Mr Gladstone specially quoted him in support of the Light Wines Bill (1860).
The characteristic flavour and odour of wines and spirits is dependent on the proportion of higher alcohols, aldehydes and esters which may be produced.
Arbois is well known for its red and white wines, and has saw-mills, tanneries and market gardens, and manufactures paper, oil and casks.
Imports include woven goods, metals, ironware, machinery, tea, wines and spirits, mineral oils, opium, paper, and arms and powder.
Among the exports may be noticed minerals, wines and spirits, tobacco, hides, live animals; and among the imports, groceries, cotton and cereals.
The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
It has an extensive trade in the wines of the district.
The quality, too, owing to bad weather at the time of vintage, was not good; Italian wine, indeed, never is sufficiently good to compete with the best wines of other countries, especially France (thotigh there is more opening for Italian wines of the Bordeaux and,Burgundy type); nor will many kinds of it stand keeping, partly owing to their natural qualities and partly to the insufficient care devoted to their preparation.
There has been some improvement, however, while some of the heavier white wines, noticeably the Marsala of Sicily, have excellent keeping qualities.
The principal exports are silk and cotton tissues, live stock, wines, spirits and oils; corn, flour, macaroni and similar products; and minerals, chiefly sulphur.
There is a school of viticulture and a very considerable trade in Moselle wines, especially during the annual auctions.
The vine flourishes chiefly on the hills of the south-east; the wines of Les Riceys, Bar-sur-Aube, Bouilly and Laines-aux-Bois are most esteemed.
With France there is a large traffic in wines, spirits, silk, fruit, vegetables and general provisions.
It is well stocked with trout, and the steep declivities of the lower valley furnish red wines of excellent quality.
Pears, apples, quinces, mulberries an d other fruit-trees flourish, as well as vines; the Cretan wines, however, no longer enjoy the reputation which they possessed in the time of the Venetians.
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
Glycerin is also a product of certain kinds of fermentation, especially of the alcoholic fermentation of sugar; consequently it is a constituent of many wines and other fermented liquors.
The trade mainly consists of the wines of the district.
The principal industries are wool and cotton spinning, and the manufacture of porcelain, earthenware, boots, soap, oil, sparkling wines and beer.
It was the most piquant feature of his life that he, one of the gilded youth, a connoisseur in wines, and a learned man to boot, had become agitator and the champion of the working man.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
Wines of fair quality are grown in the valley of the Sioule; walnuts, chestnuts, plums, apples and pears are principal fruits.
In the Vivarais cattle are reared, while on the slopes of the Beaujolais excellent wines are grown.
Its medieval importance, due to the pilgrimages to the tomb of the saint and to the commerce in its wines, began to decline towards the end of the 13th century owing to the foundation of Libourne.
The wines of Hungary were already renowned throughout Europe, and cattle breeding was conducted on a great scale.
The Parras district in the southern part of the state has long been celebrated for its wines and brandies.
The grain produce, consisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye and Indian corn, exceeds the consumption, and the vineyards yield an abundant supply of both white and red wines, those of Limoux and the Narbonnais being most highly esteemed.
The imports include manufactured articles of all kinds, hardware and building materials, earthenware and glassware, furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs, coal, petroleum and many other things.
In the middle ages, owing to various causes, the better wines of France and Germany could not be obtained in England except at prohibitive prices; but when this state of things ceased, and foreign wine could be imported, the English consumers would no longer tolerate the inferior productions of their own vineyards.
The relative inferiority of the wines made at the Cape of Good Hope and in Australia is partly due to variations of climate, the vine not yet having adapted itself to the new conditions, - and partly to the deficient skill of the manufacturers.
Rio is also a distributing centre in the coasting trade, and many imported products, such as jerked beef (came secca), hay, flour, wines, &c., appear among the coastwise exports, as well as domestic manufactures.
The imports include wheat, flour, Indian corn, jerked beef (carne secca), lard, bacon, wines and liquors, butter, cheese, conserves of all kinds, coal, cotton, woollen, linen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, earthenand glasswares, railway material, machinery, furniture, building material, including pine lumber, drugs and chemicals, and hardware.
Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
Many plants, and as the esters of n-hexyl and n-octyl alcohols in the seeds of Heracleum giganteum, and in the fruit of Heracleum sphondylium, but is generally obtained, on the large scale, from the oxidation of spoiled wines, or from the destructive distillation of wood.
Once every four years in cities and once in two years in towns the question of licence or no-licence must be submitted to a vote of the electorate, and in a no-licence town or city no bar-room or saloon is to be permitted; in such a town or city, however, malt liquor, cider and light wines may be sold at a railway restaurant and an inn-keeper may serve liquors to his bona-fide registered guests.
The surrounding country is extremely fertile, and its wines are the best produced in Turkey.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
The wines are for the most part rough and strong, though some are very good, especially when matured.
It is an important steamboat station for both passenger and cargo traffic, and besides manufactures of cement, dyes and soap, has a considerable trade in the wines of the district.
The country, in the words of an expert sent to report on the subject by the French government, " can produce an infinite variety of wines suitable to every constitution and to every caprice of taste."
Algerian vineyards were also attacked (1883) despite precautionary measures, but in the meantime the worth of their wines had been proved.