From Inigo Jones's designs, and in that of Queen Anne from designs by Sir Christopher Wren; and behind these buildings are on the west those of King William and on the east those of Queen Mary, both from Wren's designs.
Just before the fire Wren was asked by Charles II.
In May 1666 Wren submitted his report and designs (in the All Souls collection), for this work; the old cathedral was in a very ruinous state, and Wren proposed to remodel the greater part, as he said, "after a good Roman manner," and not, "to follow the Gothick Rudeness of the old Design."
From 1668 to 1670 attempts were being made by the chapter to restore the ruined building; but Dean Sancroft was anxious to have it wholly rebuilt, and in 1668 he had asked Wren to prepare a design for a wholly new church.
As a scientific engineer and practical architect Wren was perhaps more remarkable than as an artistic designer.
Wren also designed a colonnade to enclose a large piazza forming a clear space round the church, somewhat after the fashion of Bernini's colonnade in front of St Peter's, but space in the city was too valuable to admit of this.
Wren was an enthusiastic admirer of Bernini's designs, and visited Paris in 1665 in order to see him and his proposed scheme for the rebuilding of the Louvre.
Bernini showed his design to Wren, but would not let him copy it, though, as he said, he "would have given his skin" to be allowed to do so.
The other buildings designed by Wren were very numerous.
The western towers of Westminster Abbey are usually attributed to Wren, but they were not carried out till 1735-1745, many years after Wren's death, and there is no reason to think that his design was used.
For further information the reader should consult the Parentalia, published by Wren's grandson in 1750, an account of the Wren family and especially of Sir Christopher and his works; also the two biographies of Wren by Elmes and Miss Phillimore; Milman, Annals of St Paul's (1868); and Longman, Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul in London (1873), pp. 77 seq.
See also Clayton, Churches of Sir C. Wren (1848-1849); Taylor, Towers and Steeples of Wren (London, 1881); Niven, City Churches (London, 1887), illustrated with fine etchings; A.
In the library of All Souls at Oxford are preserved a large number of drawings by Wren, including the designs for almost all his chief works, and a fine series showing his various schemes for St Paul's Cathedral.
Among the song-birds are the mocking-bird, the Carolina wren and the cardinal grosbeak (or red bird); there are plenty of quail or " bob white " (called partridge in the South).
Although these conclusions were arrived at independently, and, as it would seem, several years previous to their publication, they were in great measure anticipated by the communications on the same subject of John Wallis and Christopher Wren, made respectively in November and December 1668.
It has generally been supposed to be a " milliarium " or central point for measuring distances, but Sir Christopher Wren believed it was part of some more considerable monuments in the forum (Parentalia, pp. 265, 266).
But though the plans of Wren and Hooke were not adopted, it was to these two fellows of the Royal Society that the labour of rebuilding London was committed.
He then removed to Bury St Edmunds, where he acted as lecturer for ten years, retiring when his bishop (Wren) insisted on the observance of certain ceremonial articles.
Sir Christopher Wren added certain staircases and a doorway.
Some of its characteristic mammals and birds are the long-eared desert fox, four-toed kangaroo rats, Sonoran pocket mice, big-eared and tiny white-haired bats, road runner, cactus wren, canyon wren, desert thrashers, hooded oriole, black-throated desert sparrow, Texas night-hawk and Gambels quail.
The extensive additions and alterations made by Wren according to the taste of the King resulted in a severely plain edifice of brick; the orangery, added in Queen Anne's time, is a better example of the same architect's work.
The true order of discovery, however, was as follows: (a) Sir Christo p her Wren made many experiments before the Royal Society, which were afterwards repeated in a corrected form by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia, experimentally proving that bodies of ascertained comparative weights, when suspended and impelled against one another, forced one another back by impressing on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights and therefore masses; that is, by impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum.
(c) Wren and Huygens further proved that the law of equal action and reaction, already experimentally established by the former, is deducible from the conservation of the velocity of the common centre of gravity, which is the same as the common velocity of the bodies, that is, deducible from the fact that their common centre of gravity does not change its state of motion or rest by the actions of the bodies between themselves; and they further extended the law to bodies, qua elastic.
The woodcock, partridge, hawk, water-ousel, magpie, jay, raven, various kinds of owls, wood-pigeon, golden-crested wren, tufted lark and titmouse are among the birds which breed here.
Solutions were furnished by Wallis, Huygens, Wren and others; and Pascal published his own in the form of letters from Amos Dettonville (his assumed name as challenger) to Pierre de Carcavy.
The blue-bird with his azure plumes, the thrush clad all in brown, the robin jerking his spasmodic throat, the oriole drifting like a flake of fire, the jolly bobolink and his happy mate, the mocking-bird imitating the notes of all, the red-bird with his one sweet trill, and the busy little wren, are all making the trees in our front yard ring with their glad song.