In Russia such societies began to be formed about 1816.
Various missionary societies have also established schools.
Yet these two societies are none the less in inevitable relation.
The building societies and financial institutions in receipt of deposits, or so many of them as were on an unsound footing, failed at an early period of the depression, so also did the weaker banks.
The learned societies and great men of Assyria--where are they?
Free and peaceful societies function best when government is transparent and open.
The conversation at supper was not about politics or societies, but turned on the subject Nicholas liked best--recollections of 1812.
A third important publication was Massimo dAzeglios Degli ultimi casi di Romagna, in which the author, another Piedmontese nobleman, exposed papal misgovernment while condemning the secret societies and advocating open resistance and protest.
A local aggrettion of a species other than the dominant one in an associion brings about a plant society; for example, societies of Ericd etralix, of Scirpus caespitosus, of Molinia coerulea, of Carex irta, of Narthecium ossifra gum, and others may occur within i association of Calluna vulgaris.
The visitor was Bitski, who served on various committees, frequented all the societies in Petersburg, and a passionate devotee of the new ideas and of Speranski, and a diligent Petersburg newsmonger--one of those men who choose their opinions like their clothes according to the fashion, but who for that very reason appear to be the warmest partisans.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
De Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, of numerous scientific societies, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Star of India, and had received the freedom of the City of London.
The exemption of regular religious orders may be extended to religious societies without solemn vows by special concession of the pope, as in the case of the Passionists and Redemptorists (ib.
Besides numerous contributions to the Proceedings of the Royal and the Royal Astronomical Societies, he published several books, both explanatory and speculative.
At Marseilles (after 410) he founded two religious societies - a convent for nuns, and the abbey of St Victor, which during his time is said to have contained 5000 inmates.
So far we have looked at poverty and how it is redefined as societies grow richer.
If I had known how to name them, I should then have signed off in detail from all the societies which I never signed on to; but I did not know where to find a complete list.
Our Order imitates the ancient societies that explained their teaching by hieroglyphics.
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
It is also an important banking centre and has several insurance societies of reputation.
These artels are recruited only on personal acquaintance with the candidates for membership. Co-operative societies have also been organized by several zemstvos.
There were no great, well-organized secret societies, but there were many small groups, composed chiefly of male and female students of the universities and technical schools, which worked independently for a common purpose.
The rupture of the concordat at once terminates the obligations which resulted from it on both sides; but it does not break off all relation between the church and the state, since the two societies continue to coexist on the same territory.
V.) local and travelling preachers, and the organization of local societies with class leaders, stewards and trustees.
The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.
It may be compared in some degree to such European societies as the Carbonara, Young Italy, the Tugendbund, the Confreries of France, the Freemasons in Catholic countries, and the Vehmgericht.
Nearly all southern whites (except "scalawags"), whether members of the secret societies or hot, in some way took part in the Ku Klux movement.
As the work of the societies succeeded, they gradually passed out of existence.
Of cattle besides the breeds named the Norman (beef and milk), the Limousin (beef), the Mont bfiard, the Bazadais, the Flamand, the Breton and tile larthenais breeds may be mentioned, societies and in many other ways.
Three societies demand special mention: the Union centrale des agriculteurs de France, to which the above syndicates are affiliated; the Sociit nationale dagriculture, whose mission is to further agricultural progress and to supply the government with information on everything appertaining thereto and the Socit des agriculteurs de France.
In addition to the educational work done by the state, communes and private individuals, there exist in France a good many societies which disseminate instruction by giving courses of lectures and holding classes both for children and adults.
Mutual benefit and co-operative societies serve the purpose of working-class defence or offence against the employers.
The present Italian mutual benefit societies resemble the ancient beneficent corporations, of which in some respects they may be considered a continuation.
The societies require government recognition if they wish to enjoy legal rights.
The state (law of the 15th of April 1896) imposed this condition in order to determine exactly the aims of the societies, and, while allowing them to give help to their sick, old or feeble members, or aid the families of deceased members, to forbid them to pay old-age pensions, lest they assumed burdens beyond their financial strength.
More numerous are the agricultural and viticultural co-operative societies, which have largely increased in number.
Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.
In Naples, the Camorra and in Sicily, the Mafia are secret societies whose power of resistance to authority is still not inconsiderable.
Ordinary credit operations are also carried on by the co-operative credit societies, of which there are some 700.
Though eventually this activity of the Giovane Italia supplanted that of the older societies, in practice it met with no better success; the two attempts to invade Savoy in the hope of seducing the army from its allegiance failed miserably, and only resulted in a series of barbarous sentences of death and imprisonment which made most Liberals despair of Charles Albert, while they called down much criticism on Mazzini as the organizer of raids in which he himself took no part.
Romagna had continued a prey to anarchy ever since 1831; the government organized armed bands called the Centurioni (descended from the earlier Sanfedisti), to terrorize the Liberals, while the secret societies continued their propaganda by deeds.
He extolled Charles Albert and appealed to his patriotism; he believed that the church was necessary and the secret societies harmful; rqpresentative government was undesirable, but he advocated a consultative assembly.
A member of all the chief archaeological societies in Europe, he was given hon.
The plant societies are also)ubtless due to slight variations of the habitat.
The first of the existing geographical societies was that of Paris, founded in 1825 under the title Of La Societe de Geographie.
Since the war of 1870 many geographical societies have been established on the continent of Europe.
At the close of the 19th century there were upwards of loo such societies in the world, with more than 50,000 members, and over 150 journals were devoted entirely to geographical subjects.'
Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
He and his followers withdrew from the Lutheran Church, declined its sacraments, and formed small societies of kindred views.
Grutzmacher's article in Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopiidie; Robert Barclay's Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876), and C. Beard's Hibbert Lectures (1883), ch.
His contributions to scientific societies began in his fifteenth year, when Professor J.
The influence of the happier communities has been exercised on behalf of those in a worse position by individuals such as Sir Moses Montefiore rather than by societies or leagues.
In societies where a large percentage of income is necessary just to buy food, having volatile food prices will mean hunger sooner or later, no matter how good the factory jobs are.
Let the reports of all the learned societies come to us, and we will see if they know anything.
Positive law, at least in progressive societies, is constantly tending to fall behind public opinion, and the expedients adopted for bringing it into harmony therewith are three, viz, legal fictions, equity and statutory legislation.
The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.
Savings Bank and the ordinary savings banks, many co-operative credit societies and ordinary credit banks receive deposits of savings.
The richest, however, of the co-operative societies, though few in number, are those for the production of electricity, for textile industries and for ceramic and glass manufactures.
The secret societies, such as the Carbonari, the Adelfi and the Bersaghieri dAmerica, which flourished in.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.