Urologists have various approaches to urine drainage that range from simply reimplanting a ureter into the bladder, in such a way that an effective valve is created, to building a new bladder out of a piece of bowel.
These include a situation in which two ureters leave a kidney, instead of the usual one (duplicated ureters) and in which the ureter is greatly enlarged at the end leading into the bladder (ureterocele).
A ureter may have an ectopic (out-of-place) orifice (opening): it may enter the bladder, or even another structure, where it does not belong and therefore lack an adequate valve to control reflux.
In rare cases, urine from an ectopic ureter will bypass the bladder and dribble out of the bottom somewhere, through a natural orifice like the vagina or a completely separate unnatural opening.
In vesicoureteral reflux, however, urine that has already collected in the bladder is able to flow backwards from the bladder, up the ureter, and back into the collecting system of the kidney.
Pedal centres in the form of ganglionated cords; kidney provided with a ureter; viviparous; fluviatile.
Posterior superior iliac spine Cut end of rectum Apex of sacrum Great sciatic notch Ureter Peritoneum Spine of ischium Bladder wall Seminal vesicle Tuberosity of ischium Ischio-rectal fossa Cut end of rectum External sphincter ani Gluteus maximus better seen in young the prostate the urethra runs more forward for about threequarters of an inch, lying between the two layers of the triangular From C. S.
The vas deferens descends with many undulations down the lateral side of the ureter of the same side, and opens upon a small papilla into the urodaeum.
Posterior superior iliac spine Ureter Great sciatic notch Vas deferens; Spine of ischium Vas deferens Seminal vesicle Bladder wall Levator ani Prostate 9, ?
In some it is very marked, for example in some viscera, the spleen, the bladder, the ureter, the uterus, the intestine, and especially in the heart.