If I represent the intensity of the primary light after traversing a thickness x of the turbid medium, we have dI = - hIA-4dx, where h is a constant independent of A.
(1) if Io correspond to x = o, - a law altogether similar to that of absorption, and showing how the light tends to become yellow and finally red as the thickness of the medium increases (Phil.
Herschel writes:- " I have in vain attempted to find lines sufficiently thin to extend them across the centres of the stars, so that their thickness might be neglected."
17 and a thickness of insulating material which formerly would have been considered quite insufficient is now very generally adopted with complete success.
As the wire is pulled through, a coating of gutta-percha, the thickness of which is regulated by the die D, is pressed out of the cylinder by applying the requisite pressure
At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.
In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.
In thickness containing "coprolites"; these consist of phosphatized wood, bones, casts of shells, and shapeless lumps.
Thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
Borings show that the thickness of this group varies from 35 o ft.
In thickness near the ground.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
He assumes that in what is considered a good producing district the amount of petroleum which can be obtained from a cubic foot of rock would not be more than a gallon, and that the average thickness of the oil-bearing rock would not exceed 5 ft.
By this method the slopes are indicated by strokes or hachures crossing the contour lines at right angles, in the direction of flowing water, and varying in thickness according to the degree of declivity they represent (cf.
Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
Considerable thickness, suspended in the centre ' of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi.
(5) Angular debris fallen from above varying in thickness from one to ten feet.
(6) Stalagmite with a few bones and antlers of reindeer, the thickness varying from one to fifteen inches.
The first accurate description of the plant is given by Theophrastus, from whom we learn that it grew in shallows of 2 cubits (about 3 ft.) or less, its main root being of the thickness of a man's wrist and 10 cubits in length.
This mode has some disadvantages attending it; such sheets are difficult to handle; the crustaceous species are liable to have their surfaces rubbed; the foliaceous species become so compressed as to lose their characteristic appearance; and the spaces between the sheets caused by the thickness of the specimen permit the entrance of dust.
In thickness, they probably at one time covered the whole island except the summits of the Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.
The motion of the outwardscreeping inland ice will naturally be more independent of the configurations of the underlying land in the interior, where its thickness is so enormous, than near the margin where it is thinner.
In thickness, occupying undulating hollows in the underlying gneiss, and dip towards the Noursoak Peninsula at 20°, when the overlying Atanakerdluk strata come in.
The small letters are about three-sixteenths of an inch high, and are raised from the page the thickness of the thumbnail.