Waterways.1The waterways of France, 7543 m.
The "Marble Arch" cave near Florencecourt, with its emerging river, is a characteristic example of the subterranean waterways in the limestone.
The improvement of waterways in the interior of the empire was not neglected, the Babylonian canal system was repaired, the obstructions in the Tigris removed.
The problem of inland waterways has always been a most important one in northern, eastern and southern Louisiana, where there are systems of improved bayous, lakes and canals which, with the levees, make this region something like Holland, on a greater scale.
Of these waterways of decided commercial importance.
At this point also the two rivers are connected by a canal, the northernmost of a series of canals which formerly united the two great waterways, and at the same time irrigated the intervening plain.
They are constructed not only as navigable waterways, but also to relieve the rivers from periodical overflow, and to drain the marshy districts.
In 1907 the length of the navigable waterways of Hungary was 3200 m., of which 2450 m.
The Rhine has been one of the chief waterways of Europe from the earliest times; and, as its channel is not exposed to the danger of silting up like those of the Elbe and the Oder, it has always been comparatively easy to keep it open.
He was shortly assigned to a territorial command on the Mississippi, and first won distinction by his energy in seizing, on his own responsibility, the important point of Paducah, Kentucky, situated at the confluence of the two great waterways of the Tennessee and the Ohio (6th Sept.
The nation does not seem to have appreciated the deficiencies of the syndicates service, supplemented as it was by a network of waterways which greatly increased the facilities for transport.
The harbour is connected by canals with the river Aa and the navigable waterways of the department.
The waterways which traverse and surround it and the character of its numerous gabled medieval houses give it the appearance of an old Dutch, rather than of a German, town.
The inland waterways include the 25 ft.
Other important waterways which have been authorized by the United States government and on which work was proceeding in 1910 are canals from the Rio Grande river to the Mississippi river at Donaldsonville, Louisiana; and "a navigable channel depth of 5 ft.
Congressional appropriations for the survey, improvement and maintenance of waterways began in 1852; amounted to $15,055,688 between 1891 and 1896 inclusive, and $1,613,829 between 1897 and 1907; the total appropriated being $23,249,419.
The Spaniards, with monstrous fatuity, refused to make use of the superb waterways provided by the Parana and Paraguay, and endeavoured to stifle all trade.
A system of waterways (the Geeste and Hadelner canals, meeting one another at Bederkesa) connects the estuary of the Weser with that of the Elbe; a canal between the Hunte and the Leda gives connexion with the Ems. On the upper Weser (above Bremen) the navigation, which is interrupted by occasional rapids, is assisted by locks and weirs.
Washington's many waterways, both fresh and salt, and especially those which indent or are near the coast, make the fisheries resources of great value.
- Bridges (old forms, brig, brygge, brudge; Dutch, brug; German, Briicke; a common Teutonic word) are structures carrying roadways, waterways or railways across streams, valleys or other roads or railways, leaving a passage way below.
Long bridges of several spans are often termed " viaducts," and bridges carrying canals are termed " aqueducts," though this term is sometimes used for waterways which have no bridge structure.
After the Tauern railway had been built for the Alpine countries - without, it is true, any particular pecuniary help from the Polish part of the empire, which was known to be only passively interested - the Poles demanded a complete carrying into effect and extension of the waterways law, with a larger State subsidy.
It was over these demands in connexion with the waterways, which the Minister of Finance declared to be impossible of fulfilment to the extent required by the Poles, that Bienerth's mainstay failed to support him; and on Dec. 12 he sent in his resignation, which was, however, followed by a renewed Bienerth Ministry, composed of Germans, Poles and officials.
His programme was to be an honourable mediator in the German-Bohemian quarrel, to extend the railway system, and to satisfy the wishes of the Poles in the waterways question by an expenditure of 73.4 million kronen on canal construction in Galicia, to which Galicia was to contribute only 9.4 million kronen, the State finding the other 64, and by an expenditure of 125 millions on river improvements, 99 of which would be contributed by the State.
A great economic and social programme 'was announced, including the extension of waterways, the exploitation of electricity, an improved system of communication, industrial insurance, and a department for public health.
As a wholly inland nation, Czechoslovakia has to rely in the matter of transport upon its railways and its waterways, notably the Elbe, which connects the republic with Hamburg and the North Sea, and the Danube, which unites it with the east of Europe and the Balkans.
In the north, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the intricately branching waterways of Puget Sound between the Cascade and the Olympic ranges occupy trough-like depressions which were filled by extensive glaciers in Pleistocene times; and thus mark the beginning of the great stretch of forded coast which extends northward to Alaska.
Rhe waterways here afford excellent harbours.
More than $250,000,000 has been spent by the national government for the improvement of waterways, yet no general system exists, and a large part of this enormous sum has been wasted on unimportant or impossible projects, especially in recent decades, since the river navigation has been a declining interest.
Of recent years there has been a great revival of interest in the improvement of inland waterways upon systematic plans, which promises better than an earlier period of internal improvements in the first half of the 19th century, the results of which were more or less disastrous for the state and local governments that undertook them, and only less so for the national government.
Coal, iron ore, building materials, lumber, livestock, cotton, fruits, vegetables, tobacco and grain are the great items in the domestic commerce of the country, upon its railways, inland waterways, and in the coasting trade.
The work of construction was under the control of the Inland Waterways and Docks Section of the Royal Engineers, and involved the reclamation of a large tract of swampy foreshore, the widening and deepening of the waterway, the construction of a wharf and jetty nearly a mile in length equipped with powerful cranes and of docks for the building and repair of certain kinds of craft, the erection of acres of hutments and store-sheds, and the laying of some 50 m.
Probably in no country in the world are there gathered together within comparatively narrow limits so many clean-cut waterways, measuring thousands of feet in depth, affording such a stupendous system of narrow roadways through the hills.
To adopt a figure, it is probable that the sources from which the two streams of life - animal and vegetable - spring may not be separable by a well-defined watershed at all, but consist of a great level upland, in which the waterways anastomose.
Waierways.In Germany the waterways are almost solely in the possession of the state.
Germany is thus a country abounding in natural waterways, the total length of them being estimated at 7000 m.
The numerous affluents of these rivers, such as the Lys, Dyle, Dender, Ourthe, Ambleve, Vesdre, Lesse and Semois, provide a system of waterways almost unique in Europe.
The total of navigable waterways is given as 1360 m.
That portion of Flanders which skirts the south bank of the Scheldt thus passed into the possession of the States, and with it the complete control of all the waterways to the sea.
Again, a totally different character belongs to the canals in North Brabant, and the east and north-east of Holland where, in the absence of great rivers, they form the only waterways which render possible the drainage of the fens and the export of peat; and unite the lesser streams with each other.
Doughty (London, 1887); On Dutch Waterways, by G.
As waterways all the rivers labour under the drawbacks of rapids, mud-banks at their mouths, banks overgrown with forest, sparse population, and currents liable to serious variations due to irregularity of supply from the mountains and sudden rainfalls.