Partly on account of his inability to share in the amusements of his fellows by reason of a deformity due to vaccine poisoning before he was five (the poison permanently arresting the growth and development of his legs), he was an eager student, and in 1814 he graduated at the College of South Carolina with the highest rank in his class and with a reputation throughout the state for scholarship and eloquence.
Glycerin acts as a preservative against decomposition, owing to its antiseptic qualities, which also led to its being employed to preserve untanned leather (especially during transit when exported, the hides being, moreover, kept soft and supple); to make solutions of gelatin, albumen, gum, paste, cements, &c. which will keep without decomposition; to preserve meat and other edibles; to mount anatomical preparations; to preserve vaccine lymph unchanged; and for many similar purposes.
It is especially desirable for hospital and ambulance staffs to be inoculated with a vaccine prepared from sterilized cultures of plague bacillus.
(2) The Institute is of opinion that in the hands of more or less unskilled workers it is easier to ensure freedom from contamination by Haffkine's ` standard method ' of manufacturing plague vaccine than with the ` water agar process ' as employed by him.
(3) The Institute is in entire agreement with the commission as to the value of 5% carbolic acid in restraining tetanus growth when added to plague prophylactic, and its experiments emphasize still further the importance of this addition in preventing growth and toxin formation in a vaccine which might be liable to the possibility of contamination with spores of tetanus.
The vaccine is usually made by sterilizing a virulent culture and the proper dose is ascertained by noting 'the extent to which the power of the leucocytes to envelop and digest the microbes is increased.
To Edward Jenner we owe the discovery that vaccination protects against smallpox, and it is now generally acknowledged that smallpox and vaccine are ' Quoted by Weir Mitchell, "Researches on the Venom of the Rattlesnake," Smithsonian Contributions (1860), p. 97.
In this case a general reaction is stimulated by the vaccine which may aid in the destruction of the invading organisms. In regulating the administration of such vaccines he has introduced the method of observing the opsonic index, to which reference is made below.
The effect of the injection of a small quantity of vaccine is usually to produce an increase in the opsonic index within a few days.
If then an additional quantity of vaccine be injected there occurs a fall in the opsonic index (negative phase) which, however, is followed later by a rise to a higher level than before.
If the amounts of vaccine used and the times of the injection are suitably chosen, there may thus be produced by a series of steps a rise of the opsonic index to a high level.
One of the chief objects in registering the opsonic power in such cases is to avoid the introduction of additional vaccine when the opsonic index is low, that is, during the negative phase, as if this were done a further diminution of the opsonic action might result.
On the research team of the eminent virologist Dr. Thomas Francis, who was working on a flu vaccine, was a young physician named Jonas Salk.
Early versions of a "Salk vaccine" were successful on a few patients, so more extensive tests were planned—a vast field trial that involved twenty thousand doctors, two hundred thousand volunteers, and almost two million school children.
When legendary journalist Edward R. Murrow interviewed Dr. Salk and asked him who owned the patent on the vaccine, Salk replied, Well, the people, I would say.
This goal is within our grasp—and with the vaccine presently priced at about thirty cents a child, shame on us for not ending polio once and for all.
And Jenner had created this vaccine for smallpox without even understanding the basics of germ theory!
A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward.
(The use of such practices continued into the scientific age: While Jenner was inoculating people with his new smallpox vaccine, doctors were draining half a gallon of blood from George Washington for his sore throat, a procedure that hastened his death.
Louis Pasteur came along around this same time and proffered the germ theory of disease and a vaccine for rabies.
In 1879 a vaccine for cholera was invented.
Two years later, an anthrax vaccine; the year after that, a rabies vaccine.
In 1921, a tuberculosis vaccine was developed in France.
In the 1920s, we got a vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and tetanus.
In 1935, a vaccine for yellow fever was created.
Dialysis came a few years later, then chemotherapy, then the defibrillator, then the polio vaccine; then came cloning, then a kidney transplant.
The 1980s brought us a hepatitis B vaccine, artificial skin, DNA sequencing, and laser cataract surgery.
The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.
The vaccine nanoparticles are painted with a protein that helps keep the white blood cells from attacking the pancreas without damaging the overall immune system.
Researchers also discovered the vaccine was able to restore normal blood sugar levels without using insulin.