Saul, whose chief herdsman, Doeg, was an Edomite (I Sam.
"He led them forth like sheep," in Israel in Egypt, and the music of the Witch of Endor, and the appearance of Samuel's spirit in Saul) are as modern as Gluck's.
(2) The eldest son of Saul, who, together with his father, freed Israel from the crushing oppression of the Philistines (I Sam.
In the days of Saul and David) it was the priest with the ephod or image of Yahweh who gave answers to those who consulted him.
5), or a tamarisk ('eshel), or pomegranate(rimmon), as at the high place in Gibeah where Saul abode.
Saul and his attendant are invited by the seer-priest Samuel into the banqueting chamber (lishkah) where thirty persons partake of the sacrificial meal.
The lifeand-death struggle between Israel and the Philistines in the reign of Saul called forth under Samuel's leadership a new order of " men of God," who were called " prophets " or divinely inspired speakers.'
It is significant that Saul in his last unavailing struggle against the overwhelming forces of the Philistines sought through the medium of a sorceress for an interview with the deceased prophet Samuel.
The heroic figure who stands at the head is Saul (" asked "), and two accounts of his rise are recorded.
The young Saul was chosen by lot and gained unanimous recognition by delivering Jabesh in Gilead from the Ammonites.
(2) But other traditions represent the people scattered and in hiding; Israel is groaning under the Philistine yoke, and the unknown Saul is raised up by Yahweh to save his people.
At all events the first of a series of annalistic notices of the kings of Israel ascribes to Saul conquests over the surrounding peoples to an extent which implies that the district of Judah formed part of his kingdom (I Sam.
When the narratives describe the life of the young David at the court of the first king of the northern kingdom, when the scenes cover the district which he took with the sword, and when the brave Saul is represented in an unfavourable light, one must allow for the popular tendency to idealize great figures, and for the Judaean origin of the compilation.
Yet again, Saul had been chosen by Yahweh to free his people from the Philistines; he had been rejected for his sins, and had suffered continuously from this enemy; Israel at his death was left in the unhappy state in which he had found it; it was the Judaean David, the faithful servant of Yahweh, who was now chosen to deliver Israel, and to the last the people gratefully remembered their debt.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
The traditions of the Ephraimite Joshua and of Saul the first king of (north) Israel virtually treat Judah as part of Israel and are related to the underlying representations in (a).
Jehu's son Jehoahaz saw his army made " like the dust in threshing," and the desperate condition of the country recalls the straits in the time of Saul (I Sam.
The warfare which followed was like that which Saul and David waged against the Philistines.
Where it follows the chapters in Samuel it is important for textual and other critical problems, but it omits narratives in which it is not interested (David's youth, persecution by Saul, Absalom's revolt, &c.), and adds long passages (David's arrangements for the temple, &c.) which reflect the views of a much later age than David's.
Saul in ix.
There, too, he acquired that skill in music which led to his first introduction to Saul (I Sam.
Appears from the close that neither Saul nor his captain Abner had heard of him before (vv.
But this passage is the sequel to the rejection of Saul in xv., and Samuel's position agrees with that of the late writer in vii., viii.
4 According to this text Saul was simply possessed with such a personal dislike and dread of Conflicts with David as might easily occupy his disordered brain.
When the time came for Saul to fulfil his promise, Merab was given to Adriel of Abel-Meholah (perhaps an Aramaean).
12-31, where Saul had promised his daughter to the one who should overthrow Goliath (ver.
At another time Saul actually gave commands to assassinate his son-in-law, but the breach was made up by Jonathan, whose chivalrous spirit had united him to David in a covenant of closest friendship (xix.
A plan was arranged by which Jonathan should draw from the king an expression of his feelings, and a tremendous explosion revealed that Saul regarded David as the rival of his dynasty, and Jonathan as little better than a fellow-conspirator.
5) and by the priest Abiathar, the only survivor of a terrible massacre by which Saul took revenge for the favours which David had received at the sanctuary of Nob.
Forced to flee by the treachery of the very men whom he had succoured, he lived for a time in constant fear of being captured by Saul, and at length took refuge with Achish king of Gath and established himself in Ziklag.
Popular tradition, as though unwilling to let David escape from Saul, told of that king's continual pursuit of the outlaw, of the attempt of the men of Ziph (S.E.
This means very much, though his modesty led him to call in the aid of his friend Saul to cope with the new and expanding situation (25 f.).
63, 76), and metal armour, though known farther west, scarcely appear in old oriental costume, and the passage which attributes bronze helmets and coats of mail to the Philistine Goliath and the Israelite il Saul cannot be held (on other grounds) to be necessarily reliable for the middle or close of the Iith century (1 Sam.
To David when watched in his house by Saul, implies an absolute lack of the very elements of historical judgment.
The calling up of the spirit of Samuel by the Witch at Endor when consulted by Saul is the classical example (I Sam.
A convert chief named Dichu granted him a site for an establishment, and a wooden barn is stated to have been utilized for the purpose of worship, whence the modern Saul (Ir.
Some years before his death, which took place in 461, Patrick resigned his position as bishop of Armagh to his disciple Benignus, and possibly retired to Saul in Dalaradia, where he spent the remainder of his life.
Shiloh disappears from history; neither Saul nor even Samuel, whose youth had been spent with it, takes any further thought of it.
The same sentiment recurs in Yahweh's command to Saul to destroy Amalek utterly for its hostility to Israel (1 Sam.
Saul himself, according to one tradition, was slain by an Amalekite (2 Sam.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
An attempt on the part of Saul to exterminate the clan is mentioned in 2 Sam.