3 in., from July to October inclusive; and ocean steamers, lightened so as to draw 11-13 ft., during August and September.
Stavanger is the first port of call for northward-bound passenger steamers from Hull and Newcastle, and has regular services from all the Norwegian coast towns, from Hamburg, &c. A railway runs south along the wild and desolate coast of Jaederen, one of the few low and unprotected shores in Norway, the scene of many wrecks.
It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar.
Is the well-protected Gulf of Terranova, a part of which, Golfo degli Aranci, is the port of arrival for the mail steamers from Civitavecchia, and a port of call of the British Mediterranean squadron.
There is daily steam communication (often interrupted in bad weather) with Civitavecchia from Golfo degli Aranci (the mail route), and weekly steamers run from Cagliari to Naples, Genoa (via the east coast of the island), Palermo and Tunis, and from Porto Torres to Genoa (calling at Bastia in Corsica and Leghorn) and Leghorn direct.
Of 1889), and the steamers of the British India Navigation Company call there once a week going and coming between Rangoon and Calcutta.
Mail steamers call.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
It is navigable for steamers to a point a little above the mouth of the Great Zab, about 30 m.
Were it not for these dams steamers might reach Mosul itself, at an elevation of 353 ft.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
Above these steamers ply to Fort Edmonton, a point upwards of 800 m.
Steamers run from Grand Rapids, through Lake Winnipeg, up Red river to the city of Winnipeg, important locks having been constructed on the river at St Andrews.
While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.
==Shipping== Although Argentina has an extensive coast-line, and one of the great fluvial systems of the world, the tonnage of steamers and sailing vessels flying her flag is comparatively small.
The expansion of trade was due to the establishment of a boat route directly to the island.
1050 steamers, with a tonnage of 2,629,000, and 1062 sailers, tonnage 1,090,000; the total of both classes was 3,719,000 tons.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
The first-named is far finer than its fellows, and is navigable for steamers for about 40 m.
Algiers maintains communication with Marseilles by a quick service of steamers, which run the 497 miles across the Mediterranean in twenty-eight to thirty hours.
Of the VernexMontreux railway station, while it is well served by steamers plying over the Lake of Geneva.
Ocean-going steamers anchor outside the reef.
There is direct steamship communication between Togoland and Hamburg, and the steamers of three French and two English lines call at Togoland ports.
Fokia has acquired local importance however as a port of call for coasting steamers, and it is used to some degree as a summer residence by Smyrniotes.
Nearly all the cable companies possess their own steamers, of sufficient dimensions and specially equipped for making ordinary repairs; but for exceptional cases, where a considerable quantity of new cable may have to be inserted, it may be necessary to charter the services of one of the larger vessels owned by a cable-manufacturing company, at a certain sum per day, which may well reach £200 to £300.
Among the steamers the increase has chiefly taken plac in vessels of more than 1000 tons displacement, but the number of large sailing vessels has also increased.
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.
The Murray is navigable for small steamers from this town to its mouth, a distance of 1800 miles.
In width and from 3 to 5 fathoms deep, navigable for steamers of good size.
An electric tramway connects Margate with Broadstairs and Ramsgate, and during the season it is served by numerous pleasure steamers from London.
Steamers ply from it weekly to Misovaya (Posolskoe) on the opposite shore, a few times a year to VerkhneAngarsk, at the northern extremity of the lake, and frequently to the mouth of the Selenga.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
From the terminus of the river steamers at Narayanganj.
Since 1880 services of omnibus steamers (now municipal) have also been introduced.
It is served by the Tampa Northern, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Air Line railways, and by lines of steamers to the West Indies and to the Gulf and Atlantic ports of the United States.
In order to reach water sufficiently deep for the steamers, the railway tracks have been carried by earth filling about seven-eighths of a mile into the bay.
Regular passenger steamers run from Grimsby to Dutch and south Swedish ports, and to Esbjerg (Denmark), chiefly those of the Wilson line and the Great Central railway.
Part of these rivers are navigable for small steamers, and the Sao Francisco must some day be of great importance in the development of Central Brazil.
At Meshed i Sar, the port, or roadstead of Barfurush, the steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Company call weekly, and a brisk shipping trade is carried on between it and other Caspian ports.
Regular passenger steamers serve Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight.