The fate of these inorganiccompounds has not been certainly traced, but they give rise later on to the presence in the plant of various amino acid amides, such as leucin, glycin, asparagin, &c. That these are stages on the way to proteids has been inferred from the fact that when proteids are split up by various means, and especially by the digestive secretions, these nitrogen-containing acids are among the products which result.
But even when inside it does not follow that the Fungus can kill the cell, and many cases are known where the Fungus can break throtigh the cells first lines of defence (cell-wall and protoplasmic lining); but the struggle goes on at close quarters, and various degrees of hypertrophy, accumulation of plastic bodies or secretions, discolorations, &c.,, indicate the suffering of the still living cell.
This modification is important, because it transfers the formative influence from the plastic substances to the protoplasm, suggesting that, the diverse constituents are produced (whether spontaneously or as the result of stimulation) as secretions by the protoplasm.
- Many ants feed largely and some almost entirely on the saccharine secretions of other insects, the best known of which are the Aphides (plant-lice or " green-fly ").
While some of these " guest " insects produce secretions that furnish the ants with food, some seem to be useless inmates of the nest, obtaining food from the ants and giving nothing in return.
Each opens in a vas deferens which bears three diverticula or vesiculae seminales, and three pairs of cement glands also are found which pour their secretions through a duct into the vasa deferentia.
The caseous necrosis of the implicated mass of lung tissue, and indeed of tubercles generally, is held to be, in great measure, the result of the necrotic influence of the secretions from the bacillus.
Sometimes acid sometimes alkaline properties predominated in the juices and secretions of the body, and produced corresponding disturbances.
In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps.
Formica), in stinging nettles, in some mineral waters, in animal secretions and in muscle.
Thick and said to be made up largely of the secretions of organisms. Such thicknesses of such material go far to modify the former opinion that the Tertiary periods were short.
The peculiar odour evolved by many rodents is due to the secretions of special glands, which may open into the prepuce, as in Mus, Microtus and Cricetus, or into the rectum, as in Arctomys and Thryonomys, or into the passage common to both, as in the beaver, or into pouches opening near the vent, as in hares, agoutis and jerboas.
The spherical granules (G) are probably gland-secretions; the dark bodies (Z) are probably xanthellae, i.e.
It consisted of ethereal fire, and he was not subject to the ordinary phenomena of digestion, secretions and evacuations.
The respiratory rhythm is less frequent and the breathing less deep; the heart-beat is less frequent; the secretions are less copious; the pupil is narrow; in the brain there exists arterial anaemia with venous congestion, so that the blood-flow there is less than in the waking state.
There is much uncertainty as to the influence of atropine on the secretions of the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas and kidneys, and it is not possible to make any definite statement, save that in all probability the activities of the nerves innervating the glandcells in these organs are reduced, though they are certainly not arrested, as in the other cases.
It is now known that similar internal secretions, or hormones, pass into the blood from every organ and tissue, so reaching and affecting every part of the body.
Physical symptoms also appear; the face assumes an earthy colour, the body wastes, constipation is usually present to an extreme degree, the secretions become arrested, loss of appetite and indigestion follow and the mouth is parched.
It is excreted by all the secretions and excretions of the body.
Xiv.), and (4) certain natural secretions (xv.).
Deals with the rites of purification rendered necessary by various natural secretions, and is therefore closely related to chap. xii.
Schizomycetes exist in every part of the alimentary canal of animals, except, perhaps, where acid secretions prevail; these are by no means necessarily harmful, though, by destroying the teeth for instance, certain forms may incidentally be the forerunners of damage which they do not directly cause.
In this sense alone quinine is a tonic. The hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is stated to convert any salt of quinine into a chloride, and it seems probable that the absorption of quinine takes place mainly from the stomach, for when the drug reaches the alkaline secretions of the duodenum it is precipitated, and probably none of it is thereafter absorbed.
The similarity of the symptoms to those of cholera is very marked, but if the suspicion arises it can soon be cleared up by examining any of the secretions for arsenic. More rarely the poison seems to centre itself on the nerve centres, and gastro-intestinal symptoms may be almost or quite absent.
To allure and attract them to visit the flower the odoriferous secretions and gay colours are developed, and the position and complicated structure of the parts of the flower are adapted to the perfect performance of the process, It is comparatively rare in hermaphrodite flowers for self-fertilization to occur, and the various forms of dichogamy, dimorphism and trimorphism are fitted to prevent this.
Not only are the general symptoms investigated, but it is necessary to carry out experiments'on the nerves, muscles, circulation, secretions, &c., so as to get a more exact knowledge of the reasons of the general action.
When we come to consider more in detail the results of these actions we find that the various secretions of the body, such as the sweat, gastric juice, bile, milk, urine, &c., may be increased or diminished; that the heart may have its muscular or nervous apparatus stimulated or depressed; that the nerve-centres in the brain, medulla and spinal cord may be rendered more sensitive or the reverse; and that the general metabolism of the body may be altered in various ways.
Substances obtained from animals include gland secretions, pepsin and other ferments, musk, cod-liver oil, &c., and to these may be added various antitoxins.
When swallowed in small doses they slightly irritate the mouth and gastric mucous membrane, increasing the secretions and producing a feeling of warmth.
It has in addition a markedly depressing action upon the respiratory centre, it lessens all the secretions except the sweat, and diminishes bowel peristalsis and the size of the pupil.
They therefore lessen all the secretions, and among other actions dilate the pupil and increase the rapidity of the heart by paralysing the vagus.
Expectorants increase the bronchial secretions; antispasmodics relax the spasm of the muscular coat of the bronchial tubes, e.g.
From the stomach and intestines they are rapidly absorbed, and rapidly excreted from the blood, increasing all secretions and the general metabolism.
- Sulphur itself has no action, but when brought into contact with the secretions it forms sulphides, sulphites and sulphuretted hydrogen, and thereby becomes more or less irritant and antiseptic. In the bowel its conversion into sulphides causes it to act as a mild laxative.
It therefore increases all the secretions, especially those of the skin and kidneys, while it also stimulates the general metabolism of the body and the excretion of nitrogenous products.
Those which act upon the alimentary canal: Simple bitters such as quassia wood, columbo root, taraxacum, gentian, chiretta, and many others, irritate gently the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels, and by increasing the secretions improve the appetite and digestion.
The large number of vegetable substances used as purgatives owe their action to an irritating effect upon the mucous membrane and the neuro-muscular apparatus of the bowel, whereby the secretions and peristalsis are more or less increased, as the result of which diarrhoea ensues.