The chief value of this very scholarly book is to be found in its textual side.
No book, however, presents such a complicated problem or such a wealth of material for the textual critic.
Much the same applies to Bp Westcott's Gospel according to St John (1882), devotionally so attractive, and in textual criticism excellent.
In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.
For textual purposes the Vulgate possesses but little value, since it presupposes a Hebrew original practically identical with the text stereotyped by the Massoretes.
Athos, a MS. of the Acts and epistles, with an early (mixed) type of text and textual comments and notes from Origen.
His object, therefore, is to discover and remove the various corruptions which have crept into the text, by the usual methods of the textual critic - the collection of material, the grouping of MSS.
The lyrical metres of Plautus are wonderfully varied, and the textual critic does well not to attempt to limit the possibilities of original metrical combinations and developments in the Roman comedian.
Important, if limited and imperfect, efforts in textual criticism.
Most of his numerous publications had reference to his great critical edition of the New Testament (1857-1872; see Bible; New Testament, Textual Criticism).
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
A model of the application of the various resources of Old Testament textual criticism to the restoration of the text is C. H.
The section in Kenyon's handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is particularly clear and full.] Syriac Versions.
But in practice it is general, and certainly convenient, to regard their work rather as material for criticism, and to begin the history of textual criticism with the earliest printed editions which sought to establish a standard Greek Text.
Wellhausen's briefer work (3rd ed., 1898) is especially suggestive for textual criticism.
Early in the 5th century other aristocratic Romans interested themselves in the textual criticism of Persius and Martial.
They are here divided accordingly, into two main divisions: - (A) Old Testament, and (B) New Testament; and under each of these are treated (1) the Canon, (2) the texts and versions, (3) textual criticism, (4) the " higher criticism," i.e.
In dealing, therefore, with the textual criticism of the Old Testament it is necessary to determine the period at which the text assumed its present fixed form before considering the means at our disposal for 'controlling the text when it was, so to speak, in a less settled condition.
These last are to be regarded either as old textual For a discussion of this word see W.
Its value for textual purposes is not great, partly because the underlying text is the same as the; Massoretic, partly because the Syriac text has at different times been harmonized with that of the Septuagint.
Instance to detect the errors which have crept into the text in the course of its transmission, and to recover, so far as possible, the text in its original form; this is the task of Textual, or as it is sometimes called in contradistinction to another branch, Lower Criticism.
The results of textual criticism, including a considerable number of conjectural emendations, are succinctly presented in Kittel's Biblia Hebraica (1906); but the text here printed is the ordinary Massoretic (vocalized) text.
His Introduction, consisting of three closely packed volumes dealing with textual as well as literary criticism, is the first comprehensive treatment of the entire Old Testament as literature.
Kenyon's Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1901), especially valuable for a clear account of the Papyri fragments.] It is neither possible nor desirable to give any description of most of these MSS., but the following are, critically, the most important.
3), as well as in all books dealing with Textual Criticism generally; other important books are R6nsch's Itala and Vulgata (1875); Corssen's Der cyprianische Text der Acta Apostolorum (Berlin, 1892); Wordsworth and Sanday on the " Corbey S.
For the textual character and importance of these versions see the section Textual Criticism below.] 2.
For the textual character and importance of these versions see the section Textual Criticism below.] 2.
It represents in the main the text of the later Greek MSS., but it has important textual notes, and has adopted a system of asterisks and obeli from the Hexaplar LXX.
Though the amount of information given by Mill is small compared with that in modern editions, it is probable that no one person, except perhaps Tischendorf, has added so much material for the work of textual criticism.
But as no popular discourse delivered from the pulpit could ever be exclusively expository and as on the other hand every sermon professing to be based on Scripture required to be more or less "exegetical" and "textual," it would obviously be sometimes very hard to draw the line of distinction between OycXla and Aoyos.
In the use of the ancient versions for the purposes of textual criticism there are three precautions which must always be observed; we must reasonably assure ourselves that we possess the version itself in its original integrity; we must eliminate such variants as have the appearance of originating merely with the translator; the remainder, which will be those that are due to a difference of text in the MS. (or MSS.) used by the translator, we must then compare carefully, in the light of the considerations just stated, with the existing Hebrew text, in order to determine on which side the superiority lies."
These authorities are, therefore, only available for the reconstruction of the order of the selections from the gospels, not for textual criticism properly so called.
For further treatment of the importance of this evidence see the section Textual Criticism below.
His textual views were peculiar; he preferred to follow late MSS.
Stich in the Teubner series (Leipzig, 1882; 2nd ed., 1903); textual emendations also in Journal of Philology, xxiii.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
The confusion has arisen through a textual error in an early edition of Ptolemy's Geography.
He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.
In the lower margin of the page he inserted a selection of various readings, the relative importance of which he denoted by the first five letters of the Greek alphabet in the following manner: - a was employed to denote the reading which in his judgment was the true one, although he did not venture to place it in the text; 1 3, a reading better than that in the text; y, one equal to the textual reading; S and e, readings inferior to those in the text.
Probably both Agag and Gog are textual corruptions.
But the document has intricate textual peculiarities and may be the Judaean adaptation of a list originally written from the standpoint of the north-Israelite monarchy.
The earliest among the versions as well as the most important for the textual criticism of the Old Testament is the Septuagint.
The textual criticism of the classical literatures made way before the textual criticism of the Old Testament: Bentley's Phalaris (1699) preceded any thorough or systematic application of Higher Criticism to any part of the Old Testament; Niebuhr's History of Rome (181i) preceded Ewald's History of Israel (1843-1859).
The first task, of Old Testament textual criticism after the Reformation was to prove the independence of these two texts, to gain general Tecognition of the fact that vowels and accents formed no part .of the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament.
Remains; and with equal brevity it must suffice to indicate the position which faces the textual critic when all that can be done in this way has been done.
The dangers of conjectural emendation are well known and apparent; large numbers of such emendations have been ill-advised; but in the case of many passages the only alternative for the textual critic who is at once competent and honest is to offer such emendations or to indicate that such passages are corrupt and the means of restoring them lacking.
Of the New Testament (Kenyon, Textual Criticism of the New Testament, p. 45), but it is not easy to be quite accurate on the point.
He abandons the practice of making a distinction between uncial and minuscule, on the ground that for textual criticism the style of writing is less important than the date and contents of a MS. To indicate these he divided MSS.
With a discussion of its textual relations is given in K.
The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
He commenced his great work on the textual criticism of the Scriptures; and at the instigation of his friend Ambrosius, who provided him with the necessary amanuenses, he published his commentaries on the Old Testament and his dogmatic investigations.