Though the amount of information given by Mill is small compared with that in modern editions, it is probable that no one person, except perhaps Tischendorf, has added so much material for the work of textual criticism.
The lyrical metres of Plautus are wonderfully varied, and the textual critic does well not to attempt to limit the possibilities of original metrical combinations and developments in the Roman comedian.
Stich in the Teubner series (Leipzig, 1882; 2nd ed., 1903); textual emendations also in Journal of Philology, xxiii.
Where it follows the chapters in Samuel it is important for textual and other critical problems, but it omits narratives in which it is not interested (David's youth, persecution by Saul, Absalom's revolt, &c.), and adds long passages (David's arrangements for the temple, &c.) which reflect the views of a much later age than David's.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
Here he was influenced, as to biblical languages and textual criticism, by the learned and loyal-minded Abbe Paulin Martin, and as to a vivid consciousness of the true nature, gravity and urgency of the biblical problems and an Attic sense of form by the historical intuition and the mordant irony of Abbe Louis Duchesne.
In 1894 he published his Manuel de diplomatique, a monument of lucid and wellarranged erudition, which contained the fruits of his long experience of archives, original documents and textual criticism; and his pupils, especially those at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes,.
The chief value of this very scholarly book is to be found in its textual side.
In the lower margin of the page he inserted a selection of various readings, the relative importance of which he denoted by the first five letters of the Greek alphabet in the following manner: - a was employed to denote the reading which in his judgment was the true one, although he did not venture to place it in the text; 1 3, a reading better than that in the text; y, one equal to the textual reading; S and e, readings inferior to those in the text.
Probably both Agag and Gog are textual corruptions.
But as no popular discourse delivered from the pulpit could ever be exclusively expository and as on the other hand every sermon professing to be based on Scripture required to be more or less "exegetical" and "textual," it would obviously be sometimes very hard to draw the line of distinction between OycXla and Aoyos.
Wellhausen's briefer work (3rd ed., 1898) is especially suggestive for textual criticism.
Much the same applies to Bp Westcott's Gospel according to St John (1882), devotionally so attractive, and in textual criticism excellent.
Most of his numerous publications had reference to his great critical edition of the New Testament (1857-1872; see Bible; New Testament, Textual Criticism).
But the document has intricate textual peculiarities and may be the Judaean adaptation of a list originally written from the standpoint of the north-Israelite monarchy.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
Early in the 5th century other aristocratic Romans interested themselves in the textual criticism of Persius and Martial.
They are here divided accordingly, into two main divisions: - (A) Old Testament, and (B) New Testament; and under each of these are treated (1) the Canon, (2) the texts and versions, (3) textual criticism, (4) the " higher criticism," i.e.
In dealing, therefore, with the textual criticism of the Old Testament it is necessary to determine the period at which the text assumed its present fixed form before considering the means at our disposal for 'controlling the text when it was, so to speak, in a less settled condition.
These last are to be regarded either as old textual For a discussion of this word see W.
And liii., &c.) reveals many variations which are obviously due to textual corruption, while there are many passages which in their present form are either ungrammatical, or inconsistent with the context or with other passages.
In the use of the ancient versions for the purposes of textual criticism there are three precautions which must always be observed; we must reasonably assure ourselves that we possess the version itself in its original integrity; we must eliminate such variants as have the appearance of originating merely with the translator; the remainder, which will be those that are due to a difference of text in the MS. (or MSS.) used by the translator, we must then compare carefully, in the light of the considerations just stated, with the existing Hebrew text, in order to determine on which side the superiority lies."
The earliest among the versions as well as the most important for the textual criticism of the Old Testament is the Septuagint.
For textual purposes the Vulgate possesses but little value, since it presupposes a Hebrew original practically identical with the text stereotyped by the Massoretes.
Its value for textual purposes is not great, partly because the underlying text is the same as the; Massoretic, partly because the Syriac text has at different times been harmonized with that of the Septuagint.
Instance to detect the errors which have crept into the text in the course of its transmission, and to recover, so far as possible, the text in its original form; this is the task of Textual, or as it is sometimes called in contradistinction to another branch, Lower Criticism.
Important, if limited and imperfect, efforts in textual criticism.
The textual criticism of the classical literatures made way before the textual criticism of the Old Testament: Bentley's Phalaris (1699) preceded any thorough or systematic application of Higher Criticism to any part of the Old Testament; Niebuhr's History of Rome (181i) preceded Ewald's History of Israel (1843-1859).
A model of the application of the various resources of Old Testament textual criticism to the restoration of the text is C. H.
The results of textual criticism, including a considerable number of conjectural emendations, are succinctly presented in Kittel's Biblia Hebraica (1906); but the text here printed is the ordinary Massoretic (vocalized) text.
His Introduction, consisting of three closely packed volumes dealing with textual as well as literary criticism, is the first comprehensive treatment of the entire Old Testament as literature.
Of the New Testament (Kenyon, Textual Criticism of the New Testament, p. 45), but it is not easy to be quite accurate on the point.
He abandons the practice of making a distinction between uncial and minuscule, on the ground that for textual criticism the style of writing is less important than the date and contents of a MS. To indicate these he divided MSS.
Kenyon's Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London, 1901), especially valuable for a clear account of the Papyri fragments.] It is neither possible nor desirable to give any description of most of these MSS., but the following are, critically, the most important.
Athos, a MS. of the Acts and epistles, with an early (mixed) type of text and textual comments and notes from Origen.
3), as well as in all books dealing with Textual Criticism generally; other important books are R6nsch's Itala and Vulgata (1875); Corssen's Der cyprianische Text der Acta Apostolorum (Berlin, 1892); Wordsworth and Sanday on the " Corbey S.
For the textual character and importance of these versions see the section Textual Criticism below.] 2.
The section in Kenyon's handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is particularly clear and full.] Syriac Versions.
It represents in the main the text of the later Greek MSS., but it has important textual notes, and has adopted a system of asterisks and obeli from the Hexaplar LXX.
These authorities are, therefore, only available for the reconstruction of the order of the selections from the gospels, not for textual criticism properly so called.
For further treatment of the importance of this evidence see the section Textual Criticism below.
The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
His object, therefore, is to discover and remove the various corruptions which have crept into the text, by the usual methods of the textual critic - the collection of material, the grouping of MSS.
No book, however, presents such a complicated problem or such a wealth of material for the textual critic.
In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.
But in practice it is general, and certainly convenient, to regard their work rather as material for criticism, and to begin the history of textual criticism with the earliest printed editions which sought to establish a standard Greek Text.
His textual views were peculiar; he preferred to follow late MSS.