All human sciences have traveled along that path.
He went to the university of Leipzig as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered officially as a student of medicine.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
These activities were part of the culture of everyday life.
In consequence the special sciences and the wisdom of common life entangle themselves easily and frequently in contradictions.
Under the Reign of Terror he was arrested and imprisoned for nearly a year, during which he studied Condillac and Locke, and abandoned the natural sciences for philosophy.
From 1863 to 1870 he was secretary and recorder to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in the last year of his life he lectured on mathematical physics at Harvard.
In the same year Rainer became curator of the Academy of Sciences, a position which he filled till his death.
As patron of the Arts and Crafts Museum (1862-98), and as curator of the Academy of Sciences, he won a high reputation.
He became a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1863, and ten years afterwards entered the Academy of Sciences, of which he became perpetual secretary in 1889 in succession to Louis Pasteur.
On the 6th of May 1448 he obtained licence in mortmain and on the 10th of August founded at Oxford "for the extirpation of heresies and errors, the increase of the clerical order and the adornment of holy mother church, a perpetual hall, called Seint Marie Maudeleyn Halle, for study in the sciences of sacred theology and philosophy," to consist of a president and 50 scholars.
In 1836 he was elected a member of the Academie des sciences politiques et morales, was raised to the peerage in 1839 and in 1843 became doyen of the faculty of law.
Of Sciences, xx.
Arrhenius is specially associated with the development of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, and his great paper on the subject, Recherches sur la conductibilite galvanique des electrolytes - (1) conductibilite galvanique des solutions aqueuses extremement diluees, (2) theorie chimique des electrolytes, was presented to the Stockholm Academy of Sciences in 1883.
But in addition to bringing forward a fundamental and philosophical view of morbid processes, which probably contributed more than any other single cause to vindicate for pathology the place which he claimed for it among the biological sciences, Virchow made many important contributions to histology and morbid anatomy and to the study of particular diseases.
The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.
Wanted Descartes to draw up a code for a proposed academy of the sciences, and to give her an hour of philosophic instruction every morning at five.
The end of all study, says Descartes, in one of his earliest writings, ought to be to guide the mind to form true and sound judgments on every thing that may be presented to it.3 The sciences in their totality are but the intelligence of man; and all the details of knowledge have no value save as they strengthen the understanding.
They are also the direct antitheses to the scepticism of Montaigne and Pascal, to the materialism of Gassendi and Hobbes, and to the superstitious anthropomorphism which defaced the reawakening sciences of nature.
Two important educational establishments are the Indian Institute for the education of civil service students for thecolonies, to which is attached an ethnographical museum; and the Royal Polytechnic school, which almost ranks as a university, and teaches, among other sciences, that of diking.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
In his treatise (page 116) Hume says, speaking of logarithms, ` L'inuenteur estoit un Seigneur de grande condition, et duquel la posterite est aujourd'huy en possession de grandes dignitez dans le royaume, qui extant sur Wage, et grandement trauaille des gouttes ne pouvait faire autre chose que de s'adonner aux sciences, et principalment aux mathematiques et a la logistique, a quoy it se plaisoit infiniment, et auec estrange peine, a construict ses Tables des Logarymes, imprimees a Edinbourg en l'an 1614...
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
During the second period the pupil has a choice of four courses: (1) Latin and Greek; (2) Latin and sciences; (3) Latin and modern languages; (4) sciences and modern languages.
The faculties of letters and sciences, besides granting the Baccalaurat de lenseignement secondaire, confer the degrees of licentiate and doctor (la Licence, le Doctoral).
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
The work of the faculties of medicine and pharmacy is in some measure shared by the icoles su~irieures de pharmacie (Paris, Montpellier, Nancy), which grant the highest degrees in pharmacy, and by the icoles de p1cm exercice de mdecine et de pharmacie (Marseilles, Rennes and Nantes) and the more numerous coles preparaloires de mdecine et de pharmacie; there are also coles preparatolres a lenseignement supirieur des sciences ci des lettres at Chambry, Rouen and Nantes.
The most important free institution in this class is the cole des Sciences Politiques, which prepares pupils for the civil services and teaches a great number of political subjects, connected with France and foreign countries, not included in the state programmes.
Of Arts and Sciences, xxxviii.
In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."
On the 26th of October 1868 he communicated to the Paris Academy of Sciences, almost simultaneously with Dr P. J.
In its charter this institution is described as "an academy for the purpose of promoting piety and virtue, and for the education of youth in the English, Latin and Greek languages, in writing, arithmetic, music and the art of speaking, practical geometry, logic and geography, and such other of the liberal arts and sciences or languages, as opportunity may hereafter permit."
Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first-class both in the mathematical tripos and in the 2nd part of the moral sciences tripos, he remained at Cambridge as a lecturer, and became well known as a student of mathematical philosophy and a leading exponent of the views of the newer school of Realists.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
4 Distrust of the natural sciences, Ed uca- even in their technical applications, and of Western ideas of free government; desire to make university don.
The steady tendency of Russian society towards increasing the number of secondary schools, where instruction would be based on the study of the natural sciences, is checked by the government in favour of the classical gymnasiums. 5 Sunday schools and public lectures are virtually prohibited.
Of higher schools, in which careful instruction is given in natural and social sciences, have been opened in the chief cities under the name of " pedagogical courses."
The natural sciences are much cultivated in Russia.
The work achieved by Russian savants, especially in biology, physiology and chemistry, and in the sciences descriptive of the vast territory of Russia, is well known to Europe.
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
In 1741 he received his first public distinction in being admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences, to which he had previously presented several papers, including a Memoire sur le calcul integral (1739).