On the theoretical side the greatest stimulus came from the publication in 1847, without knowledge of Mayer or Joule, of Helmholtz's great memoir, Ober die Erhaltung der Kraft, followed immediately (1848-1852) by the establishment of the science of thermodynamics, mainly by R.
Application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to Thermochemistry.
- What is commonly understood by thermochemistry is based entirely on the first law of thermodynamics, but of recent years great progress has been made in the study of chemical equilibrium by the application of the second law.
In 1864 he published a short paper on thermodynamics, and from that time his contributions to that and kindred departments of science became frequent and important.
Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
Among his articles may be mentioned those which he wrote for the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia on Light, Mechanics, Quaternions, Radiation and Thermodynamics, besides the biographical notices of Hamilton and Clerk Maxwell.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
In 1901 the Copley medal of the Royal Society of London was awarded him as being "the first to apply the second law of thermodynamics to the exhaustive discussion of the relation between chemical, electrical and thermal energy and capacity for external work."
In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
Rankine was the earliest of the three founders of the modern science of Thermodynamics on the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and J.
A dissolved in B and B dissolved in A, since both of these solutions emit vapours of the same composition (this follows since the same vapour must be in equilibrium with both solutions, for if it were not so a cyclic system contradicting the second law of thermodynamics would be realizable).
THERMODYNAMICS (from Gr.
The name thermodynamics is given to that branch of the general science of Energetics which deals with the relations between thermal and mechanical energy, and the transformations of heat into work, and vice versa.
An historical account of the development of thermodynamics is given in the article Heat.
- William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who wars the first to realize the importance of the absolute scale in thermodynamics, and the inadequacy of the test afforded by Boyle's law or by experiments on the constancy of the specific heat of gases, devised a more delicate and practical test, which he carried out successfully in conjunction with Joule.
The majority of thermodynamical problems may be treated without any reference to entropy, but it affords a convenient method of expression in abstract thermodynamics, especially in the consideration of irreversible processes and in reference to the conditions of equilibrium of heterogeneous systems.
Although the value of G in any case cannot be found without that of 0, and although the consideration of the properties of the thermodynamic potential cannot in any case lead to results which are not directly deducible from the two fundamental laws, it affords a convenient method of formal expression in abstract thermodynamics for the condition of equilibrium between different phases, or the criterion of the possibility of a transformation.
As it would be impossible within the limits of this article to illustrate or explain adequately the applications which have been made of the principles of thermodynamics, it has been necessary to select such illustrations only as are required for other reasons, or could not be found elsewhere.
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
This not only verifies that the second law of thermodynamics is obeyed, but enables us to identify T with the absolute thermodynamical temperature.
He claims recognition as an independent a priori propounder of the "First Law of Thermodynamics," but more especially as having early and ably applied that law to the explanation of many remarkable phenomena, both cosmical and terrestrial.
The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
(See Radiometer.) Next to these researches on the pressure of radiation, which, by forming the mechanical link between radiation and matter, are fundamental for the thermodynamics of radiant energy, the most striking recent result has been the discovery of H.
The conception of a semi-permeable membrane, permeable to the solvent only, was used by van't Hoff as a means of applying the principles of thermodynamics to the theory of solution.
(see Thermodynamics), dp/dt = X/t(v2 - v i), where p and t denote the pressure and temperature, X the heat required to change unit mass of the systems from one phase to the other, and v2 - v1 the resulting change in volume.
Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.
Such an arrangement may be put through a cycle of operations as in Carnot's engine (see Thermodynamics) and all the laws of reversible engines applied to it.
As soon as this reversibility is introduced, general laws related to thermodynamics are applicable (see Chemical Action; Energetics).
A, 1901, " On The Variation Of The Specific Heat Of Water"; For Combustion Methods, See Article Thermochemistry, And Treatises By Thomsen, Pattison Muir And Berthelot; See Also Articles Thermodynamics And Vaporization.
(See Thermodynamics and Steam-Engine.) In Carnot's cycle the substance takes in heat at its highest temperature, then passes by adiabatic expansion from the top to the bottom of its temperature range, then rejects heat at the bottom of the range, and is finally brought back by adiabatic compression to the highest temperature at which it again takes in heat, and so on.
Rankine's equation follows directly from the first law of thermodynamics, and may be proved as follows: The heat absorbed in any transformation is the change of intrinsic energy plus the external work done.
(See Thermodynamics, § 7.) I I.
If steam or vapour is " wire-drawn " or expanded through a porous plug or throttling aperture without external loss or gain of heat, the total heat (E+pv) remains constant (Thermodynamics, § I I), provided that the experiment is arranged so that the kinetic energy of flow is the same on either side of the throttle.
In order to correct this equation for the deviations of the vapour from the ideal state at higher temperatures and pressures, the simplest method is to assume a modified equation of the Joule-Thomson type (Thermodynamics, equation (17)), which has been shown to represent satisfactorily the behaviour of other gases and vapours at moderate pressures.
The empirical formulae above quoted must be compared and tested in the light of the theoretical relation between the latent heat and the rate of increase of the vapour-pressure (dp/d0), which is given by the second law of thermodynamics, viz.
(21) in which v and w are the volumes of unit mass of the vapour and liquid respectively at the saturation-point (Thermodynamics, § 4).
The amount and effect of the variations of pressure and temperature undergone by the air depend on the principles of the mechanical action of heat, or THERMODYNAMIcS, and are foreign to the subject of pure mechaifisni.
De Chimie et de Physique, 1866-1868) applied the principles of thermodynamics to capillary phenomena, and the experiments of his son Paul were exceedingly ingenious and well devised, tracing the influence of surfacetension in a great number of very different circumstances, and deducing from independent methods the numerical value of the surface-tension.
We shall therefore endeavour to apply to this subject the methods used in Thermodynamics, and where these fail us we shall have recourse to the hypotheses of molecular physics.
Lord Kelvin has applied the principles of Thermodynamics to determine the thermal effects of increasing or diminishing the area of the free surface of a liquid, and has shown that in order to keep the temperature constant while the area of the surface increases by unity, an amount of heat must be supplied 275 to the liquid which is dynamically equivalent to the product of the absolute temperature into the decrement of the surface-tension per degree of temperature.
Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.