Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
State operation and ownership is a system which originated in Belgium at the beginning of railway enterprise, and has been consistently carried out by the Scandinavian countries and by Hungary.
They have continued to be worn, however, by the bishops of the Scandinavian Lutheran Y P Churches.
The mistletoe figures also in Scandinavian legend as having furnished the material of the arrow with which Balder (the sun-god) was slain by the blind god Hoder.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
Eberian influence in the south-west, Ligurian on the shores of the Mediterranean, Germanic immigrations from east of the Rhine and Scandinavian immigrations in the north-west have tended to produce ethnographical diversities which ease of intercommunication and other modern conditions have failed to obliterate.
The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.
Thus the characteristic assemblage of plants to which Sir Joseph Hooker has given the name Scandinavian is present in every latitude of the globe, and is the only one that is so (Trans.
Christ has objected to terming the arctic flora Scandinavian, but the name implies nothing more than that Scandinavia has been its chief centre of preservation.
Christ, while admitting an ancient endemic element, such as Cam panula excise in the arctic-alpine flora of Europe, objects that a Scandinavian colonization could not furnish such characteristic plants as the larch and edelweiss.
Scandinavian merchants brought the products of India to England and Ireland.
By the end of it, any traces of heathen faith, and even of Scandinavian speech, must have been mere survivals.
The new creed, the new speech, the new social system, had taken such deep root that the descendants of the Scandinavian settlers were better fitted to be the armed missionaries of all these things than the neighbours from whom they had borrowed their new possessions.
Settled in Gaul, the Scandinavian from a seafaring man became a landsman.
But it was balanced by another quality which Geoffrey does not speak of, one which is not really inconsistent with the other, one which is very prominent in the Norman character, and which is, no less than the other, a direct heritage from their Scandinavian forefathers.
In 870 Dumbarton was attacked and destroyed after four months' siege by the Scandinavian king Ivarr, and for some time after this the country was exposed to ravages by the Norsemen.
One of the most learned men of his day, he devoted his spare time to history, and discovered that many of the oldest and most cherished Scandinavian MSS.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
In all the Scandinavian countries it is known as the Gran or Grann.
He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-70), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.
Crusaders from the Low Countries, England and the Scandinavian north took the coast route round western Europe; and it was natural that, landing for provisions and water, they should be asked, and should consent, to lend their aid to the natives against the Moors.
The substances occur, in very minute quantity, in a large number of sparingly-distributed and comparatively rare minerals - euxenite, samarksite, cerite, yttrotantalite, &c. Scandinavian specimens of these minerals were examined by J.
NARWHAL, the Scandinavian name of a cetacean (Monodon inonoceros), characterized by the presence in the male of a long horn-like tusk.
The people, more remote and less accessible to external influences, retained their Scandinavian characteristics longer than the Orcadians.
It frequents the Scandinavian coasts, entering the Baltic in the summer; and is found as far north as Baffin's Bay and as far west as the coasts of the United States.
From the Scandinavian peninsula and the British Islands the range of the fox extends eastwards across Europe and central and northern Asia to Japan, while to the south it embraces northern Africa and Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and the northwestern districts of India and the Himalaya.
During the stress of the Scandinavian Seven Years' War compelled him, in 1566, to recall the great financier, when his confiscated estates were restored to him and he was reinstated in all his offices and dignities.
LUDVIG HOLBERG HOLBERG, Baron (1684-1754), the great Scandinavian writer, was born at Bergen, in Norway, on the 3rd of December 1684.
What the Northmen were to the Western powers in the 8th and 9th the Wends were to the Scandinavian lands in the 11th and 12th centuries.
A change, however, came about towards the end of the century, when the Scandinavian freebooters known as Danes began to harry the coasts.
One of Ethelstan's first public acts was to hold a conference at Tamworth with Sihtric, the Scandinavian king of Northumbria, and as a result Sihtric received Ethelstan's sister in marriage.
Embassies passed between Ethelstan and Harold Fairhair, first king of Norway, with the result that Harold's son Haakon was brought up in England and is known in Scandinavian history as Haakon Adalsteinsf6stri.
The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thought.
They are uniformly worded in English, while continental laws, apart from the Scandinavian, are all in Latin.
The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with Danes.
The Scandinavian newcomers coalesced easily and quickly with the native population.
A more widely accepted theory derives gilds wholly or in part from the early Germanic or Scandinavian sacrificial banquets.
Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th century.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
Dortmund held aloof from the Cologne Confederation on the ground that it had no concern in Scandinavian politics.
The last wars of the League with the Scandinavian powers in the 16th century, which left it shorn of many of its privileges and of any pretension to control of the Baltic basin eliminated it as a factor in the later struggle of the Thirty Years' War for that control.
Ridings are Scandinavian institutions.
It is curious that in English, Frankish and Scandinavian works they are never mentioned, and there can be little doubt that they were known, especially among the western Teutonic peoples, by some other name.
The names of these ambassadors are preserved and they point to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic name among them.
Meanwhile he supported himself by teaching on a very small scale, but his progress was such that at sixteen he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French and German, and was rapidly acquiring English and the Scandinavian languages, and also Russian, Servian and other Slavonic tongues.
Scyld Scefing," the protector with the sheaf ") lands on the Anglian or Scandinavian coast when a child, in a rudderless ship, asleep on a sheaf of grain, symbolical of the means whereby his kingdom shall become great; the son indicates the blessings of a fixed habitation, secured against the attacks of the sea.
2 45, 1874) in proper meaning is noise, clamour, the season being one of rejoicing at the turning of the year among Scandinavian peoples before Christian times.
His work on palaeontology shows him the predecessor of all the Scandinavian geologists, and his contributions in this field alone would have been sufficient to perpetuate his fame.
One of the most noteworthy Scandinavian periodicals has been the Nordisk Universitets Tidsskrift (1854-1864), a bond of union between the universities of Christiania, Upsala, Lund and Copenhagen.
Among later periodicals we may mention Skandia (1833-1837); Literaturbladet (1838-1840); Stallningar och Forhallanden (1838) of Crusenstolpe, a monthly review of Scandinavian history; Tidskrift for Litteratur (1850); Norsk Tidsskrift (1852), weekly, Forr och Nu; and the Revue suedoise (1858) of Kramer, written in French.
YGGDRASIL, in Scandinavian mythology, the mystical ash tree which symbolizes existence, and binds together earth, heaven and hell.
Equally triumphant was Frederick in his war with Sweden, though here the contest was much more severe, lasting as it did for seven years; whence it is generally described in northern history as the Scandinavian Seven Years' War.
He aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean.
Probably it was also usual for them to signify their approval of a proposal by the clash of their arms, as was the practice among the Scandinavian peoples.
Even so she owes her natural frontiers in the Scandinavian peninsula to Charles X.
The story of Roland's birth from the union of Charles with his sister Gilles, also found in German and Scandinavian versions, has abundant parallels in mythology, and was probably transferred from mythology to Charlemagne.
Hjort and Helland-Hansen in the Scandinavian fjords.
The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches.
The swan played a part in classical mythology as the bird of Apollo, and in Scandinavian lore the swan maidens, who have the gift of prophecy and are sometimes confused with the Valkyries, reappear again and again.
After some time spent in travel and a successful lecturing tour in Norway and Sweden, he settled in Copenhagen, and produced a series of novels and collections of short stories, which placed him in the front rank of Scandinavian novelists.