I., in which Yahweh is represented as leaving Jerusalem and coming to take up his abode among them in Babylonia for a time, intending, however, to return to his own city (xliii.
His conception of Yahweh shows a mingling of the high and the low.
This kingdom of God he conceives of as moral: Yahweh is to put his own spirit into the people,' creating in them a disposition to obey his commandments, which are moral as well as ritual (xxxvi.
7, Yahweh breathes his own breath into the lifeless body.
A man-like form (Yahweh) surrounded by a rainbow brightness.
The wheels symbolize divine omniscience and control, and the whole vision represents the coming of Yahweh to take up his abode among the exiles.
2 After a comparison of Israel to a worthless wild vine (xv.) come two allegories, one portraying idolatrous Jerusalem as the unfaithful spouse of Yahweh (xvi.), the other describing the fate of Zedekiah (xvii.).
The prophet's thought is summed up in the name of the city: Yahweh Shammah, " Yahweh is there," God dwelling for ever in the midst of his people.
To the vicegerent of Yahweh, seated on the throne of Zion, the king of Israel who is also priest after the order of Melchizedek, and then, after the Gospel had ensured the Messianic interpretation of the Psalm (Matt.
The episode of Melchizedek, though connected with the main narrative by the epithets given to Yahweh in Gen.
Let them build the house, and Yahweh will take pleasure in it and acknowledge the honour paid to Him.
"Without a sanctuary Yahweh would have seemed a foreigner to Israel.
That these places (in the district of Kadesh) were traditionally associated with the origin of the Levites is suggested by various Levitical stories, although it is in a narrative now in a context pointing to Horeb or Sinai that the Levites are Israelites who for some cause (now lost) severed themselves from their people and took up a stand on behalf of Yahweh (Exod.
27 seq.).5 Some tradition of a widespread movement appears to be ascribed to the age of Jehu, whose accession, promoted by the prophet Elisha, marks the end of the conflict between Yahweh and Baal.
In this form the seventh day's rest was one of the few outward ordinances by which the Israelite could still show his fidelity to Yahweh and mark his separation from the heathen.
13), and the character of a sign between Yahweh and Israel ascribed to it in the post-exilic law.
This attachment to the Sabbath, beautiful and touching so long as it was a spontaneous expression of continual devotion to Yahweh, acquired a less pleasing character when, after the exile, it came to be enforced by the civil arm (Neh.
The deity revealed himself in a new name, Yahweh, and with signs and wonders fortified Moses for his task.
To the Israelites, however, it was a miracle, an unexpected intervention on the part of Yahweh, and the first of many marvels which he performed on behalf of the people of his choice.
This was the scene of the "strife" at Meribah (striving) where Yahweh "shewed himself holy" (Num.
1-13); a parallel account joins the name with Massah (trial, proof) where Yahweh "proved" the people (Exod.
7), Yahweh made for Israel "statute and judgment" and "proved them."
1 Yahweh appears to have been known to them before he revealed himself to Moses, and the ancestors of the Israelites are recognized as worshippers of Yahweh, but are on another level (Exod.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
26, so far from the name Yahweh having been made known to Israel by Moses (Exod.
The one form, which probably arose from the conception of Yahweh as in an especial sense the protector of the poor, was that gifts to God may properly be bestowed on the needy, and that consequently alms have the virtue of a sacrifice.
The other form, which was probably a relic of the conception of Yahweh as the author of natural fertility, was that part of the fruits of the earth should be offered to God in acknowledgment of His bounty, and that what was so offered was especially blessed and brought a blessing upon both those who offered it and those who afterwards partook of it.
That Moses united the scattered tribes, probably consisting at first mainly of the Josephite, under the common worship of Yahweh, and that upon the religion of Yahweh a distinctly ethical character was impressed,is generally recognized.
The tradition of the earliest document J ascribes the worship of Yahweh to much earlier times, in fact to the dawn of human life.
In the days of Saul and David) it was the priest with the ephod or image of Yahweh who gave answers to those who consulted him.
As we have already indicated, the document J assumes that Yahweh was worshipped by the Hebrew race from the first.
But I appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as El Shaddai and by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them."
According to this later tradition Yahweh was unknown till the days of Moses, and under the aegis of His power the Hebrew tribes were delivered from Egyptian thraldom.
Yahweh now becomes the supreme deity of the Hebrew people, and an ark analogous to the Egyptian and Babylonian arks portrayed on the monuments' was constructed as embodiment of the rumen of Yahweh and was borne in front of the Hebrew army when it marched to war.
Xvii.) that consolidated the prestige of Yahweh, Israel's war-god.
Several indications favour the view of the connexion in the age of Moses between the Yahweh-cult at Sinai and the moon-worship of Babylonian origin to which the name Sinai points (Sin being the Babylonian moon-god).
We note (a) that in the worship of Yahweh the sacred seasons of new moon and Sabbath are obviously lunar.
2 (b) It also accords with the name bestowed on Yahweh as " Lord of Hosts " (sebaoth) or stars, which were regarded as personified beings (Job xxxviii.
7) and attendants on the celestial Yahweh, constituting His retinue (T Kings xxii.
The atmospheric and celestial character which belonged from the first to the Hebrew conception of Yahweh explains to us the ease with which the idea of His universal sovereignty arose, which the Yahwistic creation account (belonging to the earlier stratum of J, Gen.
While the ark carried with Israel's host symbolized His presence in their midst, He was also known to be present in the cloud which hovered before the host and in the lightning ('esh Yahweh or " fire of Yahweh ") and the thunder (kol Yahweh or " voice of Yahweh ") which played around Mount Sinai.
Moreover, the definitely ethical character of the religion of Yahweh established by Moses is exhibited in the strict exclusion of all sexual impurity in His worship. Unlike the Canaanite Baal, Yahweh hasnofemale consort, and this remained throughouta distinguishing trait of the original and unadulterated Hebrew religion (see Bathgen, Beitreige, p. 265).
From first to last the true religion of Yahweh was pure of sexual taint.
Of this tradition the Naboth incident in the time of Ahab furnishes a clear example which brings to light the contrast between the Tyrian Baal-cult, which was scarcely ethical, and of which Jezebel and Ahab were devotees, and the moral requirements of the religion of Yahweh of which Elijah was the prophet and impassioned exponent.
Again, the conception of Yahweh suffered modification.
Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.
Power and presence (numen) there, and the same festivals and sacrifices which had previously been devoted to the cult of the Canaanite Baal were now annexed to the service of Yahweh, the war-god of the conquering race.
In this way Yahweh came to be called the Baal or " lord " of any sacred place where the armies of Israel by their victories attested " his mighty hand and outstretched arm."
For when Yahweh gradually became Israel's local Baal he became worshipped like the old Canaanite deity, and all the sensuous accompaniments of Kedeshoth,' as well as the presence of the asherah or sacred pole, became attached to his cult.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.