"I don't know this guy from Adam," he said.
It is the good Adam contemplating his own virtue.
"Adam who?" she asked, confused.
"I don't know you from Adam," she retorted.
Grimaux and P. Adam in 1881.
"I don't know this guy from Adam," Gabe said then waited.
JOHANN GEORG ADAM FORSTER (1754-1794), German traveller and author, was born at Nassenhuben, a small village near Danzig, on the 2 7th of November 1754.
Of the six edicts four were of minor importance, and, I flattered myself, even of his friendship and esteem, I never had that of his correspondence," but there is no doubt that Adam Smith met Turgot in Paris, and it is generally admitted that The Wealth of Nations owes a good deal to Turgot.
(vi.) Armenian books on the Death of Adam (Uncanonical Writings of O.T.
Perhaps on that spring morning when Adam and Eve were driven out of Eden Walden Pond was already in existence, and even then breaking up in a gentle spring rain accompanied with mist and a southerly wind, and covered with myriads of ducks and geese, which had not heard of the fall, when still such pure lakes sufficed them.
He is one of the most remarkable, but to me most unpleasant of men--the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Prince Adam Czartoryski....
These ruins were discovered by Adam Renders in 1868 and explored by Karl Mauch in 1871.
Adam Ferguson (Institutes of Moral Philosophy, p. 119, new ed., 1800) argues that " the desire for immortality is an instinct, and can reasonably be regarded as an indication of that which the author of this desire wills to do."
Adam Mickiewicz >>
In this year, Reid succeeded Adam Smith as professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow.
' For the controversy as to how far Adam Smith was influenced by Turgot, see S.
The town is named after the Griqua chief Adam Kok, who founded it in 1869.
Adam and Eve, according to the fable, wore the bower before other clothes.
Men esteem truth remote, in the outskirts of the system, behind the farthest star, before Adam and after the last man.
Only by laying stone on stone with the cooperation of all, by the millions of generations from our forefather Adam to our own times, is that temple reared which is to be a worthy dwelling place of the Great God, he added, and closed his eyes.
Because we tempt men to evil, like Eve did Adam?
And the whore hung up before I could tell her what I thought of her and her ancestors back to Mrs. Adam!
ADAM'S BRIDGE, or Rama'S Bridge, a chain of sandbanks extending from the island of Manaar, near the N.W.
An English translation of the Theses, with brief life of Erastus (based on Melchior Adam's account), was issued in 1659, entitled The Nullity of Church Censures; it was reprinted as A Treatise of Excommunication (1682), and, as revised by Robert Lee, D.D., in 1844.
ADAM'S PEAK, a mountain in Ceylon, about 45 miles E.
Before each of these ages there is a period of incubation, or initiation: the first age begins with Abraham, but the period of initiation with the first man Adam.
Adam's Apple >>
Books of Adam.
39 sqq.), Expulsion of Adam from Paradise (op. cit.
47 sqq.), Penitence of Adam and Eve (op. cit.
The General Register House for Scotland, begun in 1 774 from designs by Robert Adam, stands at the east end of Princes Street.
Other churches having historical associations are the two Greyfriars churches, which occupy the two halves of one building; Tron church, the scene of midnight hilarity at the new year; St Cuthbert's church; St Andrew's church in George Street, whence set out, on a memorable day in 1843, that long procession of ministers and elders to Tanfield Hall which ended in the founding of the Free Church; St George's church in Charlotte Square, a good example of the work of Robert Adam.
The Canongate Tolbooth adjoins the parish church, in the burial-ground of which is the tombstone raised by Burns to the memory of Robert Fergusson, and where Dugald Stewart, Adam Smith and other men of note were buried.
Sir John Steell's equestrian statue of the duke of Wellington stands in front of the Register House, and in Princes Street Gardens are statues of Livingstone, Christopher North, Allan Ramsay, Adam Black and Sir J.
The older parts of it, including the east front, are from the design of Robert Adam, his plans being revised and modified by W.
ADAM MURIMUTH (c. 1274-1347), English ecclesiastic and chronicler, was born in 1274 or 1275 and educated in the civil law at Oxford.
Versifiers and adapters from the French appeared also in Counts Adam and Joseph Teleki, Alexander Baroczi and Joseph Peczeli, known also as the translator of Young's " Night Thoughts."
The most noteworthy follower of Dugonics was Adam Horvath, author of the epic poems Hunniasz (Gyor, 1787) and Rudolphiasz (Vienna, 1817).
He was, in fact, the Adam of zoological science.
8 seq.), so also he was held to have completed and arranged the whole book, though according to Talmudic tradition a he incorporated psalms by ten other authors, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korah.
The details of the tradition of authorship show considerable variation; according to the Talmudic view Adam is author of the Sabbath psalm, xcii., and Melchizedek of Ps.
and the Testament of Adam by M.
The work derives its name from the picturesque story of the cave where Adam deposited the treasure of gold, myrrh and incense which he had brought away from paradise: the cave was used as a burying-place by him and his descendants until the deluge.
After the precious relics together with the bones of Adam had been saved in the ark, they were transported by Shem and Melchizedek to Golgotha under the guidance of an angel.$ The tripartite narrative which is known as the Romance of Julian (the Apostate) has no claim to be regarded as an historical document.
The Key of Truth teaches that after the fall Adam and Eve and their children were slaves of Satan until the advent of the newly created Adam, Jesus Christ.
Jesus was a new Adam and a fresh beginning, in so far as he was made flesh in and not of his mother, to whom, as both Esc. and the Key insist, Jesus particularly denied blessedness and honour (Mark iii.
The account of Christ's flesh is torn out of the Key, but it is affirmed that it was at the baptism that "he put on that primal raiment of light which Adam lost in the garden."
He held a prominent place in the New School branch of the Presbyterians, to which he adhered on the division of the denomination in 1837; he had been tried (but not convicted) for heresy in 1836, the charge being particularly against the views expressed by him in Notes on Romans (1835) of the imputation of the sin of Adam, original sin and the atonement; the bitterness stirred up by this trial contributed towards widening the breach between the conservative and the progressive elements in the church.
adelphi) Robert and William Adam, Scottish architects.
In May 1802, accordingly, he took leave of his wife and left with his friend Adam Muller for Vienna.
ADAM FERGUSON (1723-1816), Scottish philosopher and historian, was born on the 20th of June 1723, at Logierait, Perthshire.
Since they have sinned in consequence of Adam's fall, their fate is considered worse than that of the irrational creation.
After narrating the pardon obtained by Adam, it is said that the Son ascending from Olivet prays the Father on behalf of His apostles; who consequently receive consecration from the Father, together with the Son and Holy Spirit - Peter being made archbishop of the universe.
Of the older sources of information about the Meistersinger the most important are Adam Puschmann, Grundlicher Bericht des deutschen Meistergesangs zusamt der Tabulatur (1571; reprinted in W.
In 1417 John made an attack on Paris, which failed through his loitering at Lagny; 1 but on the 30th of May 1418 a traitor, one Perrinet Leclerc, opened the gates of Paris to the Burgundian captain, Villiers de l'Isle Adam.
The well-known pastoral play of Adam de la Hale, Jeu de Robin et Marion, and the many French songs on the subject, account for the association of the names.
In the one language or the other, there are in existence the following three fragments: (1) The passage which appears as lines 235-851 in the so-called "Cadmon's Genesis," on the revolt of the angels and the temptation and fall of Adam and Eve.
John Webb, in Archaeologia (xx., 1824); and Adam of Usk's Chronicon, 1377--1404, ed.
It was built in 1740-1745, after designs by Robert Adam, at a cost of £70,000.
- Adam Badeau's Military History of U.
ADAM CLARKE (1762?-1832), British Nonconformist divine, was born at Moybeg, Co.
As far back as 1755 Adam Smith, Blair and others had produced an Edinburgh Review which only ran to two numbers, and in 1773 Gilbert Stuart and William Smellie issued during three years an Edinburgh Magazine and Review.
On the 29th of November 1779 Fox was wounded in a duel with Mr William Adam, a supporter of Lord North's whom he had savagely denounced.
Yet, under the influence of the Polish Prince Adam Czartoryski, Alexander I.
His ethical system was reproduced, though in a more precise and philosophical form, by Hutcheson, and from him descended, with certain variations, to Hume and Adam Smith.
The Grand Master de 1'Isle Adam, on entering the ancient capital of Notabile, swore for himself and his successors to maintain the rights and liberties of the Maltese.
Carlyle's memory recalled the Porteous Riots of 1736, and less remotely his friendship with Adam Smith, David Hume, and John Home, the dramatist, for witnessing the performance of whose tragedy Douglas He Was Censured In 1757.
The chronological computation of Julius Africanus was adopted by the Christians of Alexandria, who accordingly reckoned 5500 years from the creation of Adam to the birth of Christ.
Adam's Peak >>
The church contains a richly carved pulpit, the work of Adam Straes van Weilborch about 1620, and there is besides some good carving and a fine organ (1721).
During this sojourn of five years in England he had made many valuable friends outside of court and political circles, among whom Hume, Robertson and Adam Smith were conspicuous.
He knew Kames, Hume and Adam Smith, and corresponded with Mirabeau, " the friend of Man."
He was learned in the science of botany, and formed a magnificent collection and a botanic garden at Luton Hoo, where Robert Adam built for him a splendid residence.
According to this the patriarchs and Adam and Eve also appear at the death-bed, to praise their daughter, through whom they had been rescued from the curse of God; a Jew who touches the body loses both his hands, which are restored to him by the Apostles; and the body lies three days in the grave without corruption before it is taken up into heaven.
Adam George, Prince Czartoryski >>
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
GEORGE ADAM SMITH (1856-), Scottish divine, was born in Calcutta on the 19th of October 1856, where his father, George Smith, C.I.E., was then principal of the Doveton College.
These include the bronze doors executed by Bishop Bernward, with reliefs from the history of Adam and of Jesus Christ; a brazen font of the 13th century; two large candelabra of the 11th century; the sarcophagus of St Godehard; and the tomb of St Epiphanius.
Throughout the work there is continuous opposition to Adam Smith.
It has the interesting Evangelical church of St John, built in the 15th century, with carvings by Veit Stoss, paintings by Wohlgemut, Martin Sch6n and others, and a ciborium by Adam Krafft; a fountain, the Schone Brunnen, and several schools.
From 1794 to 1800 Say edited a periodical entitled La Decade philosophique, litteraire, et politique, in which he expounded the doctrines of Adam Smith.
His great service to mankind lay in the fact that he disseminated throughout Europe by means of the French language, and popularized by his clear and easy style, the economic doctrines of Adam Smith.
are: Philippolis, 809, at one time capital of the Griqua chief Adam Kok and named after the Rev. John Philip. Fauresmith, 1363, a mining centre, 6 m.
A similar treaty was made with the Griqua chief, Adam Kok III.
It was after this episode that the treaties with Adam Kok and Moshesh were negotiatedl.
In withdrawing from the Sovereignty the British government declared that it had "no alliance with any native chief or tribes to the northward of the Orange River with the exception of the Griqua chief Captain Adam Kok."
The fertile district of Bethulie as well as Adam Kok's territory was acquired, and there was a considerable increase in the white population.
Waterboer's claims were based on the treaty concluded by his father with the British in 1834, and on various arrangements with the Kok chiefs; the Free State based its claim on its purchase of Adam Kok's sovereign rights and on long occupation.
The book of Chronicles begins with Adam and ends abruptly in the middle of Cyrus's decree of restoration, which reappears complete at the beginning of Ezra.
Adam, as is the custom with later Oriental writers.
ADAM, the conventional name of the first created man according to the Bible.
The use of "Adam" (×•×—×•×”) as a proper name is an early error.
Properly the word adam designated man as a species; with the article prefixed (Gen.
3-5 is adam a quasi-proper name, though LXX.
and Vulgate use "Adam" (Aba,u) in this way freely.
Into the question whether the original story did not give a proper name which was afterwards modified into "Adam" - important as this question is - we cannot here enter.
For convenience, we shall take "Adam" as a symbol for "the first man," and inquire first, what does tradition say of his creation?
All therefore that Adam could do, as they passed before him, was to name them, as a lord names his vassals.
How came Adam by the requisite insight and power of observation?
The narrator assumes that Adam and Eve had an innate faculty of speech.
lob) that "for Adam he found no helper (qualified) to match him."
17 "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" appears to have the qualities of a "tree of life," except indeed to Adam.
How comes it that Adam's ruin is effected by one of those very" beasts of the field "which he had but lately named (ii.
19), that in speech he is Adam's equal and in wisdom his superior?
To Adam and Eve, however, he is not unkind.
" See Life of Adam and Eve (apocryphal), ï¿½ï¿½ 36, 40; Apocal.
- The serpent has gone the right way to work; he comprehends woman's nature better than Adam comprehends that of the serpent.
By degrees, he obtains a full confession - not from the serpent, whose speech might not have been edifying, but from Adam and Eve.
This Adam, indeed, is not like the first man of Gen.
ii.-iii., but more like the "bright angel" who is the first man in the Christian Book of Adam (i.
12-15, where the king, whose name is given in the English Bible as "Lucifer" (or margin, "day-star"), "son of the morning," and who, like the other king in Ezekiel, is threatened with death, is a copy of the mythical Adam.
26, for "in our image" certainly suggests a being equal in brightness and in capacities to the angels - a view which, as we know, became the favourite one in apocryphal and Haggadic descriptions of the Adam before the Fall.
5) who held the regency of the earth, 5 require a dwelling-place as far above the common level of the earth as they are themselves above the child like Adam of the second creation-narrative (Gen.
It thus becomes plausible to hold that "Adam" in Gen.
More probably, however, this is but an accidental coincidence; both adam and adamu may come from the same Semitic root meaning "to make."
Certainly Adamu (if it is not more convenient to write "Adapa") was not regarded as the progenitor of the human race, like the Hebrew Adam.
Barton, Worcester and Tennant, considers this to be parallel to the story which may underlie the account of the failure of the beasts, and the success of the woman Eve, as a "help-meet" for Adam.
taught him repentance (cp. Life of Adam and Eve, ï¿½ï¿½ 1-8).
I, 4) death is traced to the envy of the devil, still implying an exalted view of Adam.
It is held that, but for his sin, Adam would have been immortal.
4) the sin of Adam was the cause of physical death; according to another (liv.
In one of the two passages which express it we are also told that each member of the human race is "the Adam of his own soul."
Adam, like Satan in Ecclus.
7), but spiritual, is traced to the act of Adam (iii.
One is that Adam is said to have had from the first a wicked heart, owing to which he fell, and his posterity likewise, into sin and guilt.
All men have the same seed of evil in them that Adam had; they sin and die, like him.
The first ended with the Flood, so that any consequences of Adam's sin were, strictly speaking, of limited duration.
But it may be noticed here that the phrase "the old serpent" sheds some light on the Pauline phrases "the first man Adam" and "the last Adam" (1 Cor.
And as at the head of the first age stands the first Adam, whose doings affected all his descendants to their harm, so at the head of the second shall stand the second Adam, whose actions shall be potent for good.
There is reason to suspect that the expression "the second Adam" is the coinage either of St Paul or of some one closely connected with him (as Prof. G.
Moore has shown), for there is no proof that such terms as "the last," or "the second Adam," were generally current among the Jews.
Jewish Legends.-The parallelism between the first and second Adam in 1 Cor.
The Haggadah gives the most extravagant descriptions of the glory of Adam before his fall.
"I made thee of the light," says God in the Book of Adam and Eve (Malan, p. 16), "and I willed to bring children of light from thee."
So glorious was he that even the angels were commanded through Michael to pay homage to Adam.
Satan, disobeying, was cast out of heaven; hence his ill-will towards Adam (Life of Adam and Eve, ï¿½ï¿½ 13 -17; cp. Koran, xvii.
It only remains to give due honour to one of the most beautiful of legends, that of the deliverance of Adam's spirit from the nether world by the Christ, the earliest form of which is a Christian interpolation inA poc. Moses, ï¿½ 42 (cp. Malan, Adam and Eve, iv.
-On the apocryphal Books of Adam, see Hort, Diet.
In English we have Malan's translation of the Ethiopic Book of Adam (1882), and Issaverden's translation of another Book of Adam from the Armenian (Venice, 1901).
On Jewish and Mahommedan legends, see Jewish Cyclopaedia, " Adam."
Adam of Bremen >>
Adam Smith, dur'ng his stay on the continent with the y oung duke of Buccleuch in 1764-66, spent some time in Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Quesnay and some of his followers; he paid a high tribute to their scientific services in his Wealth of Nations.
It was regarded by the followers of Quesnay as entitled to a place amongst the foremost products of human wisdom, and is named by the elder Mirabeau, in a passage quoted by Adam Smith, as one of the three great inventions which have contributed most to the stability of political societies, the other two being those of writing and of money.
JOHANN ADAM MOHLER (1796-1838), German theologian, was born at Igersheim in Wurttemberg on the 6th of May 1796, and after studying philosophy and theology in the lyceum at Eliwangen, entered the university of Tubingen in 1817.
Christ suffering on behalf of sinners satisfies the divine righteousness, which was outraged by their sin.'3 His work is an expression of God's love to man; 14 the redeeming power of Christ's death is also explained by his solidarity with humanity as the second Adam," - the redeemed sinner has " died with Christ."
The curious oak pulpit representing Adam and Eve expelled from the Garden of Eden came originally from the Jesuit church at Louvain, and is considered the masterpiece of Verbruggen.
ADAM GEORGE, PRINCE CZARTORYSKI (1770-1861), Polish statesman, was the son of Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski and Isabella Fleming.
After the third partition the estates of the Czartoryskis were confiscated, and in May 1795 Adam and his younger brother Constantine were summoned to St Petersburg; later in the year they were commanded to enter the Russian service, Adam becoming an officer in the horse, and Constantine in the foot guards.
Adam had already met the grand duke Alexander at a ball at the princess Golitsuin's, and the youths at once conceived a strong "intellectual friendship" for each other.
iv.; Lubomir Gadon, Prince Adam Czartoryski during the Insurrection of November (Pol.) (Cracow, 1900).
He was not an anticipation of the 18th century; he was the man of his age, as Voltaire of his; though Erasmus did not intend it, he undoubtedly shook the ecclesiastical edifice in all its parts; and, as Melchior Adam says of him, "pontifici Romano plus nocuit jocando quam Lutherus stomachando."
Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
At the diet of 151o the chancellor and primate, Adam Laski, proposed an income-tax of 50% at once, and 5% for subsequent years, payable by both the lay and clerical estates.
As early as the 13th of January 1813 he wrote to assure his former favourite and confidant, Prince Adam Czartoryski, that, "Whatever the Poles do now to aid in my success, will.
Adam Naruszewicz (1733-1796) was bishop and poet.
He was the court poet of Prince Adam Czartoryski at Pulawy, and furnished odes in commemoration of all the important events which occurred in the household.
A poet of considerable merit is Adam Asnyk (1838-1897).
In his theology he laid stress on the Gospel and on no sectarian opinions - he was, however, a pre-millenarianite - and he worked with men as much more "advanced" than himself as Henry Drummond, whom he eagerly defended against orthodox attack, and George Adam Smith.
Moody: Impressions and Facts (New York, 1900), with an introduction by George Adam Smith.
Rutherford and James Adam; among historians and archaeologists, W.
3-8 (P), the son of Adam.
25 a popular etymology is given of his name - Adam's wife called his name Seth, "For God," saith she, "bath appointed, shath, me another seed instead of Abel."
Seth was the last child born to Adam; he grew in stature and strength, and began to fast and pray strenuously.
See Adam Stanislaw Naruszewicz, Life of J.
The historical books of the Old Testament form two series: one, consisting of the books from Genesis to 2 Kings (exclusive of Ruth, which, as we have seen, forms in the Hebrew canon part of the Hagiographa), embracing the period from the Creation to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586 B.C.; the other, comprising the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, beginning with Adam and ending with the second visit of Nehemiah to Jerusalem in 432 B.C. These two series differ from one another materially in scope and point of view, but in one respect they are both constructed upon a similar plan; no entire book in either series consists of a single, original work; but older writings, or sources, have been combined by a compiler - or sometimes, in stages, by a succession of compilers - in such a manner that the points of juncture are often clearly discernible, and the sources are in consequence capable of being separated from one another.
Another power entered on the field of exploration when the Russians sent Adam Ivan Krusenstern to the Pacific (1803).
dealing with Adam, Moses or Isaiah) will always be a matter of dispute, the teaching to which it is applied stands on an independent footing as also does the application of that teaching to other ages.
Further, the Megillath Ta'anith (" roll of fasts "), an old source with a collection of miscellaneous legends, &c.; Megillath Antiokhos, on the martyrdom under Hadrian; Seder`Olam Rabbah, on biblical history from Adam to the rebellion of Bar Kokba (Barcocheba); the " Book of Jashar "; the Chronicle of Jerahmeel," &c. Liturgical Midrash is illustrated by the Haggada shel Pesah, part of the ritual recited at the domestic service of the first two Passover evenings.
In the same sense the term is used in the Koran of both Adam and David as the vicegerents of God.
ADAM SMITH (1723-1790), English economist, was the only child of Adam Smith, comptroller of the customs at Kirkcaldy in Fifeshire, Scotland, and of Margaret Douglas, daughter of Mr Douglas of Strathendry, near Leslie.
This letter excited some rancour among the theologians, and Dr George Horne, afterwards bishop of Norwich, published in 1777 A Letter to Adam Smith on the Life, Death and Philosophy of his Friend David Hume, by one of the people called Christians.
One of his favourite places of resort in these years was a club of which Dr Hutton, Dr Black, Dr Adam Ferguson, John Clerk the naval tactician, Robert Adam the architect, as well as Smith himself, were original members, and to which Dugald Stewart, Professor Playfair and other eminent men were afterwards admitted.
4 See Catalogue of the Library of Adam Smith, edited with notes and introduction, by James Bonar (1894).
The following may be referred to for biographical details: Dugald Stewart, Biographical Memoir of Adam Smith, originally read (1793) before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and afterwards prefixed to Smith's Essays on Philosophical Subjects; J.
Farrer, Adam Smith (1881); R.
Haldane, Life of Smith (1887), and the very full and excellent Life of Adam Smith by John Rae (1895).
He was the first also to advance that argument in favour of religious establishments which meets upon its own ground the doctrine of Adam Smith, that religion like other things should be left to the operation of the natural law of supply and demand.
We shall pass over here the labours of Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) and Sir Roderick Murchison (1792-1871) in the Palaeozoic of England, which because of their close relation to stratigraphy more properly concern geology; but must mention the grand contributions of Joachim Barrande (1799-1883), published in his Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme, the first volume of which appeared in 1852.
chevrefeuille), botanical name Lonicera, a genus of climbing, erect or prostrate shrubs, of the natural order Caprifoliaceee, so named after the 16th-century German botanist Adam Lonic2r.
These leading narratives are supplemented by Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, chap. 38 (247 Lappenberg) of book iv.
(often separately entitled Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis; Adam's is the earliest extant reference to Vinland, c. 1070): we have also notices of Vinland in the Libellus Islandorum of Ari Frodi (c. 1120), the oldest Icelandic historian; in the Kristni Saga (repeated in Snorri Sturlason's Heimskringla); in Eyrbyggia Saga (c. 1250); in Gretti Saga (c. 1290); and in an Icelandic chorography of the 14th century, or earlier, partly derived from the famous traveller Abbot Nicolas of Thing-eyrar (j'1159).
ADAM OF BREMEN, historian and geographer, was probably born in Upper Saxony (at Meissen, according to one tradition) before 1045.
Adam's Historia - known also as Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, Bremensium praesulum Historia, and Historia ecclesiastica - is a primary authority, not only for the great diocese of Hamburg-and-Bremen, but for all North German and Baltic lands (down to 1072), and for the Scandinavian colonies as far as America.
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
Adam's account of North European trade at this time, and especially of the great markets of Jumne at the mouth of the Oder, of Birka in Sweden and of Ostrogard (Old Novgorod ?) in Russia, is also of much value.
The fourth (perhaps the most important) book of Adam's History, variously entitled Libellus de Situ Daniae et reliquarum quae trans Daniam sunt regionum, Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis, &c., has often been considered, but wrongly, as a separate work.
Adam de Le Hale >>
Here lie the remains of John Sobieski, of Thaddaeus Kosciuszko, of Joseph Poniatowski and of Adam Mickiewicz.
The first man, Adam, was engendered by Satan in conjunction with "sin," "cupidity," "desire."
Hence Adam is a discordant being, created in the image of Satan, but carrying within him the stronger spark of light.
But if the first human beings thus stood entirely under the dominion of the devil, the glorious spirits took them under their care from the very outset, sending aeons down to them (including Jesus), who instructed them regarding their nature, and in particular warned Adam against sensuality.
Cain and Abel indeed are not sons of Adam, but of Satan and Eve; Seth, however, who is full of light, is the offspring of Adam by Eve.
Mani, following the example of the gnostic Jewish Christians, appears to have held Adam, Noah, Abraham (perhaps zoroaster and Buddha) to be such prophets.
It will be seen that the commercial1789-1818consult Adam Seyberts Statistical Annals (Philadelphia, 1818), which are based upon official documents, a large part of which are no longer in existence.
Mercer Adam'S Outline History Of Canadian Literature (1887) " Native Thought And Literature," In J.
pp. 53, 128 (1877); P. Adam, Princesses byzantines (1893); Sir Walter Scott, Count Robert of Paris; L.
(Wadowice, 1850); Adam Darowski, Bona Sforza (Pol.) (Rome, 1904).
Adam, received a sound classical education, and was well advised by his friend Dr Thomas Brown, the eminent metaphysician.
A more serious defect was his practice of violently assailing philosophers, economists and men of science, of whom he knew almost nothing, and whom he perversely misunderstood: men such as Adam Smith, Comte, Mill, Spencer, Darwin and all who followed them.
JOSIPPON, the name usually given to a popular chronicle of Jewish history from Adam to the age of Titus, attributed to an author Josippon or Joseph ben Gorion.'
The first stage of his education was passed at a school kept by "Peggy Paine," a relation of the well-known author of the Age of Reason, after which he entered the Annan academy, taught by Mr Adam Hope, of whom there is a graphic sketch in the Reminiscences of Thomas Carlyle.
It does not, as has been said, anticipate the economical doctrines of Adam Smith, and much of it is fanciful without being either witty or ingenious.
ABEL (Hebrew for breath), the second son of Adam, slain by Cain, his elder brother (Gen.
In 1755 the precursor of the later Edinburgh Review was started, now chiefly remembered because in its pages Adam Smith criticized the dictionary of Dr Johnson, and because the contents of its two numbers were edited by Wedderburn.
After creation Adam was allowed to till the ground on condition that he sold himself and his posterity to the owner of the earth.
When the Holy Ghost (Michael) appeared in the shape of the dove, Jesus received power to break the covenant in the form of a clay tablet (heirographon) held by Satanail from Adam.
The Historiated Bible, the Letter from Heaven, the Wanderings through Heaven and Hell, the numerous Adam and Cross legends, the religious poems of the "Kaleki perehozhie" and other similar productions owe their dissemination to a large extent to the activity of the Bogomils of Bulgaria, and their successors in other lands.
See Adam, Bad Flinsberg als klimatischer Kurort (Gorlitz, 1891).
Among later writers much valuable information is given by Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes, Procopius, Gregory of Tours, Bede, Paulus Diaconus, Widukind, Thietmar, Adam of Bremen and Saxo Grammaticus, as well as by the early laws and charters.
METHUSELAH, in the Old Testament, the seventh in descent from Adam, and father of Lamech.
His industry as a biographer is commended by P. Bayle, who acknowledges his obligations to Adam's labours; and his biographies, though they have faults, are still useful.
Paul Adam >>
Adam Gottlob Ohlenschlager >>
Colonel James Gardiner was mortally wounded after an heroic stand, and an obelisk in the grounds of his house at Bankton, close to the battlefield, commemorates his valour, while the ballad of Adam Skirving (1719-1803), "Hey, Johnnie Cope!"
ADAM MARSH (ADAM DE MARISCO) (d.
Before 1226 Adam received the benefice of Wearmouth from his uncle, Richard Marsh, bishop of Durham; but between that year and 1230 he entered the Franciscan order.
In 1257 Adam's health was failing, and he appears to have died in the following year.
ADAM GIB (1714-1788), Scottish divine and leader of the Antiburgher section of the Scottish Secession Church, was born on the 14th of April 1714 in the parish of Muckhart, Perthshire, and, on the completion of his literary and theological studies at Edinburgh and Perth, was licensed as a preacher in 1740.
high, a town-hall, corn exchange, public libraries, assembly rooms, fever hospital, sheriff court buildings, people's club and institute, high school (1894) - on the site of the ancient burgh school (1582) - the Beveridge hall and free library, and the Adam Smith memorial hall.
Among wellknown natives of the town were Adam Smith, Henry Balnaves of Halhill, the Scottish reformer and lord of session in the time of Queen Mary; George Gillespie, the theologian and a leading member of the Westminster Assembly, and his younger brother Patrick (1617-1675), a friend of Cromwell and principal of Glasgow University; John Ritchie (1778-1870), one of the founders of the Scotsman; General Sir John Oswald (1771-1840), who had a command at San Sebastian and Vittoria.
In foreign affairs Sigismund was largely guided by the Laskis (Adam, Jan and Hieronymus), Jan Tarnowski and others, most of whom he selected himself.
(Vienna, 1904); Zygmunt Celichowski, Materials for the history of the reign of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Posen, 1900); Adolf Pawinski, The youthful years of Sigismund the Old (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1893); Adam Darowski, Bona Sforza (1904).
Adam, Der Natursinn in der deutschen Dichtung (1906); E.
Because iron would be so easily made by prehistoric and even by primeval man, and would be so useful to him, we are hardly surprised to read in Genesis that Tubal Cain, the sixth in descent from Adam, discovered it; that the Assyrians had knives and saws which, to be effective, must have been of hardened steel, i.e.
1754), and Adam Ohlenschlager (d.
He had decided to begin the History, not with Henry VII., as Adam Smith recommended, but with James I., considering that the political differences of his time took their origin from that period.
Robertson and Adam Smith), and warmly recognized the worth of his opponents (e.g.
Yet when we compare Hume with Adam Smith, the advance which Hume had made on his predecessors in lucidity of exposition and subtlety of intellect becomes clear, and modern criticism is agreed that the main errors of Adam Smith are to be found in those deductions which deviate from the results of the Political Discourses.
To sum up, it may be said that Hume enunciated the principle that " everything in the world is purchased by labour, and our passions are the only causes of labour "; and further, that, in analysing the complex phenomena of commerce, he is superior sometimes to Adam Smith in that he never forgets that the ultimate causes of economic change are the " customs and manners " of the people, and that the solution of problems is to be sought in the elementary factors of industry.
Gibbs (Lord Aldenham), Colloquy on the Currency; for Hume's relation to Adam Smith, John Rae's Life of Adam Smith (London, 1895).
The Latin versions were made or edited by Adam von Bodenstein, Gerard Dorn, Michael Toxites and Oporinus, about the middle of the 16th century.
The word first appeared in print in Adam of Bremen's Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis, an appendix to his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, published by Lindenbrog in 1595.
In pursuit of historical study, Adam visited the Danish court during the reign of the well-informed monarch Svend Estridsson (1047-1076), and writes that the king "spoke of an island (or country) in that ocean discovered by many, which is called Vinland, because of the wild grapes [vites] that grow there, out of which a very good wine can be made.
Adam's information concerning Vinland did not, however, impress his medieval readers, as he placed the new land somewhere in the Arctic regions: "All those regions which are beyond are filled with insupportable ice and boundless gloom."
These words show the futility of ascribing to Adam's account Columbus's knowledge of lands in the West, as many overzealous advocates of the Norse discoveries have done.
The fact that the Icelandic sagas concerning Vinland are not contemporaneous written records has caused them to be viewed by many with suspicion; hence such a significant allusion as that by Adam of Bremen is not to be overlooked.
To the student of the Norse sources, Adam's reference is not so important, as the internal evidence of the sagas is such as to give easy credence to them as records of exploration in regions previously unknown to civilization.
Adam Sedgwick >>
George Adam Smith >>
It was written out of friendship for Adam Black, and "payment was not so much as mentioned."
In consequence of His supernatural birth the Saviour, or the second Adam, was free from original sin.
Adam Shortt, Municipal Government in Ontario.
For mere death brings no liberation, unless a man is become a new creation, a new Adam, as Christ was; unless he has received the gift of the spirit and become a vehicle of the Paraclete.
All begetting of children is evil, for Adam's chambering with Eve was the forbidden fruit.
Thus at Godthaab we have, according to Adam Paulsen (15), comparing 3-year periods of few and many sun-spots: The years start in the autumn, and 1865-1868 includes the three winters of 1865 to '66, '66 to '67, and '67 to '68.
The name of Vitruvius has been given to several works on modern architecture, such as Campbell, Vitruvius Britannicus (London, 1715-71), a series of illustrations of the chief buildings of the 18th century in England, including many works of the brothers Adam; one of these brothers, William Adam, produced a similar work illustrating the buildings which he had designed for Scotland, under the title of Vitruvius Scoticus (Edinburgh, 1790).
Osman wad Adam (Ganu), amir of Kordofan, was sent by the khalif a to Karamallas assistance.
from El Fasher, and almost annihilated it on the I 6th of October 1888; and a week later another large force of Osman Adam met with the same fate at the same place.
His army, however, under Fiki Adam, fought a fierce battle close to El Fasher on the 22nd, which resulted in its defeat and dispersion, and Abu Gemaiza himself dying the following day, the movement collapsed.
Adam Adolf Oberlander >>
This would point to the fact that the Limfjord was then open at both ends, and agree with Adam of Bremen (iv.
Adam of Bremen, from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals."
It was Adam Gottlob Ohlenschldger (q.v.; 1 7791850), the greatest poet of Denmark, who was to bring about the new romantic movement.
His mythological or pastoral dramas, his great satiric epos of Adam Homo (1841-1848), his comedies, his lyrics, and above all his noble philosophic tragedy of Kalanus, prove the immense breadth of his compass, and the inexhaustible riches of his imagination.
See Melchior Adam, Vita theologorum (1620); M.
While retaining for a time the old ministers who had served and overthrown the emperor Paul, one of the first acts of his reign was to appoint a secret committee, called ironically the " Comite du salut public," consisting of young and enthusiastic friends of his own - Victor Gavovich Kochubey, Nikolai Nikolaevich Novosiltsov, Paul Alexandrovich Strogonov and Adam Czartoryski - to draw up a scheme of internal reform.
" " He would gladly have agreed," wrote Adam Czartoryski, " that every one should be free, if every one had freely done only what he wished."
de Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie, &c. (St Petersb., 1874, &c.); Wellington Despatches; Castlereagh Correspondence; Prince Adam Czartoryski, Memoires et correspondance avec l'empereur Alexandre I.
In the "Adam and Eve" of the next year, we find Diirer treating the human form in an entirely opposite manner; constructing it, that is, on principles of abstract geometrical proportion.
At any rate a whole series of extant drawings enables us to trace the German gradually working out his own ideas of a canon of human proportion in the composition of his famous engraving of "Adam and Eve" (1504); which at first, as a drawing in the British Museum proves, had been intended to be an Apollo and Diana conceived on lines somewhat similar to one of Barbari's.
The first is the "Adam and Eve" dated 1507, in which both attitudes and proportions are as carefully calculated, though on a somewhat different scheme, as in the engraving of 1504.
When parliament met in November 1449, the opposition showed its strength by forcing the treasurer, Adam Molyneux, to resign.
Mr Haldane's chief literary publications were: Life of Adam Smith (1887); Education and Empire (1902); The Pathway to Reality (1903).
The story of his triumphs belongs to the story of English literature: to it we leave James Thomson, Adam Smith, David Hume, James Boswell and Sir Walter Scott.
The two banks of the Danube are united by six bridges, including two fine suspension bridges; the first of them, generally known as the Ketten-Briicke, constructed by the brothers Tiernay and Adam Clark in 1842-1849, is one of the largest in Europe.
long, constructed by Adam Clark in 1854, which pierces the castle hill and connects the quarter known as the Christinenstadt with the Danube.
Owen's name does not occur in the document renewing Talbot's powers in February 1416; according to Adam of Usk he died in 1415.
The facts of Owen's life must be pieced together from scattered references in contemporary chronicles and documents; perhaps the most important are Adam of Usk's Chronicle and Ellis's Original Letters.
The medieval candidate for the doctorate in medicine, although required to have attended practice before presenting himself, discussed as his thesis a purely theoretical question, often semi-theological in character, of which as an extreme example may be quoted " whether Adam had a navel."
Adam Ferguson >>
781, is followed by a series of short inscriptions in Syriac and the Estrangelo character, containing the date of the erection, the name of the reigning Nestorian patriarch, Mar Hanan Ishua, that of Adam, bishop and pope of China, and those of the clerical staff of the capital.
Although every European country was affected by this neo-classical revival it may be claimed that England absorbed it more com - pletely than any other country, for the brothers Adam (the - architects) and Josiah Wedgwood brought it into absolute correspondence with modern tastes and ideas.
He was succeeded in 1823 by General Sir Frederick Adam, who in the main carried out the same policy.
St Luke gives a table of genealogy which is irreconcilable with the artificial table of St Matthew's Gospel, and which traces our Lord's ancestry up to Adam, " which was the son of God."
A characteristic tone pervades the history, even of the antediluvian age, from the creation of Adam; or rather, the history of the earliest times has been written under its influence.
Yet, wonderful as the Old Testament has ever seemed to past generations, it becomes far more profound a phenomenon when it is viewed, not in its own perspective of the unity of history - from the time of Adam, but in the history of Palestine and of the old Oriental area.
JOHN WINTHROP (1588-1649), a Puritan leader and governor of Massachusetts, was born in Edwardston, Suffolk, on the 12th of January (O.S.) 1588, the son of Adam Winthrop of Groton Manor, and Anne (Browne) Winthrop. In December 1602 he matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, but he did not graduate.
The robust, florid and distinctly Roman rendering of the classic, which followed the refined and attenuated treatment associated with the architecture of the brothers Adam, who died in 1792 and 1794, is the last development in England which can be regarded as a national style.
Nicephorus is the author of a valuable compendium (Breviarium historicum) of Byzantine history from 602 to 770, of a meagre Chronologia compendiaria from Adam to the year of his own death.
ADAM LOFTUS (c. 1533-1605), archbishop of Armagh and Dublin, and lord chancellor of Ireland, the son of a Yorkshire gentleman, was educated at Cambridge.
His brother Robert was father of Adam Loftus (c. 1568-1643), who became lord chancellor of Ireland in 1619, and in 1622 was created Viscount Loftus of Ely, King's county, in the peerage of Ireland.
The marquis of Hastings was succeeded by Lord Amherst, after the interval of a few months, during which Mr Adam, a civil servant, acted as governor-general.
Dugald Stewart was educated in Edinburgh at the high school and the university, where he read mathematics and moral philosophy under Adam Ferguson.
Three years later Adam Ferguson was appointed secretary to the commissioners sent out to the American colonies, and at his urgent request Stewart lectured as his substitute.
In 1793 he printed a textbook, Outlines of Moral Philosophy, which went through many editions; and in the same year he read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh his account of the Life and Writings of Adam Smith.
His fiend Caelestius was in 412 charged with and excommunicated for heresy because he regarded Adam as well as all his descendants as naturally mortal, denied the racial consequences of Adam's fall, asserted the entire innocence of the new-born, recognized sinless men before the coming of Christ.
In the West there was unanimity only on three points: the necessity of baptism for the remission of sins, the inheritance of sin as a result of Adam's fall, and the indispensableness of the divine grace in the attainment of goodness.
To this Augustine opposed the view that Adam's sin is, as its penalty, transmitted to all his descendants, both as guilt and as weakness.
Even infants are involved in Adam's condemnation.
As regards original sin they taught that the inclinations to evil inherited from Adam are not themselves blameworthy, and only consent to them involves real guilt.
"The individual notion of each person includes once for all what is to befall it, world without end," and "it would not have been our Adam but another, if he had had other events."
ADAM WILHELM MOLTKE, Count (1785-1864), Danish statesman, son of the minister Joachim Godske Moltke (1746-1818), and grandson of Adam Goctlob Moltke, was born at Einsiedelsborg in Funen, on the 25th of August 1785.
He made Bremen a city of importance, and it was called by his biographer, Adam of Bremen, the New Rome.
See Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, edited by J.
In 1831 Adam Sedgwick and Sir Roderick I.
Adam Chenot, Abhandlung von der Pest (Dresden, 1776); De Peste (Vienna, 1766).
In August 1344 he left the Maldives for Ceylon; here he made the pilgrimage to the "Footmark of our Father Adam."
There is a preliminary chapter of chronology from Adam to John Palaeologus I.
Of more enduring value have been the researches of the historical school, founded by John Adam Mohler (1796-1838), whose famous Symbolik (1832) was perhaps the heaviest literary blow ever dealt at the Reformation.
In it is the masterpiece of the sculptor, Adam Krafft, consisting of a ciborium, or receptacle for the host, in the form of a florid Gothic spire 65 ft.
Adam Krafft, Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer form a trinity of sculptors of which any city might be proud.
His first work, Konig Aelfred and seine Stellung in der Geschichte Englands (Berlin, 1851), was followed by monographs on Bischof Grosseteste and Adam von Marsh (Tubingen, 1864), and on Simon von Montfort (Tubingen, 1867).
grace of baptism restored the original purity of life led by Adam and Eve in common before the Fall.
" Vexation," as Adam Smith remarks, " though not strictly speaking expense, is certainly equivalent to the expense at which every man would be willing to redeem himself from it "; and the Roman system was extraordinarily vexatious.
Whether (as has been suggested) an Adam Smith in power could have saved the Empire is doubtful; but he would certainly have remodelled its finance.
Her clergy included many distinguished Scotsmen, among them Thomas Reid, George Campbell, Adam Ferguson, John Home, Hugh Blair, William Robertson and John Erskine.
He was one of the founders of the anti-socialistic "Adam Smith Society" at Florence.
until 1324, when with all his suffragans he opposed the king in defence of the bishop of Hereford, Adam of Orlton.
We hear from Adam of Bremen that Anund was young in years but old in wisdom and cunning; he was called Kolbrannea because he had the houses of evildoers burnt.
He appears to have died about 1050, according to Adam of Bremen.
The interesting account of Upsala preserved by Adam of Steinke ], 1060-1066.
1; Adam of Bremen, Gesta hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum iii.
On the side of the Academy they were vigorously attacked by Per Adam Wallmark (1777-1858), to whom they replied in a satire which was the joint work of several of the romanticists, Markall's Sleepless Nights.
The art was sustained by Karl Anton Wetterbergh (1804-1889), who called himself " Onkel Adam," by August Blanche the dramatist, and by Marie Sofie Schwartz (1819-1892).
The posthumous poems of the bishop of Strangnas, Adam Teodor StrOmberg (1820:1889), were collected by Wirsen, and created some sensation.
8), written in 344, forms an appendix on the Messianic fulfilment of prophecy, together with a treatment of the chronology from Adam to Christ.
hasta (hand) zasta dasta dast jrayas (sea) zrayo daraya darya aham (I) azem adam !siso Old Persian has no special 1.
- The chronicles of Jean le Bel, Adam Murimuth, Robert of Avesbury, Froissart and "Le Religieux de Saint Denis."
The old clock, presented to the abbey by Adam de Sodbury (1322-1335), and noteworthy as an early example of a clock striking the hours automatically with a count-wheel, was once in Wells cathedral, but is now preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
by Hearne (2 vols., Oxford, 1726) Adam of Domerham, De rebus gestis Glast., ed.
In 1843 two more of these treaty states were established, one under Adam Kok (the third of that name) and the other under Moshesh.
A clause was inserted in the Bloemfontein Convention stating that Great Britain had no alliance with any native chiefs or tribes to the north of the Orange, with the exception of the Griqua chief Adam Kok.
For the Monumenta Germaniae historica he edited the Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, the Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum of Adam of Bremen and the Chronica Slavorum of Helmold, with its continuation by Arnold of Lubeck.
He now began to occupy himself with scientific pursuits, and gave some attention to mathematics as well as to chemistry and mineralogy; but, having met with Adam Smith's great work, he threw himself with ardour into the study of political economy.
By a study of this work we are led to the conclusion that he was an economist only, not at all a social philosopher in the wider sense, like Adam Smith or John Mill.
For the other names by which it is referred to, such as The Apocalypse of Moses, The Testament of Moses, The Book of Adam's Daughters and the Life of Adam, the reader may consult Charles's The Book of Jubilees, pp. xvii.-xx.
Paul Adam and Bernard Lazare, in the pages of a periodical entitled Entretiens politiques et litteraires (1890-92).
ADAM SCOTUS (fl.
1180), theological writer, sometimes called Adam Anglicus or Anglo-Scotus, was born in the south of Scotland in the first half of the 12th century.
He gained a European reputation for his writings, which are of mystico-ascetic type, and include an account of the Premonstratensian order, a collection of festival sermons, and a Soliloquia de instructione discipuli, formerly attributed to his contemporary, Adam of St Victor.
in Adam and Moses) and after this birth in Judea.
When they returned to Prague, Adam of Sternberg, the burgrave, again informed Budova that the king would grant no concessions in ecclesiastical matters.
1 - 11), Paul proceeds to contrast these with the sombre effects produced in humanity by the fall of Adam.
Through the first sin Adam and his posterity lost Immortality, And His Will Received A Bias Towards Evil.
Government House, which is situated near the Maidan and Eden Gardens, is the residence of the viceroy; it was built by Lord Wellesley in 1799, and is a fine pile situated in grounds covering six acres, and modelled upon Kedleston Hall in Derbyshire, one of the Adam buildings.
Adam, Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro, in Dalmatia (London, 1764), engravings by Bartolozzi; and L.
When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of Corinth.
He here breaks with Augustine and the Westminster Confession by arguing, consistently with his theory of the Will, that Adam had no more freedom of will than we have, but had a special endowment, a supernatural gift of grace, which by rebellion against God was lost, and that this gift was withdrawn from his descendants, not because of any fictitious imputation of guilt, but because of their real participation in his guilt by actual identity with him in his transgression.
One of these was a cartoon or monochrome painting of Adam and Eve in tempera, and in this, besides the beauty of the figures, the infinite truth and elaboration of the foliage and animals in the background are celebrated in terms which bring to mind the treatment of the subject by Albrecht Darer in his famous engraving done thirty years later.
Basing itself probably on a union of certain gnostic and ascetic doctrines, this sect pretended that its members were re-established in Adam's state of original innocency.
ADAM GOTTLOB MOLTKE, Count (1710-1792), Danish courtier, was born on the 10th of November 1710, at Riesenhof in Mecklenburg.
Adam Wilhelm, Count Moltke >>
As Adam Smith remarks, there is nothing in which governments have been so ready to learn of one another as in the matter of new taxes.
The starting-point of discussions as to incidence of taxation is a classical passage in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (book v.
[Adam Smith specially praises indirect taxes on commodities under this head, because the consumer "pays them by little and little as he buys the goods," and "it must be his own fault if he ever suffers any considerable inconveniency from such taxes."] 4.
It may be observed, however, that while general maxims are easy, the application presents difficulties, and since Adam Smith wrote, and especially in modern times, new questions of some interest have been raised.
Adam Smith does not go minutely into the incidence of taxation.
Recent discussion, however, has gone rather to the point which Adam Smith neglected, that of inequality generally, not merely as between different sorts of income, but as between individuals and classes.
What opinion should be held regarding this modern view as to equality in taxation, which differs so widely from anything countenanced by Adam Smith, though his language is echoed in it?
Adam Smith was thus not altogether badly advised in not carrying his investigations into the equality of taxation farther than he did.
- Taxation ought not to interfere with trade if possible, and the object of Adam Smith's maxims, as we have seen, was largely to erect sign-posts warning finance ministers against the kind of taxes likely to harass traders.
There has been much discussion, however, on free trade since Adam Smith's time, and the far-reaching nature of his warnings is not even yet generally understood.
There is more to be said for the political argument which induced Adam Smith to favour navigation laws, giving a preference to national shipping in national waters, and for a similar political argument in favour of dude:, on agricultural produce imported into the country, on the ground, as regards navigation, that the prosperity of the shipping industry in particular was essential to the safety of the country, and on the ground, as regards duties on agricultural produce, that the maintenance of a larger rural population and of a larger agricultural production than would exist under natural conditions of perfect free trade was essential to the wel:Fare of the state and even to its very existence in the possible event of a temporary defeat at sea and a partial blockade of the coasts.
Per contra the tax was wholly unfelt, a shilling a quarter only affecting an average family of four persons to the extent of three shillings per annum, or about three farthings a week, while it was paid little by little, as Adam Smith explains with regard to indirect taxes in general.
The following short list of authors may be useful to the student: - Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations; Ricardo-M'Culloch, Principles of Taxation; Mill, Principles of Political Economy; Bastable, Public Finance; E.
The attempt (by Clemen and Beer) to place the TenWeeks Apocalypse before 167, because it makes no reference to the Maccabees, is not successful; for where the history of mankind from Adam to the final judgment is despatched in sixteen verses, such an omission need cause little embarrassment, and still less if the author is the determined foe of the Maccabees, whom he would probably have stigmatized as apostates, if he had mentioned them at all, just as he similarly brands all the Sadducean priesthood that preceded them to the time of the captivity.
Adam) from the four substances: the East, the West, the North and the South."
Thus Adam's name is here derived from the initial letters of the four quarters: avaTOX, Suvcs, tipKcros,, u€crmu3pia.
We might note besides that it is quoted in the Book of Adam and Eve, the Apocalypse of Moses, the Apocalypse of Paul, the anonymous work De montibus Sina et Sion, the Sibylline Oracles ii.
The following Roman towns have been identified: (i) in the Dobrudja, Cius (Hirsova), Troesmis (Iglitza), Arrubium (Machin), Viodunum (Isakcha), Istrus (Karaharman), Tropaeum (Adam Klissi), Kallatis (Mangalia), Tomi (Constantza); (2) in Moldavia, Dinogetia (Tiglina); (3) in Walachia, Drobetae (Turnu Severin), Malva (Celeiu), Castra Nova (Craiova), Romula (Resca), Sorium (Roshiori de Vede), Pelendava (Bradesci), Acidava (Jenuseshti), Rusidava (Dragasani), Castro Traiana (Ramnicu Valcea), Arutela (Bivolari), Pons Vetus (Caineni), Komidava (Petroasa), Ramidava (Buzeu).
The Tropaeum Trajani, or Adam Klissi monument (found near Rassova in the Dobrudja and removed to Bucharest museum), is a round stone structure of 100 ft.
Tocilescu, Das Monument von Adam Klissi, Vienna, 1895.) Few monuments were left by the barbarian invaders who ravaged Rumania from the 3rd century to the 14th save some vestiges of Gothic culture at Buzeu, and at Petroasa, close by.
They include the History of Adam and Eve, the Legend of the Cross, The Apocalypse of Abraham, the History of the Sibyl, the Legends of Solomon; numerous New Testament apocryphal tales, starting with legends of St John the Baptist; a very remarkable version of the Gospel of Nicodemus; and the Epistle of Pilate.
The doom of death under which mankind had sighed since Adam's fall could only then be averted, when the immortal Word of God (Alyos) assumed a mortal body, and, by yielding this to death for the sake of all, abrogated once for all the law of death, of which the power had been spent on the body of the Lord.
Of the newer literature the following deserve to be read: - Johann Adam Mohler, Athanasius der Grosse and die Kirche seiner Zeit, 2 vols.
The triviality of these rites is ill concealed by the legends of the sa'y of Hagar and of the tawaf being first performed by Adam in imitation of the circuit of the angels about the throne of God; the meaning of their ceremonies seems to have been almost a blank to the Arabs before Islam, whose religion had become a mere formal tradition.
The subject - the descent of Christ into Hades to succour the souls of the just, as related in the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus - is introduced in a kind of prologue; then follows the dispute between "Dominus" and "Satan" at the gate of Hell; the gatekeeper runs away, and the just are set free, while Adam, Eve, Habraham, David, Johannes and Moyses do homage to the deliverer.
At the beginning of his reign his chief adviser was Hans Adam von Scheming (1641-1696), who counselled a union between Saxony and Brandenburg and a more independent attitude towards the emperor.
Among his students were Professors Elmslie, Skinner, Harper of Melbourne, Walker of Belfast, George Adam Smith of Glasgow and W.
It is most noteworthy that they were joined by thinkers such as Grosseteste, Adam Marsh, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus and William of Ockham.
~n 1776 Adam Smith published the Wealth of Nations.
In 1786 the commercial treaty with France opened that country to English trade, and was the first result of the theories laid down by Adam Smith ten years previously.
They had been defended by Adam Smith on the ground that defence was of much more importance than opulence, and by the same reasoning they had been described by John Stuart Mill as, though economically disadvantageous, politically expedient.
In the i4th century there is a significant deterioration in the monastic chroniclers, and their place is taken by the works of secular clergy like Adam Murimuth, Geoffrey the Baker, Robert of Avesbury, Henry Knighton and the anonymous author of the Eulogium historictrum.
we have also Malverne and the Monk of Evesham; for the early Lancastrians, Capgrave, Elmham, Otterbourne, Adam of Usk; and for Henry VI., Amundesham, Whethamstede, William of Worcester and John Hardyng, as well as a number of anonymous briefer chronicles, edited, though not in the Rolls series, by J.
C(okayne)'s Complete Peerage; Jeayes's Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters and Muniments at Berkeley Castle (1892); Dictionary of National Biography; Transactions of Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 3 vols., viii., xlv., et passim; The Red Book of the Exchequer, Chronicles of Roger of Wendover, Matthew Paris, Adam of Murimuth, Robert of Gloucester, Henry of Huntingdon, &c. (Rolls Series); British Museum Charters, &c. (0.
The common story that he was a candidate for Adam Smith's chair of moral philosophy at Glasgow, when Hume was rejected in favour of an obscure nobody (1751), can be shown to be wholly false.
Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan >>
The germ at least of this idea is to be found in Tertullian, who says: " Acceperat Adam a Deo legem non gustandi de arbore agnitionis boni et mali, moriturus si gustasset; verum et ipse tunc in psychicum reversus ...
This day, called the " Yom Ashoora," is held sacred on many accounts: - " because it is believed to be the day on which the first meeting of Adam and Eve took place after they were cast out of paradise; and that on which Noah went out from the ark; also because several other great events are said to have happened on this day; and because the ancient Arabs, before the time of the prophet, observed it by fasting.
JOHANN ADAM VON SCHALL (1591-1666), Jesuit missionary in China, born of noble parents in Cologne.
He limits the possession of freedom to Adam, the first man, who, by abusing his prerogative, has corrupted the human race.
Inherited incapacity for the choice of good is the punishment for Adam's misuse of freedom.
And because Adam's choice necessitates punishment it follows that in some instances Divine Grace can never be bestowed.
Small wonder, then, if Adam of Bremen, and the monkish annalists who follow him, describe Sweyn as a grim and bloody semi-pagan, perpetually warring against Christian states.
Augustine is fully aware of the theoretical indispensability of maintaining Free Will, from its logical connexion with human responsibility and divine justice; but he considers that these latter points are sufficiently secured if actual freedom of choice between good and evil is allowed in the single case of our progenitor Adam.
Passing on to Anselrn (1033-1109), we observe that the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and man's absolute need of unmerited grace is retained in his theory of salvation; he also follows Augustine in defining freedom as the " power not to sin "; though in saying that Adam fell " spontaneously " and " by his free choice," though not " through its freedom," he has implicitly made the distinction that Peter the Lombard afterwards expressly draws between the freedom that is opposed to necessity and freedom from the slavery to sin.
Anselm further softens the statement of Augustinian predestinationism by explaining that the freedom to will is not strictly lost even by fallen man; it is inherent in a rational nature, though since Adam's sin it only exists potentially in humanity, except where it is made actual by grace.
An original and ingenious solution of this problem was offered by his contemporary Adam Smith, in his Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759).
By means of this primary element, compounded in various ways, Adam Smith explains all the phenomena of the moral consciousness.
When the effort to restrain feeling is exhibited in a degree which surprises as well as pleases, it excites admiration as a virtue or excellence; such excellences Adam Smith quaintly calls the " awful and respectable," contrasting them with the " amiable virtues " which consist in the opposite effort to sympathize, when exhibited in a remarkable degree.
Adam Smith gives authority to his moral system by saying ' In earlier editions of the Inquiry Hume expressly included all approved qualities under the general notion of " virtue."
Price's Review of the Chief Questions and Difficulties of Morals was published in 1757, two years before Adam Smith's treatise.
The complex work now known as Orkneyinga is made up of the Earls' Saga, lives of the first great earls, Turf-Einar, Thorfinn, &c.; the Life of St Magnus, founded partly on Abbot Robert's Latin life of him (c. 1150) an Orkney work, partly on Norse or Icelandic biographies; a Mirade-book of the same saint; the Lives of Earl Rognwald and Sveyn, the last of the vikings, and a few episodes such as the Burning of Bishop Adam.
He was led by a protecting angel to the beginning of time when Satan, supported by an angel called Adam, was in full rebellion against God.
But the co-rebel Adam repented and God then created the Earth and sent Adam to expiate his sin by living amidst difficulties and sufferings on that planet.
But the demonstration of Adam's result was soon made 1 Philosophical Transactions, 1853.
From this state Adam fell, and in his fall involved the whole human race descended from him.
Nor is that a being bound foranother's offence; for when it is said that we through Adam's sin have become obnoxious to the divine judgment, is is not to be taken as if we, being ourselves innocent and blameless, bear the fault of his offence, but that, we having been brought under a curse through his transgression, he is said to have bound us.
He was the syncellus (cell-mate, the confidential campanion assigned to the patriarchs, sometimes little more than a spy; see Syncellus) or private secretary of Tara(u)sius, patriarch of Constantinople (784-806), after whose death he retired to a convent, and wrote his Chronicle of events from Adam to Diocletian (285).
Here he was opposed by Adam Loftus, archbishop of Dublin and chancellor, who had expressed his anxiety for a college, but had no idea of endowing it at his own expense.
14 seq.) gave rise in precritical days to the theory of pre-Adamites, as though Adam and Eve were not the only inhabitants of the earth.
i.) we pass to the "generations of Adam" (v.
Hence he lays the greatest stress on the conception of God's disposition of salvation towards mankind (oeconomia), the object of which is that mankind, who in Adam were sunk in sin and death, should in Christ, comprised as it were in his person, be brought back to life.
Christ must be God; for if not, the devil would have had a natural claim on him, and he would have been no more exempt from death than the other children of Adam; he must be man, if his blood were indeed to redeem us.
(Rome, 1862); Adam Tytus Dzialynski, Collectanea vitam resque gestas J.
He denied the salvation of Adam.
Grosseteste numbered among his most intimate friends the Franciscan teacher, Adam Marsh.
Through Adam he came into close relations with Simon de Montfort.
582), may be from his pen; but the editor of the latter work ascribes it to Adam de Marsh.
or Fasti Siculi), so called from being based upon the Easter canon, an outline of chronology from Adam down to A.D.
Johann Georg Adam Forster >>
In the Rabbinical literature Lilith becomes the first wife of Adam, but flies away from him and becomes a demon.
It was the first great revolt from Adam Smith, on whose Wealth of Nations (1776) he is said to have already written a commentary which is lost.
In his criticism on Adam Smith, and his arguments for a system of moderate protective duties associated with the deliberate policy of promoting national interests, his work was the inspiration of Friedrich List, and so the foundation of the economic system of Germany in a later day, and again, still later, of the policy of Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference in England, as advocated by Mr Chamberlain and his supporters.
The Russian explorer, Adam Ivan Krusenstern, made an extensive investigation of the archipelago in 1804.
Although a Protestant he was under the influence of Adam, count of Schwarzenberg, who was a Roman Catholic of imperialist sympathies.
The abrupt ending to the season prompted Adam Pearson to fork out $800,000 on new players.
Old Man Adam's wise words have become very poignant indeed.
Martin managed a pb and to finish just ahead of Adam, despite having to jog the last mile with an increasingly sore Achilles.
God did not create Adam with a capital A. He created THE adam from the adamah.
Philip Galley (Dr_Galley) Wed, 28 Jun 2006 Religion Thread WEll said Adam.
That would not be translation, yet that is what is happening when we translate Adam as man early in Genesis.
posted by Adam at 08:15 PM | Comments (1) December 01, 2004 Welcome in my friends dadrock noun.
The Hebrew word Adam as a common noun can mean either ' humankind ' or ' man as distinct from woman ' .
Adam Printer-friendly page | Top boniobrain Charter Member 10.
Adam Gordon - Tuesday 16 May, 2006 I was very impressed with the speed of delivery and the value you offer.
Adam style surround, marble effect insert & hearth.
The word Adam simply doesn't mean Man, no matter how much people might want it to!
OUTSIDE The property is approached over a double width tarmac Adam driveway providing off road parking leading to an attached single garage and workshop.
Being closed or offering square feet the room Adam 's with rooms has.
I favor the name Adam for a variety of reasons which I am happy to share with individuals if interested.
Adam's mark daytona.
Big Adam 04-03-2004, 10:17 You're getting quite good at this " Alan vs. The Corporation " thing ae n't you?
It includes ' Time ' and rec 'd much airplay on Radio Wales thanks to Adam Walton.
Replica of the brass of Adam Bacon, set in the rather alarming chancel carpet.