We may define these courses by the terms esoteric and exoteric - the former the philosophy of the school, cultivated principally at the universities, trying to systematize everything and reduce all our knowledge to an intelligible principle, losing in this attempt the deeper meaning of Leibnitz's philosophy; the latter the unsystematized philosophy of general culture which we find in the work of the great writers of the classical period, Lessing, Winkelmann, Goethe, Schiller and Herder, all of whom expressed in some degree their indebtedness to Leibnitz.
From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
At this time the universities were still agitated by the Liberal and patriotic aspirations aroused by the War of Liberation; at Breslau Leo fell under the influence of Jahn, and joined the political gymnastic association (Turnverein); at Jena he attached himself to the radical wing of the German Burschenschaft, the so-called "Black Band," under the leadership of Karl Follen.
"Not only the court of exchequer, whose functions were in a peculiar manner connected with royal authority, but the counties palatine of Chester, Lancaster and Durham, the court of great session in Wales, the universities, the city of London, the Cinque Ports and other places silently assumed extraordinary jurisdiction similar to that exercised in the court of chancery."
Though no bishops abandoned it, a few priests, suc as Father Hyacinthe Loyson, and a few scholars at the Ger an universities refused their adhesion.
After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and GÃ¶ttingen, he entered the service of the prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet.
Already at the universities he had proclaimed his Liberal sympathies as a member of the Burschenschaft, and he now threw himself into open opposition to the unconstitutional spirit of the Hessian government, an attitude which led to his dismissal from the state service in 1833.
He spent two years from 1886 to 1888 in travelling, and visited Riga Polytechnic and the universities of Wiirzburg, Graz, Amsterdam and Leipzig.
He reorganized the university of Vienna and encouraged the development of the universities of Ingolstadt and Freiburg.
In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays was greater.
In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
The Cartesianism of Holland was a child of the universities, and its literature is mainly composed of commentaries upon.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar.
Up to the year 1650, or thereabouts, the Canon was still used as a text-book in the universities of Louvain and Montpellier.
After being professor of philosophy at several provincial universities, he received the degree of doctor, and came to Paris in 1858 as master of conferences at the Ecole Normale.
For higher and professional education there are two national universities at Buenos Aires and Cordoba, and three provincial universities, at La Plata, Santa Fe and Parana, which comprise faculties of law, medicine and engineering, in addition to the usual courses in arts and science.
In 1966, Mao Zedong closed the universities in China and sent their students and professors to the country to farm.
American universities are thought by many to be among the best in the world.
Whether the preservation of my father's house in Moscow, or the glory of the Russian arms, or the prosperity of the Petersburg and other universities, or the freedom of Poland or the greatness of Russia, or the balance of power in Europe, or a certain kind of European culture called "progress" appear to me to be good or bad, I must admit that besides these things the action of every historic character has other more general purposes inaccessible to me.