An instance of the latter is furnished by John of Margat, a vassal of the seignory of Arsuf.
The vassal was bound to pay military service, not, as in western Europe, for a limited period of forty days, but for the whole year - the Holy Land being, as it were, in a perpetual state of siege.
Josiah at once interposed; it is uncertain whether, in spite of the power of Egypt, he had hopes of extending his kingdom, or whether the famous reformer was, like Manasseh, a vassal of Assyria.
In May 1223 he was seized at midnight in his tent on the isle of Lyo, whither he had come to hunt, by his vassal and guest.
It has entirely escaped Islam, and though it is a nominal vassal of China, direct Chinese influence has not been strong.
Bahrain deposed the vassal king of the Persian part of Armenia and made it a province.
When William reached the Forth his adversary submitted, did homage as a vassal, and consented to expel Edgar Atheling, who was subsequently endowed with an English estate and admitted to William's favour.
It proved to be easier to hold the lord responsible for the public duties of all his dependants because he was the king's vassal and by attaching them as conditions to the benefices which he held, than to enforce them directly upon every subject.
Al-Masan, the son of Mahommed, sought help from the emperor, and was restored in 1535 as a Spanish vassal, by a force which Charles V.
By this step the pope became his vassal, and a divided allegiance was rendered impossible for the German clergy.
The French king treated Victor Amadeus almost as a vassal, and obliged him to persecute his Protestant (Waldensian) subjects.
Hominaticum, which occurs in a document of 1035), one of the ceremonies used in the granting of a fief, and indicating the submission of a vassal to his lord.
Evagoras was allowed to remain nominally king of Salamis, but in reality a vassal of Persia, to which he was to pay a yearly tribute.
Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest of the vassal chiefs who had grown rich under the protection of the British rule, lay under the suspicion of disloyalty.
In 1873 he attacked Khiva, took the capital, and forced the khan to become a vassal of Russia.
Menaced, however, by Louis' brother-in-law, Otto the Great, and excommunicated by the council of Ingelheim (948), the powerful vassal was forced to make submission and to restore Laon to his sovereign.
Tiridates, who was proclaimed king, could no longer maintain himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans; Artabanus returned from Hyrcania with a strong army of Scythian (Dahan) auxiliaries, and was again acknowledged by the Parthians.
The same year peace was concluded with Mithradates on condition that he should be put back to the position he held before the war; but, as he raised objections, he had in the end to content himself with being simply a vassal of Rome.
But the fact that he summoned five vassal-kings of the empire to a conference at Tiberias suggests rather a policy of self-aggrandisement.
The Babylonian Jews were practically independent, and the exilarch (reshgalutha) or prince of the captivity was an official who ruled the community as a vassal of the Persian throne.
But the master of the Livonian province and the German master would not obey a Polish vassal, and went their own way; the German master took the grand master's place as a prince of the Empire.
He now threw all his energies into the task of marshalling the forces of France and his vassal states for the overthrow of "perfidious Albion."
The state was a vassal of a weak and distant empire, which would leave it virtually free to pursue its own career; it was an independent tributary of a near and powerful kingdom with which it could trade, and trade between east and west became henceforth the note of its development.
Baldwin de Burgh, the future Baldwin II., ruled in Edessa as the vassal of Baldwin I.
The king was also bound to insure the horses of his men by a system called the restor: if a vassal lost his horse otherwise than by his own fault, it must be replaced by the treasury (which was termed, as it also was in Norman Sicily, the secretum).'
Otherwise, it is not clear why we find him opposing himself to the Egyptian king Necho, since the assumption that he fought as an Assyrian vassal scarcely agrees with the profound reforming policy ascribed to him.
In 734 their king Sanip(b)u was a vassal of Tiglathpileser IV., and his successor, P(b)udu-ilu, held the same position under Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.
In a war against the Elymaeans (in Susiana) he took the Greek town Seleucia on the Hedyphon, and forced their king to become a vassal of the Parthians (Justin 41, 6; Strabo xv.
Similarly Alexander found the Gates open, when he came down from the plateau in 333 B.C.; and from these facts it may be inferred that the great pass was not under direct Persian control, but under that of a vassal power always ready to turn against its suzerain.
On his death in 1189, the nobles of Anjou, Maine and Touraine refused to recognize John of England, and did homage to Arthur, who declared himself the vassal of Philip Augustus.
Under Khammurabi a Samsi-Hadad (or Samsi-Raman) seems to have been vassal-prince at Assur, and the names of several of the high-priests of Assur who succeeded him have been made known to us by the recent German excavations.
From this moment until his death Mahmud was, to all intents and purposes, the " vassal of Russia," though not without occasional desperate efforts to break his chains.
"No sooner" (it is related) "had Mirza completed the Diwan-i-Khas than it came to the ears of the emperor Jehangir that his vassal had surpassed him in magnificence, and that this last great work quite eclipsed all the marvels of the imperial city; the columns of red sandstone having been particularly noticed as sculptured with exquisite taste and elaborate detail.
Probably the ceremony which grew into feudal homage, and the oath of fealty, certainly the honourable position of the vassal and his pride in the relationship, the strong tie which bound lord and man together, and the idea that faith and service were due on both sides in equal measure, we may trace to German sources.
Grants of land of the Merovingian kings had carried with them ownership and not a limited right, and the king's patrocinium had not widened in extent in the direction of the later vassal relation.
Institution was rapid; it emphasized military service as an essential obligation of the vassal; and it spread the vassal relation between individual proprietors and the sovereign widely over the state.
Itcompleted the transformation of the army into a vassal army; it completed the recognition of feudalism by the state, as a legitimate relation between different ranks of the people; and it recognized the transformation in a great number of cases of a public duty into a private obligation.
When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.
In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.
The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.
A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.
The Romans entered into the heritage of the Carthaginians and the vassal kings of Numidia, and Punic speech and civilization The gave way to Latin, a change which from the time Province of of Caesar was helped on by Italian colonization; to "Africa."
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
Homage was done not only by the vassal to whom feudal lands were first granted but by every one in turn by whom they were inherited, since they were not granted absolutely but only on condition of military and other service.
This, noble Horse, is my friend the Cowardly Lion, who is the valiant King of the Forest, but at the same time a faithful vassal of Princess Ozma.
He was said to have built the royal citadel of Susa, called after him the Memnonion, and to have been sent by Teutamus, king of Assyria, to the assistance of his vassal Priam (Diod.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
Tukulti-In-aristi of Assyria (1272 B.C.) for 7 years, native vassal kings being Bel-sum-iddin, II years.
In imitation of the practice observed under the Roman empire, the term came to be applied under the feudal system to portions of land granted by a lord to his vassal for the maintenance of the latter on condition of his rendering military service; and such grants were originally for life only, and the land reverted to the lord on the death of the vassal.
Charles forced the elector, indeed, at the point of the sword to become his ally and vassal (treaty of Konigsberg, Jan.
Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization.
But we must not forget that the origin of the vassal relationship, as an institution, is to be found on Roman and not on German soil.
At the same time undoubtedly the new holder of the land, if not already the vassal of the prince, was obliged to become so and to assume an obligation of service with a mounted force when called upon.'
Afterwards, when Louis became a prisoner in the hands of his powerful vassal Hugh the Great, duke of France, Otto attacked the duke, who, like the king, was his brother-in-law, captured Reims, and negotiated a peace between the two princes; and in subsequent struggles between them his authority was several times invoked.
Among these petty chieftains, Sargon in 715 mentions Dayukku, "lieutenant of Man" (he probably was, therefore, a vassal of the neighbouring king of Man in the mountains of south-eastern Armenia), who joined the Urartians and other enemies of Assyria, but was by Sargon transported to Hamath in Syria "with his clan."
The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.
This disaster, the most serious suffered by the French since Rossbach, sent a thrill through the Napoleonic vassal states and aroused in Napoleon transports of anger against Dupont.
Under this head may be enumerated also the financial duties of the vassal, though these were not regarded by the feudal law as of the nature of the tenure, i.e.