LAEVULINIC ACID (3-acetopropionic acid), C 5 H 8 0 3 or CH 3 CO CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H, a ketonic acid prepared from laevulose, inulin, starch, &c., by boiling them with dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.
This investigator just missed a great discovery, for he did not consider the spherical forms to be living organisms but compared them with starch granules.
The second class include all changes brought about by the agency of enzymes, such as the action of diastase on starch, invertase on cane sugar, glucase on maltose, &c. The actions are essentially hydrolytic.
The varied manufactures of the town comprise cloth, linen, wax candles, starch, glass and porcelain.
Embedded in the protoplasm are a number of starch grains.
It is surrounded by (I) a thin-walled, smaller-celled hydrom mantle; (2) an amylom sheath; (3) a leptom mantle, interrupted here and there by starch cells.
The cortex of the older stem of the root frequently acts as a reserve store-house for food which generally takes the form of starch, and it also assists largel) in providing the stereom of the plant.
Of the suspended substances, grains of caoutchouc, drops of resin and oil, proteid crystals and starch grains may be mentioned.
It conducts plastic substances inwards from the cortex, and its cells are frequently full of starch, which they store in winter.
These intermediate cells, like the ordinary parenchyma, frequently store starch, and the fibres themselves, though usually dead, sometimes retain their protoplasm, and in that case may also be used for starch accumulations.
Consists of starch-containing cells, and in the latter of proteid cells.
A, Starch sheath; at the extremities of the figure its cells are represented as empty; b, cambiuin layer.
They are mainly carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, proteids in the form of globulins or albumoses, and in many cases fats and oils, while certain other bodies of similar nutritive value are less widely distributed.
Its very prompt appearance, as soon as the apparatus became active, led to the opinion formerly held, that the work of the latter was complete only when the starch was formed.
We have seen that the starch is preceded by the formation of sugar, and its appearance is now interpreted as a sign of stfrplus manufacture.
As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
Many experimehts point to certain small grains of starch which are capable of displacement as the position of the cell is altered.
The stimulating particles, whether starch grains in all cases, or other particles as well, have been termed sic tolitlis.
In the chromatophores of many Algae and in the Liverwort Anthoceros there are present homogeneous, highly refractive, crystal-like bodies, called pyrenoids or starch-centres, which are composed of proteid substances and surrounded by an envelope of starch-grains.
Those chromatophores which remain colorless, and serve simply as starch-f ormers in parts of the plant not exposed to the light, are called leucoplasts or amyloplasts.
The formation of starch may take place in.
As the starch-grains grow, the leucoplasts gradually disappear.
Starch grains may often be seen in contact with the pigment crystals.
Substances contained in the Protoplastn.Starch may be found in the chlorophyll bodies in the form of minute granules as the first visible product of the assimilation of carbon dioxide, and it occurs in large quantities as a reserve food material in the cells of various parts of plants.
It is highly probable that starch is only produced as the result of the activity of chromatophores, either in connection with chromoplasts, chloroplasts or leucoplasts.
The starch grain may thus be regarded as a crystalline structure of the nature of a spherecrystal, as has been suggested by many observers.
Glycogen, a substance related to starch and sugar, is found in the Fungi and Cyanophyceae as a food reserve.
Response to the action of gravity appears to be associated with the movements of starch grains in certain cellsstatolith cellsby which pressure is exerted on the cytoplasm and a stimulus set up which results in the geotropic response.
Starch grains are sometimes present.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
C = starch corpuscle.
C = starch grain.
Sonsonate is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and one of the busiest manufacturing towns in the republic. It produces cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, boots and shoes, sugar, starch, cigars and spirits.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
The meal can be baked into "cake" or biscuit, as the Passover cake of the Jews; but it cannot be made into loaves in consequence of the great difficulty in rupturing the starch grains, unless the temperature be raised to a considerable height.
12.6 - that of wheat being Io 8 - and less of starch, 58.4 as against 66.3 in wheat.
Perspiration of the feet cannot be attacked locally with more success than by a powder consisting of salicylic acid, starch and chalk.
The manufactures are not extensive; but there are flourand saw-mills, tanneries and leather-works, copper and iron foundries, starch-works, dyeworks, distilleries, breweries and potteries; and agricultural implements, cotton and woollen goods, and yarn, hosiery, boots and shoes, sugar, felt hats and paper are made.
It may be recognized by the blue colour it gives with diphenylamine sulphate and by its reaction with potassium iodide-starch paper.
Its inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of cloth, starch and machinery, in ironfounding and lithography.
It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
In Europe, potato starch is generally employed; in America, corn starch.
The following is an outline of the process when hydrochloric acid is used: Starch ("` green" starch in America) is made into a "milk" with water, and the milk pumped into boiling dilute acid contained in a closed "converter," generally made of copper or cast iron; steam is led in at the same time, and the pressure is kept up to about 25 lb to the sq.
It contains manufactories of chemicals, machinery, starch, white lead and various other articles, but is chiefly noted for its extensive salt springs and works, which produce about 75,000 tons of salt per annum.
The tubers of Ipomaea Batatas are rich in starch and sugar, and, as the "sweet potato," form one of the most widely distributed foods in the warmer parts of the earth.
At the time these products were thought to be related to the nitrated starch obtained a little previously by Henri Braconnot and called xyloidin; they are only related in so far as they are nitrates.
The sugars are taken up from the circulation and stored in a less soluble form - known as " animal starch " - in the liver and muscle cells; they play an important part in the normal metabolism of the body.
These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C12H22011, is formed, together with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric acid, and of glycogen by ferments.