As the wire is pulled through, a coating of gutta-percha, the thickness of which is regulated by the die D, is pressed out of the cylinder by applying the requisite pressure
In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.
The thickness varies from five to sixteen feet.
The first accurate description of the plant is given by Theophrastus, from whom we learn that it grew in shallows of 2 cubits (about 3 ft.) or less, its main root being of the thickness of a man's wrist and 10 cubits in length.
If I represent the intensity of the primary light after traversing a thickness x of the turbid medium, we have dI = - hIA-4dx, where h is a constant independent of A.
(1) if Io correspond to x = o, - a law altogether similar to that of absorption, and showing how the light tends to become yellow and finally red as the thickness of the medium increases (Phil.
17 and a thickness of insulating material which formerly would have been considered quite insufficient is now very generally adopted with complete success.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.
The minimum thickness of the formation is 240 ft.
The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
He assumes that in what is considered a good producing district the amount of petroleum which can be obtained from a cubic foot of rock would not be more than a gallon, and that the average thickness of the oil-bearing rock would not exceed 5 ft.
(5) Angular debris fallen from above varying in thickness from one to ten feet.
The motion of the outwardscreeping inland ice will naturally be more independent of the configurations of the underlying land in the interior, where its thickness is so enormous, than near the margin where it is thinner.
Herschel writes:- " I have in vain attempted to find lines sufficiently thin to extend them across the centres of the stars, so that their thickness might be neglected."
In thickness containing "coprolites"; these consist of phosphatized wood, bones, casts of shells, and shapeless lumps.
Thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
In thickness near the ground.
Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
(6) Stalagmite with a few bones and antlers of reindeer, the thickness varying from one to fifteen inches.
In thickness, occupying undulating hollows in the underlying gneiss, and dip towards the Noursoak Peninsula at 20°, when the overlying Atanakerdluk strata come in.
In carrying out the process the articles are placed in an air-tight vessel with the zinc dust, which must be dry, and subjected to a heat of 250-330° C., the time for which the heating is continued depending on the thickness of the deposit required and varying from one-half to several hours.
The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after a few days is made up to a thickness of 2 in., and well beaten down.
At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.
In these brown types with bodies of considerable thickness (Laminariaceae and Fucaceae), there is, however, a further differentiation of the internal tissues.
In such stems and roots as increase in thickness there are other growing regions, which consist of cylindrical sheaths known as cambium layers or phellogens.
When the limit of extensibility is reached the cell wall increases in thickness from the continuation of the latter of the two processes.
These layers arc secreted by the protoplasm by the direct apposition of substances on those already in existence; and they may go on increasing in thickness, both by apposition and by the intussusception of particles probably carried in through the protoplasmic fibres, which penetrate the cell-wall as long as the cell lives.
Towards the Black Sea coast its thickness diminishes, and it disappears in the valleys.
The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.
They present great diversities of size, length and thickness of fur, and coloration, although resembling each other in all important structural characters.