make against the conclusion it is investigating.
It was necessary, therefore, for Epicurus to go back to nature to find a more enduring and a wider foundation for ethical doctrine, to go back from words to realities, to give up reasonings and get at feelings, to test conceptions and arguments by a final reference to the only touchstone of truth - to sensation.
He was generally furnished with notes, meagre indeed and inaccurate, of what had been said; but sometimes he had to find arguments and eloquence both for the ministry and for the opposition.
ii., entitled " The Relation of the Paschal Chronicle to Malalas," challenges Professor Carriere's arguments, and contends that the History of Moses is a late 5th-century work, much interpolated in the immediately succeeding centuries.
In arguments at the bar he was so fair to his opponent that he frequently appeared to concede away his client's case.
These arguments were reinforced by an appeal of Prince Billow to the traditions of Bismarck, and in spite of a strenuous and weighty opposition, the bill with certain modifications passed by 143 votes to III in the Upper House, and was accepted by the Lower House on the I3th of March.
What began as a great revolutionary movement became a dogmatic and academic school of thought; it often almost seemed as though the orthodox interpretation of I~Iarxs doctrine was of more importance than an improvement in the condition of the working men, and the discussions in the annual Socialist Congress resembled the arguments of theologians rather than the practical considerations of politicians.
That war was prevented was due partly to the timidity of French ministers, partly to the fact that at the last moment Herr von Holstein shrank from the responsibility of pressing his arguments to a practical conclusion.
Next we note that an extract in the Philocalia is introduced as follows: "Yea, and Clement the Roman, a disciple of Peter the Apostle, after using words in harmony with these on the present problem, in conversation with his father at Laodicea in the Circuits, speaks a very necessary word for the end of arguments touching this matter, viz.
The question whether he among Moslems, unfortunately more with dogmatic arguments and spurious traditions than authentic proofs.
Gruppe, we understand the air-goddess as a storm deity; some of the arguments in support of the two other theories will be examined in this article.
of the Rev. C. Plummer's edition of Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Clarendon Press, 1892, 1899); to which the student may be referred for detailed arguments.
But in the decapitated animal we have good arguments for belief that we get the reflex movement alone as response; the psychical touch drops out.
The arguments on the whole are in favour of 900.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
Walker at first opposed the Compromise of 1850, but was won over later by the arguments of Stephen A.
He took rather a prominent part in the discussions at the council, associating himself with Felix Dupanloup and with Georges Darboy, archbishop of Paris, in his opposition to the doctrine of Infallibility, and supporting their arguments from his vast knowledge of ecclesiastical history.
Marignan questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the tapestry, as the Abbe de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before; but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M.
It was easier to burn Anabaptists than to refute their arguments, and contemporary writers were struck with the intrepidity and number of their martyrs.
There is no direct evidence that this was practised in the worship of Cybele, but analogy and indirect arguments make it pretty certain.
He naturally referred the question to the cardinals about him; with whom Gardiner held long arguments, enforced, it would seem, by not a little browbeating of the College.
- Examinations may test (i.) knowledge, or, more exactly, the power of restating facts and arguments of a kind that may be learnt by rote; (ii.) the power i See E.
The brief comments in brackets, appended above to the arguments, merely indicate what has been said or can be said on the other side.
Unfortunately Buckle either could not define, or cared not to define, the general conceptions with which he worked, such as those denoted by the terms "civilization," "history," "science," "law," "scepticism," and "protective spirit"; the consequence is that his arguments are often fallacies.
5, 6), show that, in defending these propositions, Gorgias availed himself of the arguments which Zeno had used to discredit the popular belief in the existence of the Many; in other words, that Gorgias turned the destructive logic of Zeno against the constructive ontology of Parmenides, thereby not only reducing Eleaticism to nothingness, but also, until such time as a better logic than that of Zeno should be provided, precluding all philosophical inquiry whatsoever.
But the text of Pliny the younger, where this account is given, has been subjected to various interpret ations; and from the comparison of other classical testimonies and the study of the excavations it has been concluded that it is impossible to determine the date of the catastrophe, though there are satisfactory arguments to justify the statement that the event took place in the autumn.
In the following year he defended Marcus (or Manius) Fonteius on a charge of extortion in Gaul, using various arguments which might equally well have been advanced on behalf of Verres himself .
The followers of this school were free to hear all arguments for and against, and to accept the conclusion which for the moment appeared most probable (Acad.
By the former council his arguments were described as Pultes Scotorum (" Scots porridge") and commentum diaboli (" an invention of the devil").
1 Thirty years later Madison's arguments for the Virginia resolutions and the resolutions themselves were freely used by Calhoun and his followers in support of his doctrine of nullification.
Nearly all his arguments, especially where he attempts to interpret Jefferson's writings on the point, notably the Kentucky resolutions, are rather strained and specious, but it does seem that the Virginia resolutions were based on a different idea from Calhoun's doctrine of nullification.
Among the dialecticians, Socrates had used inductive arguments to obtain definitions as data of deductive arguments against his opponents, and Plato had insisted on the processes of ascending to and descending from an unconditional principle by the power of giving and receiving argument.
Many of the arguments by which the Sceptics enforced their ad vocacy of a suspense of judgment are antiquated in type, but many also are, within the limits of the individualistic theory of knowledge, quite unanswerable.
From the subjectivist point of view, which is manifestly fundamental through most of this, such arguments suasory of the Pyrrhonist suspense of judgment (i ro X i i) are indeed hard to answer.
Do not go into criticisms or arguments at all; make full-blooded, rich, flush, natural works.
An attempt has been made to dispute James's authorship of the poem, but the arguments elaborated by J.
Whether Cadorna or Capello was right in idea is a question which will remain a subject of contention, though Cadorna's arguments seem almost unanswerable.
He masses his arguments, it has been said, with a general's eye.
Arguments have been founded upon the descriptions of the blind singers in the Odyssey, with their songs inspired directly by the Muse; upon the appeals of the poet to the Muses, especially in such a place as the opening of the Catalogue; upon the Catalogue itself, which is a kind of historical document put into verse to help the memory; upon the shipowner in the Odyssey, who has " a good memory for his cargo," &c. It may be answered, however, that much of this is traditional, handed down from the time when all poetry was unwritten.
Much, however, is to be gathered from the arguments of the Trojan part of the Epic Cycle (preserved in the Codex Venetus of the Iliad, a full discussion of which will be found in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1884, pp. 1-40).
An examination of these arguments throws light on two chief aspects of the relation between Homer and his " cyclic " successors.
The arguments by which Kirchhoff seeks to prove that the stories of books x.-xii.
The arguments used in this discussion have been of very various calibre.
In addition to his knowledge of law and of commercial matters he had considerable eloquence, and a power of marshalling facts and arguments that rendered him extremely effective, particularly before judges.
They are of special interest from the important place assigned to them in the arguments of Darwin and the Evolutionists.
The latter contention cannot for a moment be sustained; and there are also strong arguments against the indigenous origin of the dingo.
In it Oersted describes the action he considers is taking place around 2 Faraday discussed the chemical theory of the pile and arguments in support of it in the 8th and 16th series of his Experimental Researches on Electricity.
In dealing with atheism Cudworth's method is to marshal the atheistic arguments elaborately, so elaborately that Dryden remarked "he has raised such objections against the being of a God and Providence that many think he has not answered them"; then in his last chapter, which by itself is as long as an ordinary treatise, he confutes them with all the reasons that his reading could supply.
Bacon, as attorney-general, delivered a speech, which has not been reported; but the king was informed that the arguments on the other side had not been limited to the special case, but had directly impugned the general prerogative right of granting livings.
discovery of new arguments.
Dr Thomas Sprat (1635-1713), bishop of Rochester and first historian of the society, says that Bacon of all others " had the true imagination of the whole extent " of the enterprise, and that in his works are to be found the best arguments for the experimental method of natural philosophy (Hist.
To those who have no patience with the minutiae of legislation, the prolix discussions are as irksome as the arguments appear arbitrary.
Most remarkable of all has been the cumulative strength of the arguments adduced by Jewish writers favourable to the authenticity of the discourses in the Fourth Gospel ..."
The tribal poets were supposed to have " seen " the heavenly originals; elaborate arguments were devised to explain how the names of particular objects like rivers and mountains could have existed in the Eternal; while the grounds of belief in the infallibility of the sacred verses were enforced with the double weight of philosophy and tradition.
The arguments in favour of Mattioli (first suggested by Heiss, and strongly supported by Topin in 1870) are summed up, with much weight of critical authority, by F.
But Jung's arguments, though strong destructively against the Mattioli theory, break down as regards any valid proof either that the prisoner arrested at Peronne was a Bastille prisoner in 1673 or that he was ever at Pignerol, where indeed we find no trace of him.
He is particularly fond of arguments about numbers.
Schmiedel's arguments are mainly directed against Sir W.
It is a curious commentary on the theories of Duns Scotus that one pupil, Francis, should have taken this course, while another pupil, Occam, should have used his arguments in a diametrically opposite direction and ended in extreme Nominalism.
His controversial ardour was, indeed, somewhat damped by Luther's refusal to answer his arguments, and with a view to earning fresh laurels he turned his attention to Switzerland and the Zwinglians.
An elaborate criticism of Hammer-Purgstall's arguments was made in the Journal des Savans, March and April 1819, by M.
They found him deaf to all arguments.
These books do not display the apocalyptic style which, partly borrowed from Lamennais, characterizes Michelet's later works, but they contain in miniature almost the whole of his curious ethicopolitico-theological creed - a mixture of sentimentalism, communism, and anti-sacerdotalism, supported by the most eccentric arguments, but urged with a great deal of eloquence.
His style has frequently been blamed for its obscurity and difficulty, but this is due to two causes: his habit of compressing his arguments into narrow compass, and of always writing with the opposite side of the case in view, so that it has been said of the Analogy that it raises more doubts than it solves.
Himself the soul of honour and truthfulness, he had no toleration for the disingenuous arguments and the mis-statements of facts of those who wrote to support a theory or to defend an unsound cause.
Its arguments and conclusions are therefore subject to the same limitations which those fundamental principles require.
The main arguments brought forward by those who maintain the priority of Ezekiel are (1) the fact that H makes mention of a high priest, whereas Ezekiel betrays no knowledge of such an official, and (2) that the author of Lev.
But the arguments which he adduces in favour of the threefold origin of H are not sufficient to outweigh the general impression of unity which the code presents.
According to him, `EXXnvucb, rauSeia is quite indispensable within the Church; many Greek philosophers were not far from the knowledge of God, as is proved by their triumphant arguments against atheists and gainsayers of divine providence.
Blount adopted and expanded Hobbes's arguments against the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch; and, mainly in the words of Burnet's Archeologiae philosophicae, he asserts the total inconsistency of the Mosaic Hexaemeron with the Copernican theory of the heavens, dwelling with emphasis on the impossibility of admitting the view developed in Genesis, that the earth is the most important part of the universe.
The cogency of Toland's arguments was weakened by his manifest love of paradox.
Collins indicates the possible extent to which the Jews may have been indebted to Chaldeans and Egyptians for their theological views, especially as great part of the Old Testament would appear to have been remodelled by Ezra; and, after dwelling on the points in which the prophecies attributed to Daniel differ from all other Old Testament predictions, he states the greater number of the arguments still used to show that the book of Daniel deals with events past and contemporaneous, and is from the pen of awriter of theMaccabean period, a view now generally accepted.
His attack was based largely on arguments which could be turned with equal force against the miracles of the New Testament, and he even went further than previous rationalists in impugning the credibility of statements as to alleged miracles emanating from martyrs and the fathers of the early church.
Voltaire during his three years' residence in England (1726-1729) absorbed an enthusiasm for freedom of thought, and provided himself with the arguments necessary to support the deism which he had learned in his youth; he was to the end a deist of the school of Bolingbroke.
A similar tone of exaggerated depreciation of the Massoretic Hebrew text, coloured by polemical bias against Protestantism, mars his greatest work, the posthumous Exercitationes biblicae de hebraeici graecique textus sinceritate (1660), in which, following in the footsteps of Cappellus, but with incomparably greater learning, he brings irrefragable arguments against the then current theory of the absolute integrity of the Hebrew text and the antiquity of the vowel points.
1 (1895); Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Cases, Counter-cases, Arguments, Atlases of United States and Great Britain (Washington, 1903 seq.); and a rich periodical literature.
He advocated temperance reform and frequently delivered a lecture on the Drinking Usages of Society (1852); he was an opponent of slavery and published a reply to the pro-slavery arguments of Bishop John Henry Hopkins (1792-1868) of Vermont.
He said, "I do not know what arguments mean in reference to any expression of a thought."
The great Arminius, employed to refute him, was won over by his arguments.
That such a principle must exist in all beings capable of sensation, or of anything analogous to human passions and feelings, will hardly be denied by those who perceive the force of arguments which metaphysically demonstrate the immaterial nature of the mind.
Bib., " Jeremiah (Book)," § 8, who, however, accepts the negative part of Cheyne's arguments.
The same confusion runs through Berkeley's arguments and vitiates his conclusions as well as those of Hume.
The arguments against the marriage were first marshalled by Monck Mason in his History of St Patrick's, and the conjecture, though plausible, has failed to convince Forster, Stephen, Aitken, Hill, Lane Poole and Churton Collins.
favour; but, on the other hand, the arguments advanced in favour of the axillary-bud theories are perhaps not sufficiently cogent to lead us to accept an explanation based chiefly on the uncertain evidence of monstrosities.
In support of the latter statement no evidence has yet been offered by these or any other scholars, nor yet has there been any attempt to meet the positive arguments of Halevy for a Hebrew original of xxxvii.-civ., whose Hebrew reconstructions of the text have been and must be adopted in many cases by every editor and translator of the book.
Material arguments were no longer at the pope's disposal.
Most of the arguments against the genuineness of the story have been already more or less directly indicated.
Along with the text of the law, the state will print arguments in its favour if any are submitted by the persons initiating the measure and the cost of the extra printing is paid by the initiators.
In like manner, any one who will defray the expense of the printing may submit arguments in opposition to any proposed measure, and these will be included in the pamphlet and distributed by the state at its own expense.
Sir Isaac Newton left behind him in manuscript a work entitled Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St John, which was published in London in 1733, in one volume 4to; another work, entitled Lexicon Propheticum, with a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews, which was printed in 1737; and four letters addressed to Bentley, containing some arguments in proof of a Deity, which were published by Cumberland, a nephew of Bentley, in 1756.
This and his ready tongue were the main arguments by which he convinced (he few magnates present, and persuaded them to back him, despite the protests of some supporters of Robert.
There followed an interminable series of arguments, interrupted by truces, till at last Anselm, at the kings suggestion, went to Rome to see if the pope could arrange some modus vivendi.
If he himself should become unpopular, all the arguments that he had employed against Richard might be turned against himself.
Yet the arguments used by Hampdens lawyers sunk deeply into the popular mind, and almost every man in England who was called on to pay the tax looked upon the king as a wrong-doer under the forms of law.
Sir Robert Peel, whose original views on protection had been rapidly yielding to the arguments afforded by the success of his own budgets, concluded that it was impossible to provide for the necessities of Ireland without suspending the corn laws; and that, if they were once suspended, it would be equally impossible to restore them.
It was the triumph of common sense over official arguments.
Absorbed in the work of the foreign office, which at this time was abnormally active, he refrained from pressing home the arguments for internal reform.
The French emperor had ultimately to yield to the determination of the inhabitants of central Italy, when it was backed by the arguments of the British foreign office, and Tuscany, Modena, Parma, as well as a portion of the states of the Church, were united to Piedmont.
But the great majority of persons considered that, whatever arguments might have been urged for concession in 1880, when British troopshad suffered no reverses, nothing could be said for concession in 1881, when their arms had been tarnished by a humiliating disaster.
In 1581 he had a controversy with the Jesuit Edmund Campion, and published at Oxford his arguments in 1638 under the title, Piissimi et eminentissimi viri Tobiae Matthew, archiepiscopi olim Eboracencis concio apologetica adversus Campianam.
The type is, moreover, common among the mammals of the early Eocene, and still more so in those of the Jurassic epoch; this forming one of the strongest arguments in favour of the tritubercular theory.
From the popularity of Max Miller's works on comparative philology this is the use of the word which is most familiar to the general public. The arguments in support of this use are set forth by him in the latter part of lecture vi.
The Sentences had resolved theology into a string of headings; with scholasticism each topic dissolves into a string of arguments for and against.
These arguments are made up of " rationes " and " auctoritates," philosophical authorities and theological authorities.
All were noted for the doctrinal coherence of their principles and the dialectical rigidity of their arguments.
Another Reform Bill, memorable for driving certain good Liberals into a Cave of Adullam, broke up the new government in a few months; Disraeli contributing to the result by the delivery of opinions not new to him and of lasting worth, though presently to be subordinated to arguments of an inferior order and much less characteristic. "At this rate," he said in 1866,"you will have a parliament that will entirely lose its command over the executive, and it will meet with less consideration and possess less influence."
that no governance or ordinance is to be esteemed a law of God which is not founded on Scripture, that every humble-minded Christian man or woman is able without "fail and defaut" to find out the true sense of Scripture, and that having done so he ought to listen to no arguments to the contrary; he elsewhere adds a fourth (i.
A constant sense of the limits of human understanding was at the bottom of his arguments for tolerance.
Such arguments were not likely to weigh with such a tribunal.
The arguments proceeding from either of the disputants by means of which the controversy is debated may be largely or almost wholly speculative and philosophical.
But that which produces the rival arguments is primarily a moral need.
And though the Stoic doctrine of determinism did not, when applied to moral problems, advance much beyond the reiteration of arguments derived from the universal validity of the principles of causality, nor the Epicurean counter-assertion of freedom avoid the error of regarding chance as a real cause and universal contingency as an explanation of the universe, it was nevertheless a real step forward to perceive the existence of the problem.
Moreover, much of the apparent cogency of modern scientific determinist arguments has been derived from the unguarded admissions or timorous acquiescence of their opponents.
The arguments of thorough-going materialism can in most cases be met with a direct negative.
But more convincing than most of the philosophical arguments by which the theories of psychophysical parallelism have been assailed is the fact that it runs counter to the plain evidence of the ordinary consciousness.
But the contribution made by psychology to the solution of the problem has taken the form not so much of a direct reinforcement of the arguments of either of the opponent systems, as of a searching criticism of the false assumptions concerning conative processes and the phenomena of choice common alike to determinists and libertarians.
And the libertarian, by his arguments showing that appeal must be made to an act of will or of the self in the explanation of the phenomena of choice, does nothing directly to disprove the truth of such a contention.
Moreover, many of the arguments by which the position of rigid libertarians of the older school has been proved untenable.
It remains to give a brief sketch of the arguments advanced on either side.
We must now consider the arguments by which determinists attack the position of their opponents and the evidence which they adduce to show that the freedom of the will is no necessary postulate for moral action.
The truth seems to be that throughout the history of the controversy the chief arguments for either side have been provided by the extreme and exaggerated statements to which their opponents have been driven in the presentation of their case.
So long as libertarians contend that what alone possesses moral value is unmotived choice, acts of will of which no explanation can be given save the arbitrary fiat of individual selves at the moment of decision, it is not difficult for determinists to exhibit the absurdities to which their arguments lead.
Is it possible to hold that determinist arguments are of so convincing a character as to enable us to perceive at the moment of action the untrustworthy nature of our consciousness that we are free to choose between alternatives and to grasp beneath the appearance the underlying necessity which rules our wills ?
And though reflection upon conduct may lead us to suppose that our past acts were determined, that desire of pleasure or the wish to avoid pain controlled our wills, the unphilosophical observer interprets, in offenders against morality, such arguments as a mere excuse.
Similarly, their opponents refute their arguments by showing that they are based ultimately upon a recognition of certain distinctions which are moral distinctions (i.e.
But this much may be said by way of delimitation of the scope of ethics: however complicated and involved its arguments and processes of inference may become, the facts from which they start and the conclusions to which they point are such as the moral consciousness alone can understand or warrant.
On the contrary, he tries to prove elaborately that they (as well as the pleasures of imagination, ambition, self-interest) cannot be made an object of primary pursuit without a loss of happiness on the whole - one of his arguments being that these pleasures occur earlier in time, and " that which is prior in the order of nature is always less perfect than that which is posterior."
And very frequently arguments are adduced by evolutionists to prove that men's belief in the absolute character of moral precepts is one of the necessary means adopted by nature to carry out her designs for the social welfare of mankind.
For no philosophy which travesties the real course of history and distorts the moral facts is likely to commend itself to the sober judgment or mankind however brilliant be its exposition or ingenious its arguments.
It is curious, in the first place, to find the independence of moral philosophy upon metaphysics supported by metaphysical arguments.
When he was but nineteen he accepted a challenge put forth by Henry Fitzsimons, a learned Jesuit, then a prisoner in Dublin, inviting discussion of Bellarmine's arguments in defence of Roman Catholicism, and acquitted himself with much distinction.
Archias went in to him, encouraged him to rise, repeated his old arguments, talked to him of reconciliation with Antipater.
Arguments to his speeches were drawn up by rhetoricians so distinguished as Numenius and Libanius.
The Privilegium is undoubtedly spurious, a fact which lends weight to the arguments of those who from the 29th century onwards have attacked the genuineness of the " Bull."
In early youth he collected his arguments in a book, which, according to Plato, was put into circulation without his knowledge.
Having invented four arguments all immeasurably subtle and profound, the grossness of subsequent philosophers pronounced him to be a mere ingenious juggler, and his arguments to be one and all sophisms. After two thousand years of continual refutation, these sophisms were reinstated, and made the foundation of a mathematical renaissance, by a German professor, who probably never dreamed of any connexion between himself and Zeno.
(1) Aristotle himself and subsequent logicians restrict the term to arguments in which there are but two premises.
(2) In point of fact, all logicians further confine the syllogism to arguments in which the terms are related as subject and predicate (or attribute in the widest sense).
A fortiori arguments, for example, wherein relations of quantity are brought together, though syllogistic in type, are generally excluded.
The rules which govern syllogistic arguments thus described are: i.
The validity of such arguments depends upon the sense in which we understand the disjunctive proposition: we must assume that the alternatives are mutually exclusive.'
The philological arguments advanced are extremely weak, and by no means convincing.
Apart from the ordinary arguments of historical criticism, it is to be noticed that external evi dence does not support the assumption that the records preserve 6 On the course of modern criticism and on the various sources: P, J (Judaean or Yahwist), E (Ephraimite or Elohist), see Bible (Old Test.
Consequently investigation must start with the particular ' The Book of Jubilees also enables the student to test the arguments based upon any study restricted to Genesis alone.
The permanence of individual souls he supports by arguments borrowed from those of Plato.
But his arguments are generally vitiated by the fallacy of assuming what they profess to prove.
In December he repaired personally to Rome, full of confidence that the weight of his arguments and the vivacity of his eloquence could not fail to convert the entire pontifical court to his views.
It is not too much to say that the final triumph of the Copernican system was due in larger measure to his labours in this department than to his direct arguments in its favour.
The establishment of the principle of the composition of motions formed a conclusive answer to the most formidable of the arguments used against the rotation of the earth, and we find it accordingly triumphantly brought forward by Galileo in the second of his dialogues on the systems of the world.
Gratian, the son of the elder Valentinian, took the same side; but the younger Valentinian, who had now become his colleague in the empire, adopted the opinions of the Arians, and all the arguments and eloquence of Ambrose could not reclaim the young prince to the orthodox faith.
in the case of the Breton bishops or the adversaries of Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, exactly as he acted later; all that can be said is that the False Decretals, though not expressly cited by the pope, "led him to accentuate still further the arguments which he drew from the decrees of his predecessors," notably with regard to the exceptio spolii.
One reason was the intellectual difficulty of the subject and the double-faced character of all arguments from statistics, which were either incomprehensible or disputable; another was the fact that substantially this was a political movement, and that tariff reform was, after all, only one in a complexity of political issues, most of which during this period were being interpreted by the electorate in a sense hostile to the Unionist party.
Swift, in his reply, abused him for his want of manners in giving a gentleman the lie, answered his arguments seriatim, and declared that the evidence of the publication of another almanac was wholly irrelevant, "for Gadbury, Poor Robin, Dove and Way do yearly publish their almanacs, though several of them have been dead since before the Revolution."
See Wissowa's arguments in the article "Argei" in his edition of Pauly's Realencyclopddie.
In 1870 he put forth his Grammar of Assent, the most closely reasoned of his works, in which the case for religious belief is maintained by arguments differing somewhat from those commonly used by Roman Catholic theologians; and in 1877, in the republication of his Anglican works, he added to the two volumes containing his defence of the via media a long preface and numerous notes in which he criticized and replied to sundry anti-Catholic arguments of his own in the original issues.
In 1774-1775 he wrote two influential anonymous pamphlets, which were attributed to John Jay; they show remarkable maturity and controversial ability, and rank high among the political arguments of the time.
by bounties paid from surplus revenues amassed by tariff duties) - a famous report that has served ever since as a storehouse of arguments for a national protective policy; 7 a report favouring the establishment of a national bank, the argument being based on the doctrine of " implied powers " in the Constitution, and on the application that Congress may do anything that can be made, through the medium of money, to subserve the " general welfare " of the United States - doctrines that, through judicial interpretation, have revolutionized the Constitution; and, finally, a vast mass of detailed work by which order and efficiency were given to the national finances.
In his criticism on Adam Smith, and his arguments for a system of moderate protective duties associated with the deliberate policy of promoting national interests, his work was the inspiration of Friedrich List, and so the foundation of the economic system of Germany in a later day, and again, still later, of the policy of Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference in England, as advocated by Mr Chamberlain and his supporters.
His arguments, which were given with much plainness of speech, appear to have convinced the Chinese government, and war was avoided.
The arguments adduced by T.
He always used the dialect of Piedmont when conversing with natives of that country, and he had a vast fund of humorous anecdotes and proverbs with which to illustrate his arguments.
Nicholas could not believe that Christian powers would resent his claim to protect the Christian subjects of the sultan; he believed he could count on the friendship of Austria and Prussia; as for Great Britain, he would try to come to a frank understanding with her (hence the famous conversations with Sir Hamilton Seymour on the 9th and, 4th of January 1853, reviving the " Sick Man" arguments of 1844), but in any case he had the assurance of Baron Brunnow, his ambassador in London, that the influence of Cobden and Bright, the eloquent apostles of peace, was enough to prevent her from appealing to arms against him.
Yet it kept surfacing in arguments.
This will certainly add fuel to the arguments for an academic boycott.
Ziauddin Ahmad has delineated these arguments with admirable brevity and clarity.
The ever diligent recording industry said all of the service's arguments had been rejected by Aspen.
His ability to render the often abstruse philosophical arguments of Shankara into comprehensible and readable English is without parallel in my experience.
acceptable substitute for halal meat, many of the usual arguments over food at the wedding reception were bypassed.
actualityor Butt relates such performance to arguments about ' heritage ', new audiences and actualities of performance.
ad hominem fallacy to impugn the honesty of a critic to avoid his arguments.
To what extent can we offer arguments to rational egoists to persuade them to become more altruistic?
anorexic behavior is not susceptible to rational arguments about ' the need to eat ' .
But there is another flaw within ` naked ape ' type arguments.
The importance of studying classical apologetics stems from the fact that most secular philosophy courses only dialog with the classical arguments.
One critic labeled my arguments as " traditional atheistic apologetics.
It also requires them to construct arguments in writing.
One of the most compelling arguments for the use of computer games in education is that they are inherently social.
arguments in favor of luxury were persuasive!
Complex arguments were reduced to simple symbols, and thus more rapidly assimilated.
assumption of homogeneity isn't correct and may invalidate some of the arguments.
There are two general arguments in favor of trying to make learners autonomous.
axiomatic truth that many of these arguments are cyclical.
On the other hand, the older arguments are not completely banished by this work.
I've seen arguments about this get bitchy on other forums and have no intention of doing the same here.
Two parts one arguments bay buccaneer cover hitch nfl tampa trailer for both the accompanying boost can be used.
He is there to adjudge the arguments previously canvassed by the parties.
Lord Hoffmann has recently on at least two occasions counseled caution in relation to arguments based on redundancy.
Changed all API arguments that take a format string from char * to const char * for Solaris.
char **argv (in) Arguments for constructing a command pipeline.
If the question put is tightly circumscribed, the adjudicator, as first happened here, would be right to debar new arguments.
Peacocke himself has recently accepted that arguments from animal cognition do indeed force the acceptance of the Autonomy Thesis (Peacocke 2002 ).
Otherwise the function returns an object without changing the arguments, for example concatenation returns the concatenation of the lists given as arguments.
Function: string concat (string, string, string *) The concat function returns the concatenation of its arguments.
construct arguments in writing.
In summary, our arguments reject the contention that the draft Services Directive would lead to a race to the bottom.
counseled caution in relation to arguments based on redundancy.
Secondly, there is the more complex technique of presenting counterarguments to the thesis propounded, and then offering arguments which defeat those counterarguments.
He promises to furnish answers and arguments needed to silence critics.
And far from taking apart the arguments of critics of globalization, he presents a distorted version of the critics of globalization, he presents a distorted version of the criticism, and attacks that.
criticisebe afraid of getting a friend to listen to you preach and constructively criticize words or arguments that are unclear.
Until they are able to do so the foregoing arguments must be regarded as decisive.