Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C12H22011, is formed, together with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric acid, and of glycogen by ferments.
In Europe, potato starch is generally employed; in America, corn starch.
Embedded in the protoplasm are a number of starch grains.
As the starch-grains grow, the leucoplasts gradually disappear.
Starch grains are sometimes present.
Of the suspended substances, grains of caoutchouc, drops of resin and oil, proteid crystals and starch grains may be mentioned.
Consists of starch-containing cells, and in the latter of proteid cells.
Those chromatophores which remain colorless, and serve simply as starch-f ormers in parts of the plant not exposed to the light, are called leucoplasts or amyloplasts.
Its inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of cloth, starch and machinery, in ironfounding and lithography.
It may be recognized by the blue colour it gives with diphenylamine sulphate and by its reaction with potassium iodide-starch paper.
It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
The formation of starch may take place in.
At the time these products were thought to be related to the nitrated starch obtained a little previously by Henri Braconnot and called xyloidin; they are only related in so far as they are nitrates.
They are mainly carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, proteids in the form of globulins or albumoses, and in many cases fats and oils, while certain other bodies of similar nutritive value are less widely distributed.
We have seen that the starch is preceded by the formation of sugar, and its appearance is now interpreted as a sign of stfrplus manufacture.
The tubers of Ipomaea Batatas are rich in starch and sugar, and, as the "sweet potato," form one of the most widely distributed foods in the warmer parts of the earth.
As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
Many experiments point to certain small grains of starch which are capable of displacement as the position of the cell is altered.
Sonsonate is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and one of the busiest manufacturing towns in the republic. It produces cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, boots and shoes, sugar, starch, cigars and spirits.
It contains manufactories of chemicals, machinery, starch, white lead and various other articles, but is chiefly noted for its extensive salt springs and works, which produce about 75,000 tons of salt per annum.
This investigator just missed a great discovery, for he did not consider the spherical forms to be living organisms but compared them with starch granules.
The varied manufactures of the town comprise cloth, linen, wax candles, starch, glass and porcelain.
The cortex of the older stem of the root frequently acts as a reserve store-house for food which generally takes the form of starch, and it also assists largel) in providing the stereom of the plant.
These intermediate cells, like the ordinary parenchyma, frequently store starch, and the fibres themselves, though usually dead, sometimes retain their protoplasm, and in that case may also be used for starch accumulations.
Its very prompt appearance, as soon as the apparatus became active, led to the opinion formerly held, that the work of the latter was complete only when the starch was formed.
The stimulating particles, whether starch grains in all cases, or other particles as well, have been termed sic tolitlis.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
A, Starch sheath; at the extremities of the figure its cells are represented as empty; b, cambiuin layer.
Substances contained in the Protoplastn.Starch may be found in the chlorophyll bodies in the form of minute granules as the first visible product of the assimilation of carbon dioxide, and it occurs in large quantities as a reserve food material in the cells of various parts of plants.
It is highly probable that starch is only produced as the result of the activity of chromatophores, either in connection with chromoplasts, chloroplasts or leucoplasts.
Glycogen, a substance related to starch and sugar, is found in the Fungi and Cyanophyceae as a food reserve.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
12.6 - that of wheat being Io 8 - and less of starch, 58.4 as against 66.3 in wheat.
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
The sugars are taken up from the circulation and stored in a less soluble form - known as " animal starch " - in the liver and muscle cells; they play an important part in the normal metabolism of the body.
These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
The starch grain may thus be regarded as a crystalline structure of the nature of a spherecrystal, as has been suggested by many observers.
The meal can be baked into "cake" or biscuit, as the Passover cake of the Jews; but it cannot be made into loaves in consequence of the great difficulty in rupturing the starch grains, unless the temperature be raised to a considerable height.
In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
Water and carbonic acid are synthesized, under the action of sunlight, to form sugar, starch or some other carboh y drate and this is then combined with simple nitrogenous salts to form proteid.
The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
The seeds and the rhizomes contain an abundance of starch, which renders them serviceable in some places for food.
It conducts plastic substances inwards from the cortex, and its cells are frequently full of starch, which they store in winter.
Starch grains may often be seen in contact with the pigment crystals.
C = starch grain.
Starch, indeed, wherever it appears in the plant seems to be a reserve store of carbohydrate material, deposited where it is found for longer or shorter periods till it is needed for consumption.
The separate layers of the starch-grain are deposited on it by the activity of the chrmatophore, and according to Meyer the grain is always surrounded by a thin layer of the chromatophore which completely separates it from the cytoplasm.
It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
In other cases it does not differ histologically from the parenchyma of the rest of the cortex, though it is often distinguished by containing particularly abundant starch, in which case it is known as a starch sheath.
Starch exists, in the majority of cases, in the form of grains, which are composed of stratified layers arranged around a nucleus or hilum.
The outermost, newly formed layer is composed of a more homogeneous, denser substance than the inner one, and can be distinguished in all starch-grains that are in process of development.
Whether the formation of the starch grain is due to a secretion from the plastid (Meyer, 1895) or to a direct transformation of the proteid of the plastid (Timberlake, 1901) has not been definitely established.
The leading industries are the crushing of palm-kernels and linseed and the manufacture of india-rubber, phosphates, starch, nitrate and jute.