Saul, whose chief herdsman, Doeg, was an Edomite (I Sam.
"He led them forth like sheep," in Israel in Egypt, and the music of the Witch of Endor, and the appearance of Samuel's spirit in Saul) are as modern as Gluck's.
(2) The eldest son of Saul, who, together with his father, freed Israel from the crushing oppression of the Philistines (I Sam.
In the days of Saul and David) it was the priest with the ephod or image of Yahweh who gave answers to those who consulted him.
5), or a tamarisk ('eshel), or pomegranate(rimmon), as at the high place in Gibeah where Saul abode.
Saul and his attendant are invited by the seer-priest Samuel into the banqueting chamber (lishkah) where thirty persons partake of the sacrificial meal.
The lifeand-death struggle between Israel and the Philistines in the reign of Saul called forth under Samuel's leadership a new order of " men of God," who were called " prophets " or divinely inspired speakers.'
It is significant that Saul in his last unavailing struggle against the overwhelming forces of the Philistines sought through the medium of a sorceress for an interview with the deceased prophet Samuel.
The heroic figure who stands at the head is Saul (" asked "), and two accounts of his rise are recorded.
The young Saul was chosen by lot and gained unanimous recognition by delivering Jabesh in Gilead from the Ammonites.
(2) But other traditions represent the people scattered and in hiding; Israel is groaning under the Philistine yoke, and the unknown Saul is raised up by Yahweh to save his people.
At all events the first of a series of annalistic notices of the kings of Israel ascribes to Saul conquests over the surrounding peoples to an extent which implies that the district of Judah formed part of his kingdom (I Sam.
19 sqq.) over the death of two great Israelite heroes, Saul and Jonathan, knit together by mutual love, inseparable in life and death, whose unhappy end after a career of success was a national misfortune.
When the narratives describe the life of the young David at the court of the first king of the northern kingdom, when the scenes cover the district which he took with the sword, and when the brave Saul is represented in an unfavourable light, one must allow for the popular tendency to idealize great figures, and for the Judaean origin of the compilation.
Yet again, Saul had been chosen by Yahweh to free his people from the Philistines; he had been rejected for his sins, and had suffered continuously from this enemy; Israel at his death was left in the unhappy state in which he had found it; it was the Judaean David, the faithful servant of Yahweh, who was now chosen to deliver Israel, and to the last the people gratefully remembered their debt.
David accomplished the conquests of Saul but on a grander scale; " Saul hath slain his thousands and David his tens of thousands " is the popular couplet comparing the relative merits of the rival dynasts.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
The traditions of the Ephraimite Joshua and of Saul the first king of (north) Israel virtually treat Judah as part of Israel and are related to the underlying representations in (a).
The inferiority of Chronicles as a historical source and its varied examples of " tendency-writing " must be set against its possible access to traditions of contact with those of Saul in i Samuel, and the relation is highly suggestive for the study of their growth, as also for the perspective of the various writers.
Jehu's son Jehoahaz saw his army made " like the dust in threshing," and the desperate condition of the country recalls the straits in the time of Saul (I Sam.
The warfare which followed was like that which Saul and David waged against the Philistines.
Where it follows the chapters in Samuel it is important for textual and other critical problems, but it omits narratives in which it is not interested (David's youth, persecution by Saul, Absalom's revolt, &c.), and adds long passages (David's arrangements for the temple, &c.) which reflect the views of a much later age than David's.
There, too, he acquired that skill in music which led to his first introduction to Saul (I Sam.
Appears from the close that neither Saul nor his captain Abner had heard of him before (vv.
But this passage is the sequel to the rejection of Saul in xv., and Samuel's position agrees with that of the late writer in vii., viii.
4 According to this text Saul was simply possessed with such a personal dislike and dread of Conflicts with David as might easily occupy his disordered brain.
When the time came for Saul to fulfil his promise, Merab was given to Adriel of Abel-Meholah (perhaps an Aramaean).
12-31, where Saul had promised his daughter to the one who should overthrow Goliath (ver.
At another time Saul actually gave commands to assassinate his son-in-law, but the breach was made up by Jonathan, whose chivalrous spirit had united him to David in a covenant of closest friendship (xix.
A plan was arranged by which Jonathan should draw from the king an expression of his feelings, and a tremendous explosion revealed that Saul regarded David as the rival of his dynasty, and Jonathan as little better than a fellow-conspirator.
5) and by the priest Abiathar, the only survivor of a terrible massacre by which Saul took revenge for the favours which David had received at the sanctuary of Nob.
Forced to flee by the treachery of the very men whom he had succoured, he lived for a time in constant fear of being captured by Saul, and at length took refuge with Achish king of Gath and established himself in Ziklag.
Popular tradition, as though unwilling to let David escape from Saul, told of that king's continual pursuit of the outlaw, of the attempt of the men of Ziph (S.E.
The Philistines for once directed their forces towards the plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon) in the north; and Saul, forsaken by Yahweh, already gave himself up for lost.
Meantime Saul had fallen in battle, and northern Israel was in a state of chaos.
The noble elegy on the death of Saul and Jonathan, quoted from the Book of Jashar (2 Sam.
I.), is marked by the absence both of religious feeling and of allusions to his earlier experiences with Saul which David might have been expected to make.
The embassy threw out a hint, - their lord was dead and David himself had been anointed king over Judah; but the relation between Jabesh-Gilead and Saul had been a close one, and it was not to be expected that its eyes would be turned upon the king of Judah when Saul's son was installed at the not distant Mahanaim.
These chapters bring him farther north, and they commence by depicting David as a man of Bethlehem, high in the court of Saul, the king's son-in-law, and a popular favourite with the people.
The evidence has obviously some bearing upon the history of Saul, as also upon the intercourse between Judah and Benjamin which David's early history implies.
It was under the care of the king of Moab that David placed his parents when he fled from Saul (i Sam.
A disastrous famine ravaged the land for three long years, and when Yahweh was consulted the reply came that there was " blood upon Saul and upon his house because he put the Gibeonites to death."
8 Here, too, we learn of the tardy burial of the bones of Saul and Jonathan which had remained in JabeshGilead since the battle of Gilboa; - the history of David's dealings with the family of Saul has been obscured.
According to the prevailing traditions, Saul at his death had left North Israel disunited and humiliated.
The generous elevation of David's character is seen most clearly in those parts of his life where an inferior nature would have been most at fault, - in his conduct towards Saul, in the blameless reputation of himself and his band of outlaws in the wilderness of Judah, in his repentance under the rebuke of Nathan and in his noble bearing on the revolt of Absalom.
An attempt on the part of Saul to exterminate the clan is mentioned in 2 Sam.
The same sentiment recurs in Yahweh's command to Saul to destroy Amalek utterly for its hostility to Israel (1 Sam.
Saul himself, according to one tradition, was slain by an Amalekite (2 Sam.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
Shiloh disappears from history; neither Saul nor even Samuel, whose youth had been spent with it, takes any further thought of it.