As with Shakespeare and Beethoven, the day will never come when we can measure the influence of so vast a mind upon the history of art.
Nor could Shakespeare have failed to bring out with greater variety and distinctness the dramatic features in Henry VII., whom Ford depicts with sufficient distinctness to give some degree of individuality to the figure, but still with a tenderness of touch which would have been much to the credit of the dramatist's skill had he been writing in the Tudor age.
As high a degree of originality may be shown in transformation as in invention, as Moliere and Shakespeare have proved in the region of dramatic art.
Shakespeare remains so popular because he wrote about timeless human experiences: love and fear and envy, anger and revenge and jealousy, ambition and regret and guilt.
The principal modern monument to the poet's memory in Stratford is the Shakespeare Memorial, a semi-Gothic building of brick, stone and timber, erected in 1877 to contain a theatre, picture gallery and library.
Ford's tract of Honor Triumphant, or the Peeres Challenge (printed 1606 and reprinted by the Shakespeare Society with the Line of Life, in 1843), and the simultaneously published verses The Monarches Meeting, or the King of Denmarkes Welcome into England, exhibit him as occasionally meeting the festive demands of court and nobility; and a kind of moral essay by him, entitled A Line of Life (printed 1620), which contains references to Raleigh, ends with a climax of fulsome praise to the address of King James I.
Shakespeare was undoubtedly the greatest master the English language has ever known and, quite probably, will ever know.
Is said to have granted letters of protection to John Kemp, a Flemish weaver who settled in the town; and, although the coarse cloth known to Shakespeare as "Kendal green" is no longer made, its place is more than supplied by active manufactures of tweeds, railway rugs, horse clothing, knitted woollen caps and jackets, worsted and woollen yarns, and similar goods.
The breaking of such a promissory oath was called " perjury " (as in classical Latin and in Shakespeare), contrary to modern usage which confines the word to false evidence before a court of justice.
Had Shakespeare treated it, he would hardly have contented himself with investing the hero with the nobility given by Ford to this personage of his play, - for it is hardly possible to speak of a personage as a character when the clue to his conduct is intentionally withheld.
His egotism equalled Henry VIII.'s; his jealousy and ill-treatment of Richard Pace, dean of St Paul's, referred to by Shakespeare but vehemently denied by Dr Brewer, has been proved by the publication of the Spanish state papers; and Polydore Vergil, the historian, and Sir R.
David Hume summed up his admiration for Douglas by saying that his friend possessed "the true theatric genius of Shakespeare and Otway, refined from the unhappy barbarism of the one and licentiousness of the other."
In 1763 the first North Bridge, connecting the Old Town with the sloping ground on which afterwards stood the Register House and the theatre in Shakespeare Square, was opened; a little later the Nor' Loch was partially drained, and the bridging of the Cowgate in 1785 encouraged expansion southwards.
Of the many later publications of the Kisfaludy society the most important as regards English literature is the Shakspere Minden Munkdi (Complete Works of Shakespeare), in 19 vols.
Names like Shakespeare, Grotius, Bacon, Hobbes appear in half a dozen different places.
It seems strange that my first reading of Shakespeare should have left me so many unpleasant memories.
In Shakespeare (2 Henry IV.
(probably William Warner), first printed in 1595, which Shakespeare may possibly have used (in MS.) for his Comedy of Errors.
To no town has the memory of one famous son brought wider notoriety than that which the memory of William Shakespeare has brought to Stratford; yet this notoriety sprang into strong growth only towards the end of the 18th century.
The task of preserving for modern eyes the buildings which Shakespeare himself saw was not entered upon until much of the visible connexion with his times had been destroyed.
Shakespeare is buried in the chancel of Holy Trinity church, his wife lying next to him.
In 1757 Voltaire came to reside at Lausanne; and although he took but little notice of the young Englishman of twenty, who eagerly sought and easily obtained an introduction, the establishment of the theatre at Monrepos, where the brilliant versifier himself declaimed before select audiences his own productions on the stage, had no small influence in fortifying Gibbon's taste for the French theatre, and in at the same time abating that "idolatry for the gigantic genius of Shakespeare which is inculcated from our infancy as the first duty of an Englishman."
The Upper Avon, also called the Warwickshire, and sometimes the "Shakespeare" Avon from its associations with the poet's town of Stratford on its banks, is an eastern tributary of the Severn.
In the Elizabethan era and afterwards mentions abound; see the works of Shakespeare, Sidney, Ben Jonson, Drayton, Warner, A.
Siegfried's whole character and career is, indeed, annihilated in the clumsy progress towards this consummation; but Shakespeare might have condoned worse plots for the sake of so noble a result; and indeed Wagner's awkwardness arises mainly from fear of committing oversights.
The only positive piece of evidence produced is the passage from Thomas Nash's "Epistle to the Gentlemen of the Two Universities," prefixed to Greene's Arcadia, 1859, in which he upbraids somebody (not known to be Shakespeare) with having left the "trade of Noverint" and busied himself with "whole Hamlets" and "handfuls of tragical speeches."
He accordingly returned in 1871 to England from Italy, where he was studying, and modelled the figures of Shakespeare, Fame and Clio, which were rendered in marble and in bronze.
Holinshed (who was followed by Shakespeare in 2 Henry VI., act 4 sc. 6) tells us that when Cade, in 1450, forced his way into London, he first 45 Y of all proceeded to London Stone, and having struck his sword upon it, said in reference to himself and in explanation of his own action, " Now is Mortimer lord of this city."
Few English writers have known so adroitly as Tennyson how to bend the study of Shakespeare to the enrichment of their personal style.
Lessing had done much to make Shakespeare known to Germany, but he had regarded him in contrast to the French dramatists with whom he also contrasted the Greek dramatic poets, and accordingly did not bring out his essentially modern and Teutonic character.
Even Shakespeare has been played by these amateurs, and the abundant wit of the Japanese is on the way to enrich the stage with modern farces of unquestionable merit.
Great numbers of European and American authors were rendered into JapaneseCalderon, Lytton, Disraeli, Byron, Shakespeare, Milton, Turgueniev, Carlyle, Daudet, Emerson, Hugo, Heine, De Quincey, Dickens, Krner, Goethetheir name is legion and their influence upon Japanese literature is conspicuous.
It occurs frequently in poetry, owing to the alteration for metrical reasons of the natural order of words; Jevons quotes as an example Shakespeare, Henry VI.: "The duke yet lives that Henry shall depose."
His vigorous and idiomatic version of Plutarch, Vies des hommes illustres, was translated into English by Sir Thomas North, and supplied Shakespeare with materials for his Roman plays.
He seems to have been interested in the poetic diction of Milton and Thomson, and a few of his verses are remotely inspired by Shakespeare and Gray.
He may conceivably have met Bacon, but it is quite incredible that he met Shakespeare in the printing shop of Thomas Vautrollier.
Many of these were not pure Shakespeare; and he is credited with the addition of a dying speech to the text of Macbeth.
But not every generation has the same notions of the way in which Shakespeare is best honoured.
Garrick practically ceased to act in 1766, but he continued the management of Drury Lane, and in 1769 organized the Shakespeare celebrations at Stratford-on-Avon, an undertaking which ended in dismal failure, though he composed an " Ode upon dedicating a building and erecting a Statue to Shakespeare " on the occasion.
See also for a very valuable survey of Garrick's labours as an actor, with a bibliography, C. Gaehde, David Garrick als Shakespeare-Darsteller, &c. (Berlin, 1904).
Roubiliac's statue of Shakespeare, for which Garrick sat, and for which he paid the sculptor three hundred guineas, was originally placed in a small temple at Hampton, and is now in the entrance hall at the British Museum.
The Iliad and the Odyssey are as familiar to him as Shakespeare to the educated Englishman.
Like all the greatest writers except Shakespeare, Montaigne thoroughly and completely exhibits the intellectual and moral complexion of his own time.
In his day, Shakespeare was low-brow entertainment for the common class.
Under the terms of the definition I offered earlier, that makes Shakespeare the epitome of art—that is, something that continues to speak to future generations.
But first we must go further back, from Shakespeare at the end of the sixteenth century to Plato around 370 BC.
I cannot tell exactly when I began Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare"; but I know that I read them at first with a child's understanding and a child's wonder.
But, with all my love for Shakespeare, it is often weary work to read all the meanings into his lines which critics and commentators have given them.
When she met Dr. Furness, the Shakespearean scholar, he warned her not to let the college professors tell her too many assumed facts about the life of Shakespeare; all we know, he said, is that Shakespeare was baptized, married, and died.
After thinking a little while, she added, 'I think Shakespeare made it very terrible so that people would see how fearful it is to do wrong.'
In Captain Keller's library she found excellent books, Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare," and better still Montaigne.
He greatly increased his political information, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a wonderful knowledge of English.
And Shakespeare (Richard II., Act.
Shakespeare, Hamlet, 1.
Shakespeare may have attended the grammar school attached to the old guildhall in Church Street.
EDWARD GIBBON (1737-1794), English historian, was descended, he tells us in his autobiography, from a Kentish family of considerable antiquity; among his remoter ancestors he reckons the lord high treasurer Fiennes, Lord Say and Sele, whom Shakespeare has immortalized in his Henry VI.
Shakespeare, Henry V.
The familiar charge, repeated in Shakespeare, of having written Ego et meus rex, while true in fact, is false in intention, because no Latin scholar could put the words in any other order; but it reflects faithfully enough Wolsey's mental attitude.
The oak and sycamore in front of Birnam House, the famed twin trees of Birnam, are believed to be more than 1000 years old, and to be the remnant of the wood of Birnam which Shakespeare immortalized in Macbeth.
Process which runs through the book: "If Shakespeare was really articled to a Stratford attorney, in all probability, during the five years of his clerkship, he visited London several times on his master's business, and he may then have been introduced to the green-room at Blackfriars by one of his countrymen connected with that theatre."
Lounsbury's Shakespeare and Voltaire (1902) may also be specified.
At no other period were so many great men associated with its history; the latter years of Elizabeth's reign are specially interesting to us because it was then that Shakespeare lived in London, and introduced its streets and people into his plays.
The early years of Stuart London may be said to be closely linked with the last years of Elizabethan London, for the greatest men, such as Raleigh, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson, lived on into James's reign.
At the Mermaid Ben Jonson had such companions as Shakespeare, Raleigh, Beaumont, Fletcher, Carew, Donne, Cotton and Selden, but at the Devil in Fleet Street, where he started the Apollo Club, he was omnipotent.
Among his principal works upon these subjects may be noted the four volumes of Letteratura della nuova Italia (1860-1910); his essays upon Goethe, Ariosto, Shakespeare, Corneille, and the Poetry of Dante; his two volumes Storia della storiografia italiana del secolo XIX.
Gutenberg and Shakespeare were among the patrons of the thirteen months in this calendar.
He retained his intellectual lucidity and an absolute command of his faculties to the last, reading Shakespeare with obvious appreciation until within a few hours of his death.
With the splendour of the full moon falling upon him, his hand clasping his Shakespeare, and looking, as we are told, almost unearthly in the majestic beauty of his old age, Tennyson passed away at Aldworth on the night of the 6th of October 1892.
He brings back Shakespeare, the poet.