0, Optical section of two adjacent leptoids (sieve-tube segments) of Pteridophyte, with sieve plates (s.
R, Optical section of leptoid (sieve-tube segment) of Phanerogam, with two proteid (companion) cells.
This leptom is not so highly differentiated as in the most advanced Laminariaceae, but shows some of the characters of sieve-tubes with great distinctness.
The end wall is usually very thin, and the protoplasm on artificial contraction commonly sticks to it just as in a sieve-tube, though no perforation of the wall has been found.
The structure formed by a number of such cells placed end to end is called a sieve-tube (obviously comparable with a xylem-vessel), and the end-wall or area of endwall occupied by a group of perforations, a sseve-plate.
When the sieve-tube has ceased to function and the protoplasm, slime strings, and callose have disappeared, the perforations through which the slime strings passed are left as relatively large holes, easily visible in some cases with low powers of the microscope, piercing the sieve.plate.
The sieve-tubes, with their accompanying parenchyma or stereom, constitute the tissue called phloem.
The sieve-tubes differ, however, from the tracheids in being immediately associated, apparently constantly, not with starchy parenchyma, but with parenchymatous cells, containing particularly abundant proteid contents, which seem to have a function intimately connected with the conducting function of the sieve-tubes, and which we may call proteid-cells.
In many cases externai protophloem, usually consisting of narrow sieve-tubes often with swollen walls, can be distinguished from metaphloem.
Sieve-tubes with accompanying corn- diameter of the stem, the cortex sd.p~cierizedperid~sm.
As a bundle is traced towards its blind termination in the mesophyll the peridesmic stereom first disappears, the sieve-tubes of the phloem are replaced by narrow elongated parenchyma cells, which soon die out, and the bundle ends with a strand of tracheids covered by the phloeotermic sheath.
The relation ~ of the laticiferous tissue to the assimi I lating cells under which they often end, and the fact that where this tissue is / richly developed the conducting paren ~ chyma of the bundles, and sometimes also 4 the sieve-tubes, are poorly developed, as well as various other facts, point to the conclusion that the laticiferous system has an important function in conducting plastic substances, in addition to acting as an excretory reservoir.
A tissue mother-cell of the phloem may give rise to (i) a segment of a sieve-tube with its companion cell or cells; (2) a phloem fibre; (3) a single phloem-parenchyma (cambiform) cell, or a ve~rtical file of short parenchyma cells.
The fibres are frequently found in tangential bands between similar bands of tracheae or sieve-tubes.
The sieve-tubes of the secondary phloem usually have very oblique end-walls bearing a row of sieve-plates; plates also occur on the radial side-walls.
Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.
The, primary vascular tissues of Angiosperms are likewise nearly always simple, consisting merely of tracheae and sieve-tubes often associated with amylom.
In the secondary tissues of Dicotyledons we may have, as already described, considerably more differentiation of the cells, all the varieties being referable, however, on the one hand to the tracheal or sieve-tube type, on the other to the parenchyma type.
Periderm; c, cortex; ph, phlocni with alternating strands of fibres, sieve-tubes and parenchyma; ~r.r, principal ray; Sr., subordinate rays; ca, cambium.
The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.
Incomplete fusion occurs in sieve tubes.
Sieve Tubes.The sieve tubes consist of partially fused rows of cells, the transverse cr lateral walls being perforated by minute openings, through which the contents of the cells are connected with each other, and which after a certain time become closed by,the formation of callus on the sieve plates.
The sieve tubes contain a thin lining layer of protoplasm on their walls, but no nuclei, and the cell sap contains albuminous substances which are coagulable by heat.
In close contact with the segments of the sieve tubes are companion cells which communicate with the sieve tubes by delicate protoplasmic strands; they can be distinguished from ordinary pareochymatous cells by their small size and dense protoplasm.
The companion cells are cut off from the same cells as those which unite to form the sieve tube.
The mode of formation of the sieve plate is not certainly known; but from the fact that delicate connecting threads of protoplasm are present between the cells from their first development it is probable that it is a special case of the normal protoplasmic continuity, the sieve pores being produced by a secondary enla~gement of the minute openings through which these delicate strands pass.
As the sieve plate grows these non-cellulose regions swell and gradually become converted into the same kind of mucous substance as that contained in the tube; the two cells are thus placed in open communication.
In the evening the milk is strained through a wire sieve and transferred to barrels.
The mineral, crushed small enough to pass a sieve with perforations iu in.
The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.
Upwards, are washed on plain sieve plates, but for finer-grained duff the sieve is covered with a bed of broken felspar lumps about 3 in.
At an early period Wallsend was famous for its coal, but the name has now a general application to coal that does not go through a sieve with meshes five-eighths of an inch in size.
Another relation becomes evident if we use as a semi-permeable partition a "vapour sieve" as suggested by G.
The simplest way to do this is to imagine a vapour-sieve piston through which the vapour but not the liquid can pass.
As we have explained above, such a vapour sieve may be constructed by boring a number of small enough holes through a solid not wetted by the liquid.
Let us imagine unit mass of solution of volume V confined in a cylinder ABC between a fixed vapour sieve B and a solid piston A A B C FIG.
When sifting is had recourse to, the fibrous matter should be rubbed through the meshes of the sieve along with the earthy particles.
Brush and sieve makers goods 102,400 515,450
In Nereocystis and Macrocystis a zone of tubes occurs, which present the appearance of sieve-tubes even to the eventual obliteration of the perforations by a callus.
Macrocystis sp., tubular elements from the medulla, with sieve-like transverse walls.
Variation provides the material for selection, and although opinions may differ as to the nature of that material, the modes by which it comes into existence and their relative values and permanences, there is an increasingly wide consensus of opinion that all such material has to pass through the sieve of natural selection and that the sifted products form new varieties and species, and new adaptations.
This is abruptly bent down in the middle, as if broken; the upper jaw is rather flat and narrow, while the lower jaw is very roomy and furnished with numerous lamellae, which, together with the thick and - ? :; =?:??.: large tongue, act like a sieve, an arrangement enhanced by the considerable movability of the upper jaw.
The quick-lime is then slaked with the requisite quantity of water; the product is passed through a fine-meshed wire sieve and is spread in layers of 2 or 3 in.
They are crushed to egg-size in a rock-breaker, and pulverized to pass a 40-mesh sieve in a California stamp-mill, which treats in 24 hours about 3 tons per stamp. A 10-stamp mill is fed by one rock-breaker, and discharges the liquid pulp into 10-15 wooden settling tanks, 9 by 5 by 8 ft., the settled contents of which are shovelled out and charged into the pans.
Similar in principle is coscinomancy, or divining by a sieve held suspended, which gives indications by turning; and the equally common divination by a suspended ring, both of which are found from Europe in the west to China and Japan in the east.
The secondary phloem contains numerous thick-walled fibres, parenchymatous cells, and large sieve-tubes with plates on the radial walls; swollen parenchymatous cells containing crystals are commonly met with in the cortex, pith and medullary-ray tissues.
The phloem consists of sieve-tubes, with pitted areas on the lateral as well as on the inclined terminal walls, phloem-parenchyma and, in some genera, fibres.
In the Abietineae the phloem consists of parenchyma and sieve-tubes only, but in most other forms tangential rows of fibres occur in regular alternation with the parenchyma and sieve-tubes.
21 the sand rests on small gravel of such degree of coarseness that the whole of the grains would be retained on a sieve of a-in.,mesh and rejected by a sieve of z-in.