A, Notholca longispina, lorica only; b, Anuraea aculeata, like the former, a floating pelagic type (plankton proper); c, Synchaeta stylata; corona with accessory antennae and sensory styles; auricles for swimming - an actively swimming pelagic type (nekton); d, Pterodina patina, with bdelloid corona and retractile foot with terminal ciliated cup; e, Distyla gissensis partly extended; f, Rattulus tigris.
Near the base of the ctenidium is a patch of sensory epithelium innervated from the branchial nerve, forming a sense-organ called the osphradium, whose function is to test the water entering the branchial cavity.
There is also in some genera a median retractile sensory papilla on the dorsal posterior surface above the rectum, not covered by the cuticle.
His deduction is logical; but he has forgotten to prove the assumption, and now confuses sensory operation with sensible object.
In this tribe the males have both antennae of the first pair as sensory organs.
Near the termination of a fatal case there is a paralysis of the sensory columns of the cord, so that general sensibility is lowered.
Remaining pairs of appendages with their basal segments immovably fixed to the sternal surface, similar in form, the posterior three pairs furnished with two claws supported on long stalks; the basal segments of the 6th pair bearing five pairs of tactile sensory organs or malleoli.
Here the pits split into two, one part ending in a sac lined with sensory epithelium, and embedded in nervous tissue, the other projecting backwards as a long, glandular, blind canal.
Aconite further depresses the activity of all nerve-terminals, the sensory being affected before the motor.
The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
The air-bladder may be so reduced as to lose its hydrostatic function and become subservient to a sensory organ, its outer exposed surface being connected with the skin by a meatus between the bands of muscle, and conveying the thermobarometrical impressions to the auditory nerves.
(2) Sensory cells, which may be fairly numerous in places, especially on the tentacles, but which occur always scattered and isolated, never aggregated to form sense-organs as in the medusa.
By means of vibrations or shocks transmitted through the - Sub water, or by displacements in the balance or position of the animal, the otoliths are caused to impinge against the bristles of the sensory cells, now on one side, now on the other, causing shocks or stimuli which are transmitted by the basal nerve-fibre to the central nervous system.
Brooks regards these organs as sensory, serving for the sense of balance, and representing a primitive stage of the tentaculocysts of Trachylinae; Linko, on the other hand, finding no nerve-elements connected with them, regards them as digestive (?) in function.
The stimulus of water on the breast may be regarded as a sensory presentation which is followed by a definite and adaptive application of behaviour.
(I) The body is built up of two layers only, an external protective and sensory layer, the ectoderm, and an internal digestive layer, the endoderm.
That they are in some cases produced by physical or sensory stimuli does not constitute them irrational, and it is purely arbitrary to confine the word pleasure to those cases in which such stimuli are the proximate causes.
Additional paired antennae may occur within the coronal surface, which is the seat of the sensory styles, of less complex structure, which occur in many genera.
" Sensory knowledge," he says, " is the knowledge of the relations of things through the relations of the sensations of things."
In some species there are also sensory papillae comparable to the aesthetes of Chitons.
Beneath deductive logic, in the logic of Aristotle and the canonic of the Epicureans, there already lay the basis of empirical logic: sensory experience is the origin of all inference and science.
(After Allman.) sensory, contractile and pro tective in function.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
In addition to the nerves starting from the brain-lobes just now especially mentioned, there is a double apparatus which can hardly be treated of in conjunction with the sense organs, because its sensory functions have not been sufficiently made out, and which will therefore rather be considered along with the brain and central nervous system.
Whether in the Metanemertines, where the blood fluid is often provided with haemoglobiniferous disks, the chief functions of the side organs may not rather be a sensory one needs further investigation.
The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.
1 The general ectoderm loses its cilia, which persist only in the sensory cells, and it frequently secretes external protective or supporting structures.
Sensory Automatism is the term given by students of psychical research to a centrally initiated hallucination.
The distinction, therefore, between the movement of the eyeballs, elicited from the occipital (visual) cortex, and that of the hand, elicited from the cortex in the region of the central sulcus (somaesthetic), is not a difference between motor and sensory, for both are sensori-motor in the nature of their reactions; the difference is only a difference between the kind of sense and sense-organ in the two cases, the muscular apparatus in each case being an appanage of the sensual.
When the nematocyst is completely developed, the cnidoblast passes outwards so as to occupy a superficial position in the ectoderm, and a delicate protoplasmic process of sensory nature, termed the cnidocil (cn) projects from the cnidoblast like a fine hair or cilium.
The sensory cells are slender epithelial cells, often with a cilium or stiff protoplasmic process, and should perhaps be regarded as the only ectoderm-cells which retain the primitive ciliation of the larval ectoderm, otherwise lost in all Hydrozoa.
Other sensory cells with long cilia cover a sort of cushion (n.c.) at the base of the club; the club may be long and the cushion small, or the...
The prostomium and the segments generally often bear processes sensory and branchial.
Elaboration in the form of the feelers, often a secondary sexual character in male insects, may result from a distal broadening of the segments, so that the appendage becomes serrate, or from the development of processes bearing sensory organs, so that the structure is pinnate or feather-like.
B, Section through compound eye (after Miall and Denny); C, organs of smell in cockchafer; (after Kraepelin); D, a, b, sensory pits on cercopods of golden-eye fly; c, sensory pit on palp of stone-fly (after Packard); E, sensory hair (after Miall and Denny); F, ear of long-horned grasshopper; a, Front shin showing outer opening and air-tube; b, section (after Graber); G, ear of locust from within (after Graber).
S.N., Nerves to sensory apparatus.
The ectoderm retains its ciliation only in the sensory organs.
The sense organs are eyes, antennae, sensory styles and a statocyst in a few species.
The acid is capable of passing through the unbroken skin, whereupon it instantly paralyses the sensory nerves.
Now, Kant and his followers start from this second and narrower meaning, and usually narrow it still more by assuming that what appears to the senses is as mental as the sensation, being undistinguishable from it or from the idea of it, and that an appearance is a mental idea(Vorstellung) of sense; and then they conclude that we can know by inference nothing but such mental appearances, actual and possible, and therefore nothing beyond sensory experience.
He holds, like Hume, that nothing is real except our sensations and complexes of sensory elements; that the ego is not a definite, unalterable, sharply bounded unity, but its continuity alone is important; and that we know no real causes at all, much less real causes of our sensations; or, as he expresses it, bodies do not produce sensations, but complexes of sensations form bodies.
His philosophy, therefore, is that all known things are sensations and complexes of sensory elements, supplemented by an economy of thinking which cannot carry us beyond ideas to real things, or beyond relations of dependency to real causes.
As a rule, a longer time is required to restore the motor than the sensory functions of a nerve trunk.
In man, actually gross sensory defects follow even limited lesions of the cortex.
When rubbed into the skin with such substances as alcohol or glycerine, which are absorbed, atropine is carried through the epidermis with them, and in this manner - or when simply applied to a raw surface - it paralyses the terminals of the pain-conducting sensory nerves.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
Covered with sensory ectodermal epithelium an d containing an After 0.
The Ego he considers not an entity sharply distinguished from the Non-ego, but merely, as it were, a medium of continuity of sensory impressions.
In the former it means that Nature is .mental phenomena, actual and possible, of sensory experience; in the latter it means that Nature is positive facts, either experienced or inferred.
Yes, rejoins Lange, but Kant has proved that material are merely mental phenomena; so that the more the materialist proves his case the more surely he is playing into the hands of the idealist - an answer which would be complete if it did not turn on the equivocation of the word " phenomenon," which in science means any positive fact, and not a mere appearance, much less a mental appearance, to sense and sensory experience.
If the sensory nerves of the extensor muscle be severed, the "jerk" is lost.
We are really good on the reasoning part, but as far as our sensory inputs go, we are massively outclassed by cheap sensors.
" The Sensory Clubs of Cordyli of Laodice," Journ.
Tadpoles are aquatic vertebrates.
Within the limits of these supposed sensory elements he accords more than many psychologists do to sense; because, following the nativists, Johannes Muller and Hering, he includes sensations of time and space, which, however, are not to be regarded as " pure intuitions " in the style of Kant.
The nerve cell just prior to sleep is still well capable of response to stimuli, although perhaps the threshold-value of the stimulus has become rather high, whereas after entrance upon sleep and continuance of sleep for several hours, and more, when all spur to the dissimilation process has been long withheld, the threshold-value of the sensory stimulus becomes enormously higher than before.