2-9; Xenophon, Hellenica, iv.
Of other 5th-century sources, Aristophanes is obviously a caricaturist, pseudo-Xenophon (de republica Atheniensium) a mere party pamphleteer.
ARAS, the anc. Araxes, and the Phasis of Xenophon (Turk.
On the Mesopotamian side there would seem, from the accounts of Xenophon and Ptolemy, to have been an affluent which joined the Euphrates between Deir and `Ana, called Araxes by the former, Saocoras by the latter; but no trace of such a stream has been found by modern explorers and the country in general has always been uninhabited.
See Plutarch, De Malignitate Herodoti, 26; Xenophon, Anab.
It included, besides Hearne's Ductor historicus and the successive volumes of the Universal History, which was then in course of publication, Littlebury's Herodotus, Spelman's Xenophon, Gordon's Tacitus, an anonymous translation of Procopius; "many crude lumps of Speed, Rapin, Mezeray, Davila, Machiavel, Father Paul, Bower, &c., were hastily gulped.
He deepened and extended his acquaintance with Greek, particularly with his favourite authors Homer and Xenophon; and, to crown all, he succeeded in achieving the third perusal of Blackstone's Commentaries.
The didactic novel of Xenophon, the Cyropaedia, is a free invention adapted to the purposes of the author, based upon the account of Herodotus and occasionally influenced by Ctesias, without any independent traditional element.
The army of Nabonidus was defeated; Babylon itself attempted no resistance, but surrendered on the 16th Tishri (loth of October) 539, to the Persian general Gobryas (Gaubaruva, see the chronicle of the reign of Nabonidus; the name Gobryas is preserved also by Xenophon, Cyrop. vii.
He therefore deserves the homage which Xenophon paid to him in choosing him as hero for his didactic novel.
Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites and 2500 peltasts, and besides an Asiatic army under the command of Ariaeus, for which Xenophon gives the absurd number of ioo,000 men; the army of Artaxerxes he puts down at 900,000.
The history of Cyrus and of the retreat of the Greeks is told by Xenophon in his Anabasis (where he tries to veil the actual participation of the Spartans).
19.27, viii.; Xenophon, Hellenica, i.
Scanty information on its agriculture is to be derived from the Works and Days of Hesiod (about the 8th century B.C.), the Oeconomicus of Xenophon (4th century B.C.), the History of Plants and the Origin of Plants of Theophrastus (4th century B.C.).
8, called Tanyoxarces; by Xenophon, Cyrop. viii.
He is said to have written the history of his consulship and the Cimbrian War after the manner of Xenophon; two epigrams by him have been preserved, one on Roscius the celebrated actor (Cicero, De Nat.
(2) The fifth and fourth centuries: the "Constitution of Athens," ascribed to Xenophon; W.
19, 60; Xenophon, Hellenica, V.
Columella, like Xenophon, favours a certain friendliness and familiarity in one's intercourse with his farm slaves.
Xenophon makes no mention of the peach, though the Ten Thousand must have traversed the country where, according to some, the peach is native; but Theophrastus, a hundred years later, does speak of it as a Persian fruit, and De Candolle suggests that it might have been introduced into Greece by Alexander.
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
His other works include a Vie de Socrate (1650), a translation of the Cyropaedia of Xenophon (1658), and the Traite de la peinture parlance (1684).
Xenophon found a queen in power, and no opposition was offered to the march of Cyrus.
14.8), Kar-Duniyas may have represented the Median Wall of Xenophon (Anab.
He was called "Xenophon the younger" from his imitation of that writer, and he even speaks of himself as Xenophon.
These inaccessible slopes were inhabited even in Strabo's time by wild, half-barbarous tribes, of whose ethnical relations we are ignorant - the Chalybes (identified by the Greeks with Homer's Chalybes), Tibareni, Mosynoeci and Macrones, on whose manners and condition some light is thrown by Xenophon (Anab.
In 355 his advance temporarily ceased, but, as we learn from Isocrates and Xenophon, the financial exhaustion of the league was such that its destruction was only a matter of time.
32-73; Xenophon, Hellenica, vi., vii.; Polybius ii.
We are comparatively well informed from Greek sources; for the earlier part of his reign from Ctesias and Xenophon (Anabasis), for the later times from Dinon of Ephesus, the historian of the Persians (from whom the account of Justin is derived), from Ephorus (whose account is quoted by Diodorus) and others.
He never mentions his authorities, but amongst authors still extant he used Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, Frontinus and Suetonius; amongst authors of whom only fragments now remain he drew upon Ctesias, Ephorus, Timaeus, Phylarchus and Nicolaus Damascenus.
The idea is drawn from Aristo of Chios, and the materials largely derived from Xenophon and Plato.
Plainly this is not the place for a full examination of the question; yet it may be remarked - (I) that the previous history of the sophists of the Euthydemus, who had been professors of tactics (Xenophon, Mem.
- Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 30-34; Strabo pp. 373-374; Pausanias ii.
The Assyrian kings also maintained magnificent parks, or "paradises," in which game of every kind was enclosed; and perhaps it was from them that the Persian sovereigns borrowed the practice mentioned both by Xenophon in the Cyropaedia and by Curtius.
429 seq.), had developed at a very early period; they first found adequate literary expression in the work of Xenophon entitled Cynegeticus, 3 which expounds his principles and embodies his experience in his favourite art of hunting.
As a writer on field sports Xenophon was followed by Arrian, who in his Cynegeticus, in avowed dependence on his predecessor, seeks to supplement such deficiencies in the earlier treatise as arose from its author's unacquaintance with the dogs of Gaul and the horses of Scythia and Libya.
Underhill's edition of Xenophon, Hellenica, i., ii., note on i.
The Athenians failed in an expedition to Chalcidice under Xenophon, while the Spartan Cnemus with Chaonian and Epirot allies was repulsed from Stratus, capital of Acarnania,.
Unfortunately the victorious generals at Arginusae, through negligence or owing Xenophon, Hell.
Xenophon says it was subdued by the Assyrians; Curtius that 6000 Hyrcanians were in the army of Darius III.